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Rudrapur is a city in Udham Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Located at a distance of about 250 km (160 mi) northeast of New Delhi and 250 km (160 mi) south of Dehradun, Rudrapur has a history of over 500 years. It was established in the 16th century by King Rudra Chand, and was the residence of the governor of Tarai region of Kumaon. The city continues to serve as the headquarters of the Udham Singh Nagar district apart from being a major industrial and educational hub today.

Rudrapur
Metropolis city rudrapur.jpg
Rudrapur is located in Uttarakhand
Rudrapur
Rudrapur
Location in Uttarakhand, India
Rudrapur is located in India
Rudrapur
Rudrapur
Rudrapur (India)
Coordinates: 28°59′N 79°24′E / 28.98°N 79.40°E / 28.98; 79.40Coordinates: 28°59′N 79°24′E / 28.98°N 79.40°E / 28.98; 79.40
Country India
StateUttarakhand
DistrictUdham Singh Nagar
Founded1588
Municipality1942
Founded byRudra Chand
Named forRudra Chand
Government
 • TypeMayour–Council
 • BodyRudrapur Municipal Corporation
 • MayorRampal Singh (BJP)
 • Municipal CommissionerMahesh Chandra Pathak, IAS
Area
 • City27.65 km2 (10.68 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • City140,857
 • Density5,100/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Metro154,485
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
263153
Telephone code+91-5944
Vehicle registrationUK-06
Websitenagarnigamrudrapur.com

Rudrapur is located in the fertile Terai region over an area of 27.65 km2. With a population of 140,857 according to the 2011 census of India, Rudrapur is the fifth most populous city of Uttarakhand. Since the establishment of the State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand, the city has undergone rapid development, along with literacy growth and higher employment. One interesting thing in this area is that there are some artesian water wells where the underground water comes out itself due to underground water pressure. For this a well is to be drilled and a slotted casing pipe is to be lowered to take the water out. In such artesian wells no pump is required.[citation needed]

HistoryEdit

 
Ruins of the Ancient city of Govisana at Kashipur. Govisana is the earliest known settlement in the region, visited by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang in the 7th century.

The Terai area, where Rudrapur is located was considered an impenetrable forest for much of the ancient period. Marshy land, extreme heat, rains which lasted months, wild animals, diseases and no means of transportation prevented men from settling here. No historical settlements, except Govishana (50 kilometres (31 mi) northwest of the city), has been recorded in the area.[3]:174–175 Mughal historians mention that the Chand ruler of Champawat, Gyan Chand, visited Delhi Sultanate and received the regions of Bhabar-Terai up to the Ganges as a grant from then Sultan;[4] thus bringing it under the Kingdom of Kumaon. This area remained under local chieftains; it was Kirti Chand (1488–1503), who first ruled the Terai area, along with the rest of Kumaon.[4]

Rudrapur town was established in the 16th century by King Rudra Chand of Almora.[5]:6 It was the residence of the Adhikari (Governor) of Tarai, till the town of Kashipur was Established in 1718.[6]:81 The Kumaoni Army, under Shiv Deo Joshi faced severe defeat during the Battle of Rudrapur, that was fought between Chands and Rohillas in AD 1744.[6]:92 Later, King Deep chand built a fort at Rudrapur to keep vigil over the Rohillas.[5]:8[6]:95

By the end of Eighteenth century, Nand Ram, the Adhikari of Kashipur, murdered the governor of Rudrapur, Manorath Joshi, and declared himself the de facto ruler of the low-lying Terai land, with his capital at Kashipur.[7]:320 After the fall of Almora in 1790, Rudrapur and its surrounding areas were ceded to the Nawab of Oudh, who remained its suzerain until the British occupation in 1801.[8]

 
Uttar Pradesh Agricultural University, which was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru on 17 November 1960, is situated at Pantnagar near Rudrapur.

In 1837, Rudrapur was annexed to the collectorate of Rohilkhand.[7]:445 Rudrapur was brought under Kumaon Division in 1858, however it was brought back to Rohilkhand division in 1861.[7]:445 In 1864-65 the whole Tarai and Bhabar was put under "Tarai and Bhawar Government Act" which was governed directly by the British crown. In 1891, the Tarai district was dismantled, and Rudrapur was put in the newly created Nainital district. Post independence Rudrapur and other parts of Nainital district were merged with United Provinces, which was later renamed the state of Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh Agricultural University, the first agricultural university of India, was established near Rudrapur on 17 November 1960.[9] The University was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru, and soon became a significant force in the development and transfer of High Yielding Variety seeds and related technology.[10]

After Operation Blue Star in 1984, several Sikh extremists fled Punjab and took refuge in U.P. Tarai.[5]:214 Subsequently, several cases of explosions and Bombings were reported in 1991. A bomb blast occurred in Rudrapur market in mid 1991, and another bomb in a state roadways bus was defused in the nick of time.[11] On 17 October 1991, Two bombs exploded at Ramlila celebration in the town, killing 41 people and wounding more than 140.[12] Later, two members of the Khalistan Commando force were shot dead by a joint team of the commandos of the National Security Guard and the Delhi Police.[13][14]

By 1994, the demand for separate statehood for Uttarakhand achieved almost unanimous acceptance among both the local populace and political parties all over the region.[15] Rudrapur was made the headquarter of the district of Udham Singh Nagar, which was carved out from the Nainital district on 30 September 1995.[16] After the Parliament of India passed the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 on 9 November 2000, Rudrapur became a part of Uttarakhand, the 27th state of the Republic of India.[17]

LifestyleEdit

The land lends itself to different forms of agriculture, giving rise to agriculture related activities and industry. Pantnagar University is a place of learning in the fields of agriculture and technology.

Nanakmatta (also called, Gurdwara Sri Nanak Matta Sahib) is an important Sikh pilgrimage centre, located at Nanakmatta, where is also present the Nanakmatta Dam. It is situated about 17 km from Khatima and is on the Rudrapur - Tanakpur route. The gurudwara and the place get their name from Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first Sikh guru, who visited there in 1514 AD.

Punjabi & Baniya community is a major community in Rudrapur . Punjabi & Baniya (caste) people came here during the partition of India at 1947. The City was founded by a Merchant and Farmer Late. Gurumukh Ram Chhabra ji[citation needed] They were settled here by Indian government. The Punjabi culture is also affecting the regional culture and in return getting affected by it.

The history of development started with 1948, when the problem of partition brought the refugee problem with it. Immigrants from north west and eastern areas were re-established in 164.2 square km land area under "Uttar Pradesh nivesh yojana". Individual citizens were not allotted land in accordance with crown grant act. The first batch of immigrants came in December 1948.

People from Kashmir, Punjab, Kerala, Eastern UP, Garhwal, Kumaon, Bengal, Haryana, Rajasthan and Nepal live in groups in this district. This community is an example of unity in diversity with people from many religions and professions and so is the Tarai, which has its heart at Rudrapur.

The Metropolis mall in Rudrapur is located on main Delhi-Nainital nh-87. It is built in 3 floors. Wave cinemas is also situated in the mall.

DemographicsEdit

Population growth 
CensusPop.
19619,662
197125,173160.5%
198134,65837.7%
199161,28076.8%
200188,67644.7%
2011140,85758.8%
Source: DCHB: Udham Singh Nagar[18]:369

According to the 2011 census, the Rudrapur Urban Agglomeration (Rudrapur UA) has a population of 154,485,[2][19] with the municipality contributing 140,884 of it.[1] The Rudrapur Urban Agglomeration consists of area falling under Rudrapur Municipal Corporation, Rudrapur SIDCUL and 2 Out growths of Jagatpura and Rampura.[20] This makes Rudrapur the Second most populous city in Kumaon, and the Fifth most populous city in Uttarakhand. About 80% population of Rudrapur lives on Illegally encroached Government land.[21] In addition to that, 41.95% of total population of Rudrapur lives in Slums.[22]

The city has witnessed massive population growth most of the time. The population of the city increased around three times during the census years 1961-1971 and nearly doubled during 1981-1991.[23] Rudrapur surpassed Jaspur in 1971 and Kashipur in 2011 to become the second most populous city in Kumaun.[18] The high growth rate has been attributed to the migration of people from upper hills, and the development of SIDCUL Industrial Estate in recent years.

