Qaboos bin Said al Said
Qaboos bin Said Al Said (Arabic: قابوس بن سعيد آلسعيد, IPA: [ˈqaːbuːs bɪn ˈsaʕiːd ʔaːl ˈsaʕiːd]; born 18 November 1940) is the incumbent Sultan of Oman. He rose to power by overthrowing his father, Said bin Taimur, in a palace coup in 1970. He is a 14th-generation descendant of the founder of the Al Bu Sa'id dynasty. He is the longest serving leader in the Middle East and Arab world, having held the office since 1970.
|Sultan Qaboos of Oman|
The Sultan of Oman in traditional attire
|Sultan of Oman|
|Reign||23 July 1970 – present|
|Predecessor||Said bin Taimur|
|Born||18 November 1940|
Salalah, Muscat and Oman
Nawwal bint Tariq
(m. 1976; div. 1979)
|Father||Said bin Taimur|
Early life and educationEdit
He received his primary and secondary education at Salalah, and was sent to a private educational establishment in England at age 16. At 20, he entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. After graduating from Sandhurst in September 1962, he joined the British Army and was posted to the 1st Battalion The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles), serving with them in Germany for one year. He also held a staff appointment with the British Army.
After his military service, Qaboos studied local government subjects in England and then completed his education with a world tour chaperoned by Leslie Chauncy. Upon his return in 1966, he was placed under virtual house arrest in the Sultan's palace in Salalah by his father. Here he was kept isolated from government affairs, except for occasional briefings by his father's personal advisers. Qaboos studied Islam and the history of his country. His personal relationships were limited to a handpicked group of palace officials who were sons of his father's advisors and a few expatriate friends such as Tim Landon. Sultan Said said that he would not allow his son to be involved with the developing planning process, and Qaboos began to make known his desire for change — which was quietly supported by his expatriate visitors.
Rise to powerEdit
Qaboos acceded to the throne on 23 July 1970 following a successful coup against his father, with the aim of ending the country's isolation and using its oil revenue for modernization and development. He declared that the country would no longer be known as Muscat and Oman, but would change its name to "the Sultanate of Oman" in order to better reflect its political unity.
The coup was supported by the British, having been 'planned in London by MI6 and by civil servants at the Ministry of Defence and the Foreign Office' and sanctioned by the Prime Minister, Harold Wilson.
The first pressing problem that Qaboos bin Said faced as Sultan was an armed communist insurgency from South Yemen, the Dhofar Rebellion (1962–1976). The sultanate eventually defeated the incursion with help from the Shah of Iran, Jordanian troops sent from his friend King Hussein of Jordan, British Special Forces and the Royal Air Force.
Reign as SultanEdit
The Sultan of Oman
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
There were few rudiments of a modern state when Qaboos took power in the 1970 Omani coup d'état. Oman was a poorly developed country, severely lacking in infrastructure, healthcare, and education, with only six kilometres of paved roads and a population dependent on subsistence farming and fishing. Qaboos modernized the country using oil revenues. Schools and hospitals were built, and a modern infrastructure was laid down, with hundreds of miles of new roads paved, a telecommunications network established, projects for a port and airport that had begun prior to his reign were completed and a second port was built, and electrification was achieved. The government also began to search for new water resources and built a desalination plant, and the government encouraged the growth of private enterprise, especially in development projects. Banks, hotels, insurance companies, and print media began to appear as the country developed economically. The Omani rial was established as the national currency, replacing the Indian rupee and Maria Theresa thaler. Later, additional ports were built, and universities were opened. In his first year in power, Qaboos also abolished slavery in Oman.
The political system which Qaboos established is that of an absolute monarchy. The Sultan's birthday, 18 November, is celebrated as Oman's national holiday. The first day of his reign, 23 July, is celebrated as Renaissance Day.
Oman has no system of checks and balances, and thus no separation of powers. All power is concentrated in the sultan, who is also chief of staff of the armed forces, Minister of Defence, Minister of Foreign Affairs and chairman of the Central Bank. All legislation since 1970 has been promulgated through royal decrees, including the 1996 Basic Law. The sultan appoints judges, and can grant pardons and commute sentences. The sultan's authority is inviolable and the sultan expects total subordination to his will.
According to CBS News, 19 June 2011,
Several protest leaders have been detained and released in rolling waves of arrests during the Arab Spring, and dissatisfaction with the state of affairs in the country is high. While disgruntlement amongst the populace is obvious, the extreme dearth of foreign press coverage and lack of general press freedom there leaves it unclear as to whether the protesters want the sultan to leave, or simply want their government to function better. Beyond the recent protests, there is concern about succession in the country, as there is no heir apparent or any clear legislation on who may be the next Sultan.
Oman has more normal relations with Iran than Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and is careful to appear neutral and maintain a balance between the West and Iran. As a result, Oman has often acted as an intermediary between the United States and Iran.
