Qusayy ibn Kilab

  (Redirected from Qusai ibn Kilab)

Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murra (Arabic: قصي ٱبن كلاب ٱبن مرة, romanizedQuṣayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murra; c. 400–480) was the 5th-century ruler of Mecca, who established the Quraysh as the dominant power in Mecca. Following his death, a succession crisis arose between his sons Abd al-Dar and al-Mughira.

Qusayy ibn Kilab
قصي ٱبن كلاب
Qaid of Mecca
RuleEarly 5th century – 480
PredecessorPosition established
SuccessorAl-Mughira ibn Qusayy
Bornc. 400
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
Diedc. 480
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
SpouseHubba bint Hulayl
IssueAbd al-Dar
Abd al-Uzza
Al-Mughira
TribeQuraysh
FatherKilab ibn Murra (father)
MotherFatimah bint Sa'd

LifeEdit

Qusayy was born in Mecca in c. 400. Qusayy's birth name might have been Zayd.[1] While Qusayy was an infant, his father Kilab ibn Murra died. Qusayy's mother Fatima bint Sa'd hailed from the Banu al-Azd clan.

According to Islamic tradition, he was a descendant of Ibrahim (Abraham) through his son Isma'il (Ishmael). His elder brother Zuhrah ibn Kilab was the progenitor of the Banu Zuhrah clan. After his father's death his mother Fatimah bint Sa'd ibn Sayl married Rabi'ah ibn Haram from the Bani Azra tribe, who took her with him to Syria, where she gave birth to a son called Darraj.[2] His uncle was Taym ibn Murrah ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah, who was of the Quraysh al-Bitah (i.e. Qurayshis living near the Ka'bah in Mecca.[2]

He was an Ishmaelite descendant of the Prophet Abraham, orphaned early on he would rise to become King of Makkah, and leader of the Quraysh tribe.[3] He is best known for being an ancestor of the Umayyad, Abbasid and other Hashemite Dynasties which included Islamic Prophet Muhammad as well as the 3rd and the 4th Rashidun Caliph: Uthman and Ali, and the later Umayyad, Abbasid Caliphs and Fatimids along with several of the most prominent dynasties in the orient.[4]

Conquest of MeccaEdit

Qusai grew up treating his step-father, Rabi'ah, as his father. When a quarrel broke out between Qusai and some members of the tribe of Rabi'ah, they reproached him and betrayed the fact that they never regarded him as one of their own. Qusai complained to his mother, who replied "O my son," she said, "your descent is nobler than theirs, you are the son of Kilab ibn Murrah, and your people live in the proximity of the Holy House in Mecca." Because of this, Qusai departed from Syria and returned to Mecca.[2] Qusai brought his nearest of kin of Quraysh, and settled them in the Meccan valley besides the Sanctuary – his brother Zuhrah, his uncle Taym ibn Murrah, the son of another uncle Makhzum ibn Yaqaza, and his other cousins Jumah and Sahm, who were less close.[5]

After conquering Mecca, Qusayy unified the Quraysh, and established them as the dominant power in Mecca.[6] He assigned quarters to different Qurayshi clans. Those settled around the Ka'aba were known Quraysh al-Biṭāḥ (lit.'Quraysh of the Hollow'), and the clans settled in the outskirts of the sanctuary were known as Quraysh al-Ẓawāhīr (lit.'Quraysh of the Outskirts'). In accounts preserved by Ibn Ishaq (d. 767), Qusayy's younger son, al-Mughira, had grown prominent during his father's lifetime and was chosen by Qusayy to be his successor as the guardian of the Ka'ba. He also gave other responsibilities related to the Ka'ba to his other sons Abd al-'Uzza and Abd, while ensuring that all decisions by the Quraysh had to be made in the presence of his eldest son Abd al-Dar; the latter was also designated ceremonial privileges such as keeper of the Qurayshi war banner and supervisor of water and provisions to the pilgrims visiting the Ka'aba.[7][3]

When Qusai came of age, Hulail ibn Hubshiyyah the chief of Banu Khuza'a tribe was the trustee and guardian of the Ka'bah. Soon Qusai asked for and married Hulail's daughter Hubbah. When his father-in-law died after a battle which ended in arbitration, he committed the keys of the Kaaba to Hubbah. Hulail preferred Qusai as his successor from his own sons and according to Hulail's will, Qusai got the trusteeship of the Kaaba after him.

Qusai ruled as a King. He reconstructed the Kaaba from a state of decay, and made the Arab people build their houses around it. He is known to have built the first "town hall" in the Arabian Peninsula, a spacious dwelling which was known as the House of Assembly. Leaders of different clans met in this hall to discuss their social, commercial, cultural and political problems. Qusai created laws so that pilgrims who went to Mecca were supplied with food and water, which was paid for by a tax that the people paid. He distributed the responsibilities of looking after the visitors during pilgrimage, taking care of the Kaaba, warfare, and pacifying amongst myriad tribes living in Mecca.[3]

SonsEdit

Qusai had many sons, some of them being Abd, Abd-al-Dar, Abd Manaf and Abd-al-Uzza.[3] It was a marked characteristic of Qusai's line that in each generation there would be one man who was altogether pre-eminent. Among his four sons, Abd Manaf was already honoured in his lifetime. However Qusai preferred his first born, Abd-al-Dar, although he was the least capable of all so he singled out Abd Manaf his second son for his honor and prestige. Shortly before Qusai's death he invested all his rights, powers, and transferred the ownership of the House of Assembly to Abd Manaf.

DescendantsEdit

The following Royal and Imperial dynasties claim descent from Qusai:

Europe

Arabia

Africa

Indo-Persia:

East Asia


Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) was the second of the three major Arab Caliphates established after the end of Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)

Arabic Europe

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Guillaume 1955, p. 3.
  2. ^ a b c Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris. "The Prophet's Line Family No 3 – Qusayy, Hubbah, and Banu Nadr to Quraysh". Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood Dawah. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. George Allen & Unwin. p. 6. ISBN 0946621330.
  4. ^ Ibn Hisham. The Life of the Prophet Muhammad. Vol. 1. p. 181.
  5. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2001). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. Phoenix. p. 66. ISBN 0946621330.
  6. ^ Peters 1994, p. 14–15.
  7. ^ Peters 1994, p. 15.
  8. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  9. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  10. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  11. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  12. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  13. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  14. ^ a b c Andrzejewski, B. W. (April 1962). "A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa". International Affairs. 38 (2): 275–275. doi:10.2307/2610467. ISSN 1468-2346.
  15. ^ Morimoto, Kazuo (2010). "The Earliest ʿAlid Genealogy for the Safavids: New Evidence for the Pre-dynastic Claim to Sayyid Status". Iranian Studies. 43 (4): 447–469. doi:10.1080/00210862.2010.495561. JSTOR 23033219. S2CID 161191720.
  16. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  17. ^ Abul Fazl (2004). The Āʼīn-i Akbarī (2nd ed.). Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 9693515307.
  18. ^ Khan, Muhammad Najm-ul-Ghani (1918). Akhbar-us-Sanadeed, vol. 1. Lucknow: Munshi Nawal Kishore. pp. 79–83 (85–89).
  19. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  20. ^ Punjab States Gazetteers Bahawalpur State Vol.36 (Volume 36 ed.). 1908. p. 47.
  21. ^ Khan, Shah Nawaz (1952). Maasir al Umara. Calcutta: Calcutta Oriental Press. pp. 259–262.
  22. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  23. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit