Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Oman)
|Jurisdiction||Oman and its diplomatic missions worldwide|
The current Minister Responsible for Foreign Affairs is Yusuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah. The legal representatives of Oman are dr. Zsolt Zalan Roth and dr. Mohammad bin Ahmad bin Alnasser
- 1 Foreign policy
- 2 Function
- 3 Ministers Responsible for Foreign Affairs
- 4 Secretaries General
- 5 Undersecretaries
- 6 Foreign relations
- 7 International disputes
- 8 Bilateral relations
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Oman’s foreign policy guarantees the non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries. Its policy is based on following principles:
- Developing and maintaining good relations with all countries.
- An outward and international outlook, as befits Oman’s geography.
- A strategic location with longstanding maritime tradition.
- A pragmatic approach to bilateral/multilateral relations; while emphasising the underlying geo-strategic realities rather than temporary ideological positions.
- The search for security and stability through regional and global cooperation.
- Its representation in international organisations includes the Arab League, the United Nations, the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation and the Gulf Cooperation Council.
The responsibilities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are specified in Article No. 4 of the law structuring of the ministry, issued by Royal Decree No. 32/2008:
- Safeguarding interests of Oman with other countries.
- Establishing diplomatic relations with the rest of the world.
- Safeguard the interests of Omani nationals outside of Oman.
- Coordinate with other ministries and institutions to develop technical and economic relations with other countries.
- Participation in bilateral and multilateral committees. Participation in negotiations between other countries and conferences in relation to ministry's work.
- Evaluate the relations of Oman and other countries; and Oman with international organisations.
- Provide information to the concerned ministries.
- Monitor international developments.
- Develop Oman's political stance against the regional and global events.
- Cooperate with other ministries in promoting foreign investments and export development.
- Promote dialogue between countries and dissolve disputes using peaceful methods.
- Carry out legal procedures to ratify international treaties.
- Issue authorisation documents for Omani delegations to participate in international conferences.
- Supervising Omani missions abroad.
- Issue diplomatic, special, and service passports.
- Supervise the diplomatic institute.
- Supervise the diplomatic club.
- Supervise diplomatic missions in Oman.
- Authenticate documents issued by Omani institutions, or those certified by Omani missions abroad.
- To take the role of the Civil Register Secretary in the Omani missions abroad.
- Organise the rules for establishing friendship societies with other countries.
Ministers Responsible for Foreign AffairsEdit
The Secretary General reports to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, but also has the rank of a Minister. The following are the names of Secretaries General appointed at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
Undersecretaries report to the Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Ministry currently has two Undersecretaries, one for diplomatic affairs and another for administrative and financial affairs. The follows are the names of the Undersecretaries appointed at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
- Saif Hammad Al-Battashi - Undersecretary for Finance and Service (1986–1994)
- Sayyid Haitham Tariq Al-Said - Undersecretary for Political Affairs (1986–?)
- Ahmed Yousuf Al-Harthy - Undersecretary for Diplomatic Affairs (2009–present)
- Mohammed Yousuf Al-Zarafi - Undersecretary for Administrative and Financial Affairs (2009–present) 
When Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said assumed power in 1970, Oman had limited contacts with the outside world, including neighbouring Arab states. A special treaty relationship permitted the United Kingdom close involvement in Oman's civil and military affairs. Ties with the United Kingdom have remained very close under Sultan Qaboos along with strong ties to the United States.
Since 1970, Oman has pursued a moderate foreign policy and expanded its diplomatic relations dramatically. It supported the 1979 Camp David accords and was one of three Arab League states, along with Somalia and Sudan, which did not break relations with Egypt after the signing of the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty in 1979. During the Persian Gulf crisis, Oman assisted the United Nations coalition effort. Oman has developed close ties to its neighbors; it joined the six-member Gulf Cooperation Council when it was established in 1980.
Oman has traditionally supported Middle East peace initiatives, as it did those in 1983. In April 1994, Oman hosted the plenary meeting of the Water Working Group of the peace process, the first Persian Gulf state to do so.
During the Cold War period, Oman avoided relations with communist countries because of the communist support for the insurgency in Dhofar. In recent years, Oman has undertaken diplomatic initiatives in the Central Asian republics, particularly in Kazakhstan, where it is involved in a joint oil pipeline project. In addition, Oman maintains good relations with Iran, its northern neighbor, and the two countries regularly exchange delegations. Oman is an active member in international and regional organizations, notably the Arab League and the GCC, and its foreign policy is overseen by the country's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Although Oman enjoys a high degree of internal stability, regional tensions in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War and the Iran-Iraq war continue to necessitate large defense expenditures. In 2015, Oman budgeted $9.9 billion for defense. Oman maintains a small but professional and effective military, supplied mainly with British equipment in addition to items from the United States, France, and other countries. British officers, on loan or on contract to the Sultanate, help staff the armed forces, although a program of "Omanization" has steadily increased the proportion of Omani officers over the past several years.
After North and South Yemen merged in May 1990, Oman settled its border disputes with the new Republic of Yemen on 1 October 1992. The two neighbors have cooperative bilateral relations. Oman's borders with all neighbors are demarcated.
Brunei has an embassy in Muscat, and Oman has an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan. Relations were established on 24 March 1984. Both countries were former protectorates of European powers, such as the British for Brunei and the Portuguese for Oman, and both are now governed by Islamic absolute monarchies.