Unlike the heads of other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Qaboos has not publicly named an heir. Article 6 of the constitution says the royal family should choose a new sultan within three days of the position falling vacant. If the royal family council fails to agree, a letter containing a name penned by Sultan Qaboos should be opened in the presence of a defence council of military and security officials, supreme court chiefs, and heads of the two quasi-parliamentary advisory assemblies. Analysts see the rules as an elaborate means of sultan Qaboos securing his choice for successor without causing controversy by making it public during his lifetime, since it is considered unlikely that the royal family would be able to agree on a successor on its own.
Qaboos has no children; there are other male members of the Omani royal family including several paternal uncles and their families. Using same-generation primogeniture, the successor to Qaboos would appear to be the children of his late uncle, Sayyid Tariq bin Taimur Al Said, Oman's first prime minister before the sultan took over the position himself (and his former father-in-law). Oman watchers believe the top contenders to succeed Qaboos are three of Tariq's sons: Assad bin Tariq Al Said, the personal representative of the Sultan; Shihab bin Tariq, a retired naval commander; and Haitham bin Tariq Al Said, the Minister of Heritage and National Culture. First Deputy Prime Minister Fahd bin Mahmud al-Said, a distant cousin of the Sultan, and Taimur bin Assad, the son of Assad bin Tariq, are also mentioned as potential candidates.
He has financed the construction or maintenance of a number of mosques, notably the Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, as well as the holy places of other religions.
Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental PreservationEdit
Through a donation to UNESCO in the early 1990s, he funded the Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation, to afford recognition to outstanding contributions in the management or preservation of the environment. The prize has been awarded every two years since 1991.
Qaboos is a Muslim of the Ibadi denomination, which has traditionally ruled Oman. Although Oman is predominantly Muslim, Qaboos has granted freedom of religion in the country since his reign and has financed the construction of four Catholic and Protestant churches in the country as well as several Hindu temples.
Qaboos bin Said is an avid fan and promoter of classical music. His 120-member orchestra has a high reputation in the Middle East. The orchestra consists entirely of young Omanis who, since 1986, audition as children and grow up as members of the symphonic ensemble. They play locally and travel abroad with the sultan. Argentine composer Lalo Schifrin was commissioned to compose a work entitled Symphonic Impressions of Oman. The Sultan is particularly enthusiastic about the pipe organ. The Royal Opera House Muscat features the largest mobile pipe organ in the world, which has three specially made organ stops, named the "Royal Solo" in his honour. He was also a patron of local folk musician Salim Rashid Suri, making him a cultural consultant, in which role Suri wrote songs praising the Sultan and his family.
On 22 March 1976, Qaboos bin Said married his first cousin, Kamila, née Sayyida Nawwal bint Tariq Al Said (born 1951), daughter of Sayyid Tariq bin Taimur Al Said and his second wife, Sayyida Shawana bint Nasir Al Said. The marriage ended in divorce in 1979. She remarried in 2005. The marriage produced no heirs, and Qaboos bin Said has written secret documents naming the successor to his realm.
As of 2017, Qaboos has cancer, for which he receives treatment.
|Al Said||155||Lürssen||2007||Contains a Helipad, an orchestra and swimming pool. Berthed most of the time in Mutrah port.|
|Fulk al Salamah||156||Mariotti||2016||Secondary Royal Yacht and support vessel. Berthed most of the time in Mutrah port.|
|Al Dhaferah||136||Lürssen||1987||Former Fulk al Salamah|
|Zinat al Bihaar||61||Oman Royal Yacht Squadron||1988||Luxury sailing yacht with world's largest sail built in Oman with imported engine from Siemens.|
|Al-Noores||33.5||K. Damen Netherlands||1982||Specialized tug boat for the other royal yachts.|
Qaboos holds the following ranks:
He has been awarded (° = Royal Ark):
- Grand Star of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Austria, 31 March 2001) °
- Member 1st Class of the Order of Al Khalifa (Bahrain) °
- Member of the Royal Family Order of the Crown of Brunei (Brunei, 15 December 1984) °
- Grand Collar of the Order of the Nile (Egypt, 1976) °
- Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour (France, 31 May 1989) °
- Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)°
- Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding (India, 2004 – award yet to be presented)
- Recipient of the Star of the Republic of Indonesia, 1st Class or Adipurna (Indonesia) °
- Grand Collar of the Order of Pahlavi (3 March 1974) (Iran) °
- Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire (Iran, 14 October 1971)
- Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (Italy, 22 April 1974) °
- Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum (Japan) °
- Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali (Jordan) °
- Collar of the Order of Mubarak the Great (Kuwait, 28 December 2009) °
- Collar of the Order of Merit (Lebanon) °
- Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm (DMN) (Malaysia, 1991) °
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion (Netherlands, 2012)
- Recipient of the Nishan-e-Pakistan, 1st Class (Pakistan) °
- Collar of the Order of the Independence (Qatar) °
- Recipient of the Badr Chain (Saudi Arabia) °
- Decoration 1st class (December 1971) and Collar (23 December 2006) of the Order of Abdulaziz al Saud (Saudi Arabia) °
- Member 1st Class of the Order of Temasek (Singapore, 12 March 2009) °
- Grand Cross of the Order of Good Hope (South Africa, 1999)
- Knight of the Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (Spain, 13 December 1985) °
- Collar of the Order of Umayyad (Syria) °
- Collar of the Order of Independence (Tunisia) °
- Collar of the Order of Etihad (Order of the Federation) (UAE) °
- Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) (United Kingdom, 8 July 1976) °
- Knight of Justice (KStJ, 8 November 1976) and Bailiff Grand Cross (GCStJ, 19 March 1984) of the Venerable Order of Saint John (United Kingdom) °
- Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) (United Kingdom, 28 February 1979) °
- Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) (United Kingdom, 18 March 1982) °
- Recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain (United Kingdom, 27 November 2010) °
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|Ancestors of Qaboos bin Said al Said|
- Al Sa'id, Qaboos (1940–) – Personal history, Biographical highlights, Personal chronology, Influences and contributions, The world's perspective, Legacy. Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
- "Qaboos bin Said". Webster's Concise Encyclopedia. 1. New York: Gramercy Books. 1998. p. 520.