As of the 2001 India census,[24] Rudrapur had a population of 88,720, which increased to 140,857 in 2011. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47% according to the 2011 census.[22] Rudrapur has an average literacy rate of 71%: male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 63%.[22] In Rudrapur, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.[22]

ReligionEdit

Religion in Rudrapur (2011)[25][22]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
80.29%
Islam
15.76%
Sikhism
3.17%
Buddhism
3.17%
Christianity
0.43%
Others
0.32%

According to the 2011 Census of India, 80.29% people in Rudrapur were Hindus.[25] 15.76% people followed Islam, making it the second most popular religion in city.[25] Christianity was followed by 0.43%, Jainism by 0.12%, Sikhism by 3.17% and Buddhism by 3.17%.[25] Around 0.03% stated 'Other Religion' while approximately 0.17% stated 'No Particular Religion'.[25]

The city witnessed communal clashes on 2 October 2011 following an alleged act of sacrilege, prompting authorities to impose an indefinite curfew.[26][27] Though unconfirmed reports said three persons were killed,[28] an official statement later confirmed two deaths in the violence that spread to different parts of the town.[29] In the ensuing clashes, nearly 5 shops and scores of vehicles were also torched.[28]

TransportEdit

 
Rampur road, a cut-off that connects Rudrapur with Haldwani, providing a shorter alternative to the National Highway 109.

The city is served by the Pantnagar Airport at Pantnagar 12.2 km (7.6 mi) from the city centre. The airport is operated by Airports Authority of India and caters to domestic flights to Delhi and Dehradun.[30] It has a single runway, which is 4,500 ft (1,400 m) in length and is capable of handling a turboprop aircraft.[31]

Train service in Rudrapur started in 1886, upon the construction of a branch line by Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway connecting Lalkuan on Bareilly-Kathgodam line with Rampur. Rudrapur railway station lies on the Rampur-Lalkuan Broad gauge railway line and the city falls under the Izzatnagar railway division of North Eastern Railway Zone of Indian Railways.

Three major National highways run through Rudrapur. National Highway 9, which runs from Malaut in Punjab to Pithoragarh in Uttarakhand passes through Rudrapur. This highway connects Rudrapur with several cities like Delhi, Rampur, Rohtak, Hisar, Sitarganj, Khatima, Tanakpur and Pithoragarh. Other Highways starting from Rudrapur include National Highway 109 and National Highway 309. Rudrapur Bus Station serves as the central bus stand for Uttarakhand Transport Buses plying on InterState Routes from the city. The station was built before the 1960s and is spread over approximately 4 acres.[32]

IndustryEdit

The development of industries is attributed largely to the setting up of a large Integrated Industrial Estate under State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL). This has propelled the town into the forefront of industrial activity and has attracted companies like LSC Infratech Ltd., Delta Power solutions, Tata Motors, Kumar Autowheels Pvt. Ltd., Roquette Riddhi Siddhi Pvt. Ltd., Nestle India, Bajaj Auto, Dabur India Limited, TVS Motors Unimax International, Unimax Scaffoldings, Britannia Industries, Mahindra Tractor, Micromax, Forme mobile, Greenply Industries Ltd., Parle Agro, HCL, HP, Hindustan Zinc Limited, Ashok Leyland, Ganesha polytex,GuruTie.com, Imagine Softech - Web Development Company, Biochem Laboratories (water treatment chemicals,plants & spares company),etc. The city has been transformed into a major industrial hub with many automobile and agro based industries.[33]

