Qusai ibn Kilab

Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah (Arabic: قُصَيّ ٱبْن كِلَاب ٱبْن مُرَّة‎, Qusayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah; ca. 400 – 480), also spelled Qusayy, Kusayy, Kusai, or Cossai, born Zayd (Arabic: زَيْد‎),[1] was an Ishmaelite descendant of the Prophet Abraham, orphaned early on he would rise to become King of Makkah, and leader of the Quraysh tribe.[2] He is best known for being an ancestor of the Ummayad and Hashemite Dynasties which included Islamic Prophet Muhammad as well as the 3rd and the 4th Rashidun Caliph: Uthman and Ali, and the later Umayyad, Abasid and Fatimid Caliphs along with several of the most prominent dynasties in the orient .[3]

Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murrah
قُصَيّ ٱبْن كِلَاب ٱبْن مُرَّة
زَيْد ٱبْن كِلَاب ٱبْن مُرَّة
1st King of Quraysh
Succeeded byAbd Manaf ibn Qusai
Personal details
Born
Zayd ibn Kilab ibn Murrah

400
Died480
Spouse(s)Hubba bint Hulail
ChildrenAbd-al-Dar ibn Qusai (son)
Abd Manaf ibn Qusai (son)
Abd-al-Uzza ibn Qusai
ParentsKilab ibn Murrah (father)
Fatimah bint Sa'd (mother)
RelativesZuhrah ibn Kilab (brother)
Known forAncestor of Muhammad, King of Makkah

BackgroundEdit

His father was Kilab ibn Murrah who died when Qusai was an infant. According to Islamic tradition, he was a descendant of Ibrahim (Abraham) through his son Isma'il (Ishmael). His elder brother Zuhrah ibn Kilab was the progenitor of the Banu Zuhrah clan. After his father's death his mother Fatimah bint Sa'd ibn Sayl married Rabi'ah ibn Haram from the Bani Azra tribe, who took her with him to Syria, where she gave birth to a son called Darraj.[4] His uncle was Taym ibn Murrah ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah, who was of the Quraysh al-Bitah (i.e. Qurayshis living near the Ka'bah in Mecca.[4]

Life in SyriaEdit

Qusai grew up treating his step-father, Rabi'ah, as his father. When a quarrel broke out between Qusai and some members of the tribe of Rabi'ah, they reproached him and betrayed the fact that they never regarded him as one of their own. Qusai complained to his mother, who replied "O my son," she said, "your descent is nobler than theirs, you are the son of Kilab ibn Murrah, and your people live in the proximity of the Holy House in Mecca." Because of this, Qusai departed from Syria and returned to Mecca.[4]

Life in MeccaEdit

When Qusai came of age, Hulail ibn Hubshiyyah the chief of Banu Khuza'a tribe was the trustee and guardian of the Ka'bah. Soon Qusai asked for and married Hulail's daughter Hubbah. When his father-in-law died after a battle which ended in arbitration, he committed the keys of the Kaaba to Hubbah. Hulail preferred Qusai as his successor from his own sons and according to Hulail's will, Qusai got the trusteeship of the Kaaba after him.

Qusai brought his nearest of kin of Quraysh, and settled them in the Meccan valley besides the Sanctuary – his brother Zuhrah, his uncle Taym ibn Murrah, the son of another uncle Makhzum ibn Yaqaza, and his other cousins Jumah and Sahm, who were less close.[5] These and their posterity were known as Quraysh al-Biṭāḥ ("Quraysh of the Hollow"), whereas his more remote kinsmen settled in the ravines of the surrounding hills and in the countryside beyond and were known as Quraysh aẓ-Ẓawāhir ("Quraysh of the Outskirts").[2]

Qusai ruled as a King. He reconstructed the Kaaba from a state of decay, and made the Arab people build their houses around it. He is known to have built the first "town hall" in the Arabian Peninsula, a spacious dwelling which was known as the House of Assembly. Leaders of different clans met in this hall to discuss their social, commercial, cultural and political problems. Qusai created laws so that pilgrims who went to Mecca were supplied with food and water, which was paid for by a tax that the people paid. He distributed the responsibilities of looking after the visitors during pilgrimage, taking care of the Kaaba, warfare, and pacifying amongst myriad tribes living in Mecca.[2]

SonsEdit

Qusai had many sons, some of them being Abd, Abd-al-Dar, Abd Manaf and Abd-al-Uzza.[2] It was a marked characteristic of Qusai's line that in each generation there would be one man who was altogether pre-eminent. Among his four sons, Abd Manaf was already honoured in his lifetime. However Qusai preferred his first born, Abd-al-Dar, although he was the least capable of all. Shortly before Qusai's death he invested all his rights, powers, and transferred the ownership of the House of Assembly to Abd-al-Dar.

DescendantsEdit

The following Royal and Imperial dynasties claim descent from Qusai:

Europe

Arabia

Africa

Indo-Persia:

East Asia


Europe

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ibn Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. p. 3.
  2. ^ a b c d Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. George Allen & Unwin. p. 6. ISBN 0946621330.
  3. ^ Ibn Hisham. The Life of the Prophet Muhammad. 1. p. 181.
  4. ^ a b c Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris. "The Prophet's Line Family No 3 – Qusayy, Hubbah, and Banu Nadr to Quraysh". Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood Dawah. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  5. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2001). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. Phoenix. p. 66. ISBN 0946621330.
  6. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  7. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  8. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  9. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  10. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  11. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  12. ^ Morimoto, Kazuo (2010). "The Earliest ʿAlid Genealogy for the Safavids: New Evidence for the Pre-dynastic Claim to Sayyid Status". Iranian Studies. 43 (4): 447–469. doi:10.1080/00210862.2010.495561. JSTOR 23033219.
  13. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  14. ^ Abul Fazl (2004). The Āʼīn-i Akbarī (2nd ed.). Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 9693515307.
  15. ^ Khan, Muhammad Najm-ul-Ghani (1918). Akhbar-us-Sanadeed, vol. 1. Lucknow: Munshi Nawal Kishore. pp. 79–83 (85–89).
  16. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  17. ^ Punjab States Gazetteers Bahawalpur State Vol.36 (Volume 36 ed.). 1908. p. 47.
  18. ^ Buyers, Christopher. "Khudadad". www.royalark.net.
  19. ^ Khan, Shah Nawaz (1952). Maasir al Umara. Calcutta: Calcutta Oriental Press. pp. 259–262.
  20. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  21. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.

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