The Kalhora dynasty (Sindhi: ڪلهوڙا راڄ, romanized: Kalhora Raj) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Sindhi Kalhora origin based in the region of Sindh in what is now Pakistan. They claimed an Arab origin. The dynasty ruled Sindh and parts of the Punjab region between 1701 and 1783 from their capital of Khudabad, before shifting to Hyderabad from 1768 onwards. They were assigned to hold authority by the Mughal Grand Vizier Mirza Ghazi Beg and later formed their own independent dynasty, and they were known as the "Kalhora Nawabs" by the Mughal Emperors.
|Autonomous Dynasty of Sindh|
|Capital||Khudabad (1710-1768) Haiderabad (1768-1783)|
The Kalhora dynasty succumbed to the Qizilbash during the invasion of Nadir Shah. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro reorganised and consolidated his power, but his son lost control of Sindh and was overthrown by Talpurs Amirs. Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro was the last Kalhora ruler.
Kalhora rule of Sindh began in 1701 when Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro was invested with title of Khuda Yar Khan and was made governor of Upper Sindh sarkar by royal decree of the Mughals. Later, he was made governor of Siwi through imperial decree. He founded a new city Khudabad after he obtained from Aurangzeb a grant of the track between the Indus and the Nara and made it the capital of his kingdom. Thenceforth, Mian Yar Muhammad became one of the imperial agents or governors. Later he extended his rule to Sehwan and Bukkur and became sole ruler of Northern and central Sindh except Thatto which was still under the administrative control of Mughal Empire.
As has been already stated the Kalhora army consisted of a large number of Baloch tribes. The Balochis had by this time become the strongest military force in the land. The early Kalhora had encouraged the Balochis to settle in Sind, in order that the Kalhoro might take advantage of this military superiority in the battlefield. The whole army of Kalhoras consisted of Balochis. After the successful revolt of the army the Talpur - Mirs became rulers of Sindh, the Kalhoras were completely wiped out.
- Verkaaik, Oskar (2004). Migrants and Militants: Fun and Urban Violence in Pakistan. Princeton University Press. pp. 94, 99. ISBN 978-0-69111-709-6.
The area of the Hindu-built mansion Pakka Qila was built in 1768 by the Kalhora kings, a local dynasty of kalhora origin that ruled Sindh independently from the decaying Moghul Empire beginning in the mid-eighteenth century.
- Ansari, Sarah F. D. (1992). Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843-1947. Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-52140-530-0.
Another key to Kalhora 'success' lay in their strengthening of the Baluchi element in Sind.
- Pakistan Quarterly. As the Kalhoras were also a Baloch Dynasty. 1958.
- Burton, Sir Richard Francis (1851). Sindh, and the Races that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus. W. H. Allen.
- Sarah F. D. Ansari (31 January 1992). Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843-1947. Cambridge University Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-0-521-40530-0.
- Mirepoix, Camille (1967). Now Pakistan. Grenich.