Colleges and SchoolsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011" (pdf). Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  2. ^ a b "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011" (pdf). Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  3. ^ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Asiatic Society.
  4. ^ a b "Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 18, page 324". dsal.uchicago.edu. Digital South Asia Library. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Rawat, Ajay S. (1998). Forest on fire : ecology and politics in the Himalayan Tarai. New Delhi: Cosmo Publications. ISBN 9788170208402.
  6. ^ a b c Hāṇḍā, Omacanda (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing. ISBN 9788173871344.
  7. ^ a b c Pande, Badri Datt (1993). History of Kumaun : English version of "Kumaun ka itihas". Almora, U.P., India: Shyam Prakashan. ISBN 81-85865-01-9.
  8. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 18, page 325". dsal.uchicago.edu. Digital South Asia Library. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  9. ^ "Over 600 teaching staff go on strike - Times of India". Nainital: The Times of India. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  10. ^ Uttar Pradesh Agricultural University 1963:14–19 and Charanjit Ahuja "One University That Actually Works" Indian Express, 9 March 1994, p.3
  11. ^ Pathak, Rahul (15 November 1991). "Terrorists strike during Ram Lila celebrations in Uttar Pradesh". India Today. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  12. ^ "2 Bombs Kill 41 and Injure 140 in India". The New York Times. 18 October 1991. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  13. ^ Singh, Mohinder (2001). Punjab 2000: Political and Socio-economic Developments. New Delhi: Anamika Publishers & Distributors. p. 502. ISBN 9788186565902. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  14. ^ "Two ISI-backed terrorists shot dead in western UP". rediff.com. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  15. ^ Kumar, P. (2000). The Uttarakhand Movement: Construction of a Regional Identity. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.
  16. ^ Singh, Anand Raj (12 March 2015). "Mayawati may create new district to tame old foe". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  17. ^ "The Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000". vLex. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  18. ^ a b District Census Handbook Udham Singh Nagar Part-A (PDF). Dehradun: Directorate of Census Operations, Uttarakhand.
  19. ^ "Rudrapur Metropolitan Urban Region Population 2011 Census". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  20. ^ "CONSTITUENTS OF URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS HAVING POPULATION 1 LAKH & ABOVE, CENSUS 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  21. ^ "रुद्रपुर की 17 नजूल की कालोनियों पर 87 हजार से अधिक की आबादी है काबिज" (in Hindi). Udham Singh Nagar: Amar Ujala. 23 November 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  22. ^ a b c d e "Rudrapur City Census 2011 data". Census2011. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  23. ^ "Historical Census of India".
  24. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  25. ^ a b c d e "C-1 Population By Religious Community". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 11 May 2016. On this page, select "Uttarakhand" from the download menu. "Rudrapur (NPP + OG)" is at line 345 of the excel file.
  26. ^ "Indefinite curfew imposed in Uttarakhand's Rudrapur town after communal tension". Dehradun: The Times of India. 2 October 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  27. ^ "रुद्रपुर दंगा मामला : सरकार को जवाब देने के निर्देश" (in Hindi). Nainital: Amar Ujala. 23 November 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  28. ^ a b Prashant, Shishir (3 October 2011). "Communal riots in Rudrapur, 3 killed". New Delhi: Business Standard India. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  29. ^ "Uttarakhand: 2 killed in communal clash, curfew in Rudrapur". Dehradun: India Today. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  30. ^ "Pantnagar Airport to see regular flights again". The Pioneer. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  31. ^ "Fly to Pantnagar, Uttarakhand asks Deccan". Business Standard. 26 March 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  32. ^ "अपना रुद्रपुर बस अड्डा होगा चकाचक" (in Hindi). Rudrapur: jagran. 19 June 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  33. ^ [1], SIDCUL

External linksEdit