Oman was the only Arab state besides Sudan under Jaafar Nimeiry to maintain good relations with Anwar al Sadat after Egypt recognized Israel. An NGO which launched a probe into foreign funding of organizations in Egypt found that Oman, along with the United Arab Emirates, donated $14.1 million to the Mohamed Alaa Mubarak institute, which was named after Hosni Mubarak's grandson.
India–Oman relations are foreign relations between India and Oman. India has an embassy in Muscat, Oman. The Indian consulate was opened in Muscat in February 1955 and five years later it was upgraded to a consulate general and later developed into a full-fledged embassy in 1971. The first ambassador of India arrived in Muscat in 1973. Oman established its embassy in New Delhi in 1972 and a consulate general in Mumbai in 1976.
On 4 February 2011, Oman recognized the Republic of Kosovo as independent and sovereign country. On 20 September 2011, the recognition was reconfirmed following a meeting between government leaders of Kosovo and Oman.
Malaysia and Oman established diplomatic relations in 1983. Since that, bilateral trade between Malaysia and Oman stood at nearly RM500 million during January–October 2010, with Malaysia's main exports to Oman being edible oil, machinery, appliances and parts, wood products, electrical and electronic products.
The relationship between Islamabad and Muscat is warm, because it is the nearest Arab country to Pakistan and the fact that some 30% of Omani's are of Balochi origin from Pakistan's Balochistan province, having settled in Oman over a hundred years ago. In 1958 Gwadar was part of Oman but was transferred to Pakistan in that year.
Russia has an embassy in Muscat. Oman is represented in Russia through its embassy in Moscow. Both Oman and Russia had established diplomatic relations of February 5, 1986 and still maintain mostly friendly relations.
United Arab EmiratesEdit
In December 2010, Oman discovered a spy network operated by the United Arab Emirates which collected information on Oman's military and government. They were reportedly interested in who would replace Qaboos as his heir and about Oman's relations with Iran. Kuwait mediated in the dispute.
Relations between the United Kingdom and Oman are strong and strategic. In April 2010 the government of Oman stated that it wanted to buy Eurofighter Typhoons from the UK. The United Kingdom has an embassy in Mina al Fahal and Oman has an embassy in London.
The Dhofar Rebellion was launched in the province of Dhofar against the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman and United Kingdom from 1962 to 1975. It ended with intervention of Iranian Imperial Forces and defeat of the rebels, but the state of Oman had to be radically reformed and modernized to cope with the campaign.
Queen Elizabeth II visited Oman in November 2010 to commemorate Oman's 40th National Day and take part in the tremendous celebrations in the Country. This was her second visit to the Sultanate (first being in 1979). She surely witnessed an improved Oman since the last time she visited the country as the Sultanate was ranked the most improved nation in the past 40 years (1970-2010) by the UNDP just a few weeks prior to her visit.
In 1974 and April 1983, Sultan Qaboos of Oman made state visits to the United States. Vice President George H. Bush visited Oman in 1984 and 1986, and President Bill Clinton visited briefly in March 2000. Vice President Dick Cheney visited Oman in 2002, 2005, 2006, and 2008. In March 2005, the U.S. and Oman launched negotiations on a Free Trade Agreement that were successfully concluded in October 2005. The FTA was signed on January 19, 2006, and is pending implementation. Oman has an embassy in Washington DC and United States has an Embassy in Muscat.
- Iran-Arab Relations (Oman)
- List of diplomatic missions in Oman
- List of diplomatic missions of Oman
- Territorial disputes in the Persian Gulf
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Oman)
- Oman, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Foreign Policy". Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Foreign Policy". mofa.gov.om. Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Oman. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Oman, Ministry of Legal Affairs (2008). Royal Decree No. 32/2008. Official Gazette.
- Allen, JR & Rigsbee, II, Calvin & W. Lynn (2000). Oman Under Qaboos. FRANK CASS. pp. 34–64.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Oman, Ministry of Legal Affairs (1994). Royal Decree No. 110/94. Official Gazette.
- Oman, Ministry of Legal Affairs (2007). Royal Decree No. 82/2007. Official Gazette.
- Oman, Ministry of Legal Affairs (1986). Royal Decree No. 2/86. Official Gazette.
- Oman, Ministry of Legal Affairs (2009). Royal Decree No. 70/2009. Official Gazette.
- "Brunei-Oman Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Brunei). Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- "BRUNEI AND OMAN: STRENGTHENING BILATERAL RELATIONS". Asia Economic Institute. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- Oxford Business Group (2009). The Report: Brunei Darussalam 2009. Oxford Business Group. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-1-907065-09-5.
- "Egypt Independent". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Republic of Kosovo Established Diplomatic Relations with Sultanate of Oman, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 2011-02-04
- Recognition from the Sultanate of Oman is reconfirmed, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 2011-10-20
- "BBC News - Oman uncovers 'spy network' but UAE denies any links". BBC News. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Oman says busts UAE spy network, UAE denies role". Reuters. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Defaiya. "Kuwaiti Mediation Resolves Oman-UAE Spy Dispute". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "BBC News - Oman 'wants to buy' Eurofighter planes from the UK". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "UK and Oman". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Oman Embassy in the UK Archived 2010-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.