- "Can Oman's Stability Outlive Sultan Qaboos?". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Tribute to His Majesty Archived 18 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- Allen, Calvin H.; Rigsbee, W. Lynn (1 January 2000). Oman Under Qaboos: From Coup to Constitution, 1970–1996. Psychology Press. pp. 28–29, 34. ISBN 9780714650012.
- PROFILE-Oman's Sultan Qaboos bin Said Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Forexyard.com (2011-03-25). Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
- Cobain, Ian (2016). The History Thieves. London: Portobello Books. p. 87. ISBN 9781846275838.
- "A Test for Oman and Its Sultan".
- Oman: the Modernization of the Sultanate, Calvin H. Allen, Jr
- Oman: The Bradt Travel Guide, Diana Darke
- Suzanne Miers (2003). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 347. ISBN 0-7591-0340-2.
- "Country Report: Oman". Archived from the original on 28 December 2014.
- "The world's enduring dictators: Qaboos bin Said, Oman".
- Henderson, Simon (3 April 2017). "The Omani Succession Envelope, Please". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
His closest advisors are security and intelligence professionals in the so-called Royal Office, headed by Gen. Sultan bin Mohammed al-Numani.
- Slackman, Michael (16 May 2009). "Oman Navigates Between Iran and Arab Nations". The New York Times.
- Gladstone, Rick (4 September 2013). "Iran's President to Speak at the U.N." NYT. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- "A visit from the sultan".
- Dokoupil, Martin (24 May 2012). "Succession Question Fuels Uncertainty in Oman". Reuters. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- HH Prince Sayyid Tarik bin Taimur al-Said Archived 1 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
- "The Question of Succession". Muscat Confidential. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Though Ibadhis are the majority in Oman, with Sunnis a minority, exact percentages are unavailable; 75% for the Ibadhis is often cited, while the Sunnis, followed by a small amount of local Shiites and foreign Hindus, Christians, and others make up the remaining 25%.
- "Modi in Oman LIVE Updates: PM prays at Shiva temple in Muscat, visits Grand Mosque". 12 February 2018.
- Trofimov, Yaroslavth (14 December 2001). "Oman has oil, but it had no orchestra". Wall Street Journal: A6.
-  Archived 17 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- "Carlo Curly & Mathis Music". Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2006.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). Times of Oman; "In the Eye of Beauty – An Ode to the Organ" 11 December 2014; retrieved 24 December 2014.
- Margaret Makepeace (26 November 2013). "The Singing Sailor – Salim Rashid Suri". Untold Lives Blog. British Library. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Joseph A. Kechichian (17 December 2010). "Sultan Qaboos Bin Saeed: A democrat visionary". Weekend Review. Gulf News. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- "oman9". Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Tennent, James (28 November 2015). "Who will take over from Sultan Qaboos, the Arab world's longest serving ruler?".
- "The sultanate of Oman is taking a kicking". The Economist. 8 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "Famous Ham Radio Operators and their Callsigns". www.dx-qsl.com.
- Top 100. Yachtspotter.com (2010-07-27). Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
- Access Perpetual Wellbeing in Excess: Sultan Qaboos's extravaganza. Inequalityreduced.blogspot.com (2009-01-01). Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
- Sailing Yacht – Zinat al Bihaar – Oman Royal Yacht Squadron – Completed Superyachts on Superyacht Times .com Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Superyachttimes.info. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
- Motor Yacht – Al-Noores – K. Damen – Completed Superyachts on Superyacht Times .com. Superyachttimes.com. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
- The Royal Ark, Oman genealogical details, p.9
- "Reply to a parliamentary question about the Decoration of Honour" (pdf) (in German). p. 1441. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- HM deserves much more than awards and medals Archived 25 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Times of Oman (2007-01-28). Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
- "Grand State Banquet". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Italian Presidency Website, S.M. Qaboos bin Said Sultano dell'Oman – decorato di Gran Cordone
- "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1991" (PDF).
- 1999 National Orders awards Archived 12 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine