L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (Catalan pronunciation: [luspitəˈlɛd də ʎuβɾəˈɣat; ˌlɔs-], often shortened to L'Hospitalet or just L'H, is a municipality of Spain, located to the immediate southwest of Barcelona, in the autonomous community of Catalonia. It is part of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area.
L'Hospitalet de Llobregat
|Coordinates: 41°21′35″N 2°6′00″E / 41.35972°N 2.10000°ECoordinates: 41°21′35″N 2°6′00″E / 41.35972°N 2.10000°E|
|• Body||Ajuntament de L'Hospitalet|
|• Mayor||Núria Marín (2008) (PSC)|
|• City||12.4 km2 (4.8 sq mi)|
|8 m (26 ft)|
|• Density||21,000/km2 (55,000/sq mi)|
|Demonyms||hospitalenc, -ca (ca)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Dialing code||+34 (E) 93 (B)|
|INE code||08 1017|
|City budget (2014)||€200 million|
|Patron saint||Saint Eulalia|
By population, it is the second largest in Catalonia and the sixteenth in Spain. It is one of the most densely populated cities in the European Union.
The name of L'Hospitalet (literally, 'the small hospital' in Catalan) makes reference to a hostel. The name of the river Llobregat is added as an accompaniment.
The first records of the settlement date to the Neolithic era with artefacts showing human habitation in the Llobregat river area. Roman artefacts have been found dating to the 2nd century BC such as a funeral decoration representing the head of Medusa, now in the Archaeological Museum of Catalonia. However it is not until the 10th century that written references to Provençana (the city's original name) appear.
The place had about 5,000 inhabitants by the turn of the 20th century. Throughout the early 20th century, it consisted of three different urban settlements, Centre, Sta. Eulàlia and Collblanc. Local agricultural output and profitability experienced a peak in this period. A chunk of the municipality (900 ha) was lost to the municipality of Barcelona in 1920. L'Hospitalet then became a primarily industrial municipality, focused on textile, metalworking, ceramic and building materials industries.
The 1960s and 1970s saw a second population boom, caused by immigration from poorer regions of Spain: however this was not matched by construction of the necessary amenities and it was only in the 1990s that public investment resulted in additional schools, leisure facilities and housing.
As of 2020, the registered population stands at 274,320, of which 126,237 were born in Catalonia, 54,098 were born in other Spanish regions, 93,984 were born abroad and 1 person was born in former Spanish territories.
As of 2020, the foreign population amounts for 67,213 people. The largest groups of foreign citizens are listed as follows:
|Country of citizenship||Population (2020)|
L'Hospitalet's surface is 12.49 km2 (4.82 sq mi). The area on which the city is constructed may be divided in two different geological areas. One of them follows the coast typology and is called La Marina, similarly to two coast areas of neighbouring Barcelona's Zona Franca: La Marina del Prat Vermell and La Marina de Port. The latter half of L'Hospitalet is called El Samontà, which consists of hills and a more elevated area.
The city's reputation is largely still that of a depressed suburb, drawing on its proletarian origins and its reliance on Barcelona. But its economy has improved recently, as can be seen from the city's new skyline and relocation of companies to the city's new financial centre. Urban regeneration and construction took place during the 2000s, as well as ongoing work on improving public transportation in the second municipality of the Barcelona metropolitan area. The former airline Spanair's headquarters were in L'Hospitalet. Former mayor Celestino Corbacho campaigned to improve the city's infrastructure from his position in the Ministry of Work.
- Hotel Porta Fira (2010) –113 metres (371 ft)– Completed
- Torre Realia BCN (2009) – 112 metres (367 ft) – Completed
- Hotel Catalonia Plaza Europa (2011) – 105 metres (344 ft) – Completed
- Hesperia Tower (2006) – 106 metres (348 ft) – Completed
- Tower Caixa Catalunya (?) – 106 metres (348 ft) – Planned
- Torre Inbisa (2010) – 104 metres (341 ft) – Completed
- Torre Zenit (2009) – 104 metres (341 ft) – Completed
- Hospital de Bellvitge (1972) – 82 metres (269 ft) – Completed
- Tower Colonial (?) – 75 metres (246 ft) – Under Construction (on hold)
- Tower Fadesa I (2009) – 65 metres (213 ft) – Completed
- Tower Fadesa II (2009) – 65 metres (213 ft) – Completed
- Tower Fadesa III (2009) – 65 metres (213 ft) – Completed
- City Judicial Building A (2008) – 62 metres (203 ft) – Completed
- City Judicial Building C (2008) – 58 metres (190 ft) – Completed
- Torre Melina (Hotel Rey Juan Carlos) (1992) – 60 metres (200 ft) – Completed
El Centre is the historical centre of the city, the oldest neighbourhood, where the City Council is, as well as the centre of activities such as La Farga and many of the cultural buildings, such as the History Museum, the Can Sumarro library, the cultural centre Barradas or the Sala Alexandre Cirici. It borders the district of Sanfeliu and Can Serra to the north, Bellvitge to the south, Sant Josep to the east, and the city of Cornellà de Llobregat to the west.
Sant Josep remains framed by the square that is formed by the avenue of the Fabregada and that of Isabella The Catholic (Isabel la Catòlica) to the west, the Torrent Gornal to the east, the railroad on the north side Carrilet to the south. In this area, all the industrial activities that Hospitalet had through the ages left their mark: from the flour mills and the distilleries, up to the different energetic exploitation of the waterfalls of the Canal de la Infanta or the ceramic, textile, metallurgical and chemical industries. In fact, Sant Josep was originally an industrial suburb, but the subsequent disappearance of many factories, as well as the population increase, have given it a residential character.
Civic life in this quarter centres on the avenue of the Cirerers and the Communities Square (Plaça de les Comunitats). This public space is the scene of the greatest holiday celebrations, such as the festival of Sant Joan, the Carnival, and many other popular events. The cultural centre is also at the heart of many of the activities.
This ward has a marked commercial character, centred near the Collblanc Metro stop. The Market Square (Plaça del Mercat) and the surroundings are the main centre of cultural life.
Its origins has been linked to Collblanc. Today, the Spanish Square (Plaça Espanyola) and the new park of La Torrassa are at the heart of this neighbourhood and is where the holiday celebrations at the beginning of every summer are largest.
Its origins are dated back to Medieval times thanks to the presence of the Santa Eulàlia de Provençana hermitage (dated in the 12th century thanks to an inscription in the façade). Also it was very important during the Industrial Revolution thanks to the presence of many industries in the quarter, such as Can Trinxet, L'Aprestadora or Can Pareto.
It is the smallest quarter in the town.
La Florida is a majority-immigrant neighborhood that is the densest neighborhood in Europe.
In 1964 the Inmobiliaria Ciudad Condal S.A. (ICC) company initiated the construction of this neighbourhood as it stands nowadays, beside the hermitage, on land which had been bought from local farmers. It was designed as a residential area to house the large number of immigrants who came to Catalonia from elsewhere in Spain – more than 126,000 people in 1964 – in search of work.
Twin towns and sister citiesEdit
L'Hospitalet is twinned with the following cities:
- ^ "Ajuntament de l'Hospitalet de Llobregat". Generalitat of Catalonia. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- ^ "El municipi en xifres: L'Hospitalet de Llobregat". Statistical Institute of Catalonia. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- ^ Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
- ^ Rae, Alasdair (22 March 2018). "Europe's most densely populated square kilometres – mapped". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
- ^ a b García Sánchez, Jairo J. (13 September 2005). "Cataluña y sus topónimos (y V)". Rinconete. Centro Virtual Cervantes. ISSN 1885-5008.
- ^ Domínguez, Manuel (2014). "El patrimoni de l'Hospitalet: una història i algunes propostes". Quaderns d'Estudi (27): 136. ISSN 2013-9691.
- ^ a b Domínguez 2011, p. 91.
- ^ Domínguez, Manuel (2011). "El pistolerisme a l'Hospitalet". Quaderns d'Estudi (25): 91. ISSN 2013-9691.
- ^ Domínguez 2011, p. 92.
- ^ a b c d "Població estrangera segons nacionalitat i sexe 2020". Demografia. Ajuntament de L'Hospitalet. pp. 50–53.
- ^ Lonely Planet Barcelona, p8, Damien Simonis
- ^ L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (in Spanish), www.urbanity.es
- ^ "Contacts." Spanair. Retrieved on 29 December 2009.
- ^ https://www.vice.com/es/article/kzxgb3/ser-joven-en-la-florida-densidad-de-poblacion-europa
- ^ "National Commission for Decentralized Cooperation". Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2013.