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The Hammudid dynasty (Arabic: بنو حمود‎, romanizedBanū Ḥammūd) was a Berberized Arab Muslim[1][2] dynasty that briefly ruled the Caliphate of Córdoba[3][4] and the taifas of Málaga and Algeciras and nominal control in Ceuta.[1] Their Idrisid ancestors were Zaydi,[5][6][7][8] which would explain why the Hammudids were described as Shi'ite whilst not displaying any practices nor tendencies of the Zaydi Shia.[9]

The dynastyEdit

The dynasty is named after their ancestor, Hammud, a descendant of Idris ibn Abdallah, whose ancestors had established themselves among the Berber tribes of northern Morocco.[10] When Sulayman ibn al-Hakam carved out Andalusian land for his Berber allies, two members of the Hammudid family were given the governorship of Algeciras, Ceuta and Tangier. The Hammudids thus gained control of the traffic across the Straits of Gibraltar, suddenly becoming a powerful force. Claiming to act on behalf of the dethroned Hicham II, the Hammudi governor of Ceuta Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir marched upon Córdoba in the year 1016, where he was crowned Caliph.

In 1056, the last Hammudid Caliph was dethroned, losing Malaga to the Zirids of Granada,[11] who had previously been the Hammudids' most important supporters. The Hammudi family was then forced to settle in Ceuta.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Viguera-Molins 2010, pp. 26-27.
  2. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 15.
  3. ^ Lane-Poole (1894), p.21
  4. ^ Altamira, Rafael (1999). "Il califfato occidentale". Storia del mondo medievale. vol. II. pp. 477–515.
  5. ^ Ibn Abī Zarʻ al-Fāsī, ʻAlī ibn ʻAbd Allāh (1340), Rawḍ al-Qirṭās: Anīs al-Muṭrib bi-Rawd al-Qirṭās fī Akhbār Mulūk al-Maghrib wa-Tārīkh Madīnat Fās, ar-Rabāṭ: Dār al-Manṣūr (published 1972), p. 38
  6. ^ Ignác Goldziher & Bernard Lewis, Introduction to Islamic theology and law, Princeton University Press (1981), p. 218
  7. ^ James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 24, Kessinger Publishing (2003), p. 844
  8. ^ Abd Ar Rahman ibn Khaldun (translated by Franz Rosenthal), The Muqaddimah, Chap III : On dynasties, royal authority, the caliphate, government ranks, and all that goes with these things, on www.muslimphilosophy.com
  9. ^ "Al-Humaydi and Peter Scales (1994: 94-95) seem to be ignorant of the Zaydiyya, whose outward practice appears Sunni. Possibly, Al-Humaydi and Scales have conflated Shi'ite with Imamiyyah and are in fact refuting their projection of the Hammudids." Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites). 2005
  10. ^ Hammudids, A. Huici Miranda, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. III, ed. B. Lewis, V.L. Menage, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 147;"HAMMUDIDS, dynasty which reigned over various towns in Muslim Spain from 407/1016 till 450/1058. Sulayman al-Musta'm [q.v.], on his second succession to the caliphal throne in Shawwal 4O3/ May 1013, had to distribute large fiefs among the Berbers who had raised him to power. He allotted to 'Ali b. Hammud the governorship of Ceuta and to his brother al-Kasim that of Algeciras, Tangier, and Arzila. The two were genuine Idrisids [q.v.], their great-grandfather Hammud being the great-grandson of Idris II."
  11. ^ Collins 2012, p. 203.

BibliographyEdit

Royal house
Hammudid dynasty
Preceded by
Umayyad dynasty
Caliphs of Córdoba
1016–1023
1025–1027
Succeeded by
Umayyad dynasty
(Restored)
New title Taifa kings of Malaga
1026–1057
Annexed to the Taifa of Granada
New title Taifa kings of Ceuta
1009–1055
Succeeded by Barghawāṭa
New title Taifa kings of Algeciras
1039–1058
Annexed to the Taifa of Seville