List of longest-reigning monarchs

This is a list of the longest-reigning monarchs of all time, detailing the monarchs and lifelong leaders who have reigned the longest in world history, sorted by length of reign. Currently reigning monarchs are highlighted in green colour.

Louis XIV,
the longest-ruling sovereign monarch who is verifiable by exact date.
Elizabeth II,
the longest-reigning incumbent monarch.

Monarchs of sovereign states with verifiable reigns by exact dateEdit

Twenty-five longest-reigning monarchs of states that were internationally sovereign for most or all of their reign.

  Incumbent
No. Name State Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
1 Louis XIV[1]   France 14 May 1643 1 September 1715 26,407 72 years, 110 days
2 Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX)[2]   Thailand 9 June 1946 13 October 2016 25,694 70 years, 126 days
3 Johann II[3]   Liechtenstein 12 November 1858 11 February 1929 25,658 70 years, 91 days
4 Elizabeth II[4]   United Kingdom
      Canada
  Australia
  New Zealand[5][a]
6 February 1952[5] Incumbent 25,435 69 years, 232 days
5 Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal I[6] Palenque 29 July 615[b] 31 August 683 24,870 68 years, 33 days
6 Franz Joseph I[7]   Austria
  Austria-Hungary
2 December 1848 21 November 1916 24,825 67 years, 355 days
7 Constantine VIII[c][8]   Byzantine Empire 30 March 962 11 November 1028 24,332 66 years, 226 days
8 Basil II[d][9] 22 April 960 15 December 1025 23,977 65 years, 237 days
9 Ferdinand III[10]   Sicily 6 October 1759 4 January 1825 23,831 65 years, 90 days
10 Victoria[11]   United Kingdom 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 23,226 63 years, 216 days
11 James I[12]   Aragon 12 September 1213 27 July 1276 22,964 62 years, 319 days
12 Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa)[e][14]   Japan 25 December 1926 7 January 1989 22,659 62 years, 13 days
13 Kangxi Emperor[f][15]   China (Qing dynasty) 5 February 1661 20 December 1722 22,597 61 years, 318 days
14 Qianlong Emperor[g][16] 18 October 1735 9 February 1796 22,029 60 years, 114 days
15 Friedrich Günther[17]   Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
(part of the German Confederation until 1866)
28 April 1807 28 June 1867 21,976 60 years, 61 days
16 Christian IV[18]   Denmark-Norway 4 April 1588 28 February 1648 21,879 59 years, 330 days
17 Kilhan[19]
[unreliable source?]
[better source needed]
Dhundhar 16 December 1216 18 October 1276 21,856 59 years, 307 days
18 George III[20]   Great Britain[h]
  Ireland[h]
  United Kingdom[h]
  Hanover[i]
25 October 1760 29 January 1820 21,644 59 years, 96 days
19 Honoré III[21]   Monaco 7 November 1733 19 January 1793 21,623 59 years, 73 days
20 Elizabeth II[22][23]   Jamaica 6 August 1962 Incumbent 21,601 59 years, 51 days
21 Louis XV[24]   France 1 September 1715 10 May 1774 21,436 58 years, 251 days
22 Pedro II[25]   Brazil 7 April 1831 15 November 1889 21,407 58 years, 222 days
23 Nicholas I[26]   Montenegro 13 August 1860 26 November 1918 21,288 58 years, 105 days
24 Honoré I[27]   Monaco 22 August 1523 7 October 1581 21,231 58 years, 46 days
25 Wilhelmina[28]   Netherlands 23 November 1890 4 September 1948 21,104 57 years, 286 days
Updated daily according to UTC.

Monarchs of dependent or constituent states with verifiable reigns by exact dateEdit

 
Sobhuza II, the longest-reigning verifiable monarch ever known.

The table below contains monarchs of states that were not internationally sovereign for most of their reign.

"(HRE)" indicates a semi-sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and a reign that concluded before the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. "(HRE*)" indicates a reign that began when the state was within the Empire and continued after its dissolution.

No. Name State Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
1 Sobhuza II[j] Swaziland (British protectorate until 1968) 10 December 1899 21 August 1982 30,204 82 years, 254 days
2 Bernhard VII[30] Lippe (HRE) 12 August 1429 2 April 1511 29,818 81 years, 234 days
3 William IV[30] Henneberg-Schleusingen (HRE) 26 May 1480 24 January 1559 28,731 78 years, 243 days
4 Karansinhji[31] Lakhtar State (part of British Raj from 1858) 15 June 1846 8 August 1924 28,543 78 years, 54 days
5 Heinrich XI[k][32][33] [30] Reuss-Obergreiz (HRE) 17 March 1723 28 June 1800 28,227 77 years, 103 days
6 Idris ibni Muhammad al-Qadri,[30] Tunku Besar of Tampin Tampin (Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia) (part of British Malaya until 1957) 31 May 1929 26 December 2005 27,968 76 years, 209 days
7 Christian August[30] Palatinate-Sulzbach (HRE) 14 August 1632 23 April 1708 27,645 75 years, 253 days
8 Mudhoji IV Rao Naik Nimbalkar[30] Phaltan (part of British Raj from 1858) 7 December 1841 17 October 1916 27,342 74 years, 315 days
9 Bhagvatsingh Sahib[30] Gondal state (British Raj) 14 December 1869 10 March 1944 27,114 74 years, 87 days
10 George William[30] Schaumburg-Lippe (HRE*) (Between 1807 and 1815 part of the Confederation of the Rhine, from 1815 part of the German Confederation.) 13 February 1787 21 November 1860 26,944 73 years, 282 days
11 Charles Frederick[30] Baden (HRE*) 12 May 1738 10 June 1811 26,691 73 years, 29 days
12 John Louis Nassau-Saarbrücken (HRE) 19 October 1472 4 June 1545 26,525 72 years, 228 days[l]
13 Henry Frederick Hohenlohe-Langenburg (HRE) 29 January 1628 5 August 1699 26,121 71 years, 188 days
14 Jagatjit Singh Kapurthala (British Raj) 3 September 1877 20 August 1948 25,918 70 years, 352 days[m]
15 Parashuramrao Shrinivas Aundh (India) 30 August 1777 11 June 1848 25,852 70 years, 286 days
16 Franz Karl Fürstenberg-Donaueschingen (HRE) 15 November 1627 19 July 1698 25,814 70 years, 246 days
17 Karl August Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (HRE*) 28 May 1758 14 June 1828 25,584 70 years, 17 days
18 Alberico I Massa and Carrara (HRE) 6 June 1553 18 January 1623 25,428 69 years, 226 days
19 Werner Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (HRE) 31 October 1559 16 February 1629 25,311 69 years, 108 days
20 Heinrich Joseph Johann Auersperg (HRE) 6 November 1713 9 February 1783 25,297 69 years, 95 days
21 Frederick III[n] Inner Austria (HRE) 10 June 1424 19 August 1493 25,272 69 years, 70 days
22 George William Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (HRE) 16 December 1600 25 December 1669 25,211 69 years, 9 days
23 George I Anhalt-Dessau (HRE) 24 September 1405 21 September 1474 25,199 68 years, 362 days
24 Frederick V Hesse-Homburg (HRE*) 7 February 1751 20 January 1820 25,183 68 years, 347 days
25 Vikramatji Khimojiraj[citation needed] Porbandar (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858) 20 June 1831 21 April 1900 25,142 68 years, 305 days
26 Krishnaraja Wadiyar III Mysore (British Subsidiary alliance, then part of British Raj from 1858) 30 June 1799 27 March 1868 25,107 68 years, 271 days
27 Johann Friedrich [de] Castell-Rüdenhausen (HRE) 10 January 1681 23 June 1749 25,000 68 years, 164 days
28 Sawant Singh[citation needed] Pratapgarh (India) 26 October 1775 5 January 1844 24,907 68 years, 71 days
29 Christian Karl Reinhard Leiningen-Dagsburg (HRE) 3 November 1698 17 November 1766 24,850 68 years, 14 days
30 Ram Singh Bundi State (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858)[citation needed] 14 May 1821 28 March 1889 24,790 67 years, 318 days
31 Malietoa Tanumafili II Samoa 7 January 1940 11 May 2007 24,596 67 years, 124 days
32 Henry III Meissen (HRE) 18 January 1221 15 February 1288 24,499 67 years, 28 days
33 Eleanor[o] Aquitaine (France) 9 April 1137 1 April 1204 24,464 66 years, 358 days
34 Augustus Anhalt-Plötzkau(HRE) 6 December 1586 22 August 1653 24,366 66 years, 259 days
35 Amarsinhji Banesinhji[p] Wankaner (British Raj) 12 June 1881 15 February 1948 24,353 66 years, 248 days
36 Khengarji III Cutch (British Raj) 19 December 1875 15 January 1942 24,133 66 years, 27 days
37 Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah Sultanate of Serdang (Indonesia) 20 December 1879 4 December 1945 24,090 65 years, 349 days
38 Leopold III Anhalt-Dessau (HRE) 16 December 1751 9 August 1817 23,977 65 years, 236 days
39 John I Brittany (France) 21 October 1221 8 October 1286 23,728 64 years, 352 days
40 Frederick William Hohenzollern-Hechingen (HRE) 13 January 1671 14 November 1735 23,680 64 years, 305 days
41 Albert V Anhalt-Dessau (HRE) 24 September 1405 24 September 1469 23,376 64 years, 0 days
42 Ibrahim Johor, Malaysia (part of British Malaya until 1957) 4 June 1895 8 May 1959 23,348 63 years, 338 days
43 Sayajirao Gaekwad III Baroda State (British Raj) 27 May 1875 6 February 1939 23,265 63 years, 256 days
44 Albert Anton Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (HRE) 4 November 1646 24 June 1710 23,242 63 years, 232 days
45 Anton Günther Oldenburg (HRE) 12 November 1603 19 June 1667 23,230 63 years, 219 days
46 Frederick Augustus I[q] Saxony (HRE*) 17 December 1763 5 May 1827 23,149 63 years, 139 days
47 Ludwig I [r] Anhalt (HRE) 6 December 1586 January 7, 1650 23,043 63 years, 32 days
48 Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa Bahrain (British protectorate from 1880) 1 December 1869 9 December 1932 23,018 63 years, 8 days
49 Charles III Upper Lorraine (HRE) 12 June 1545 14 May 1608 22,982 62 years, 337 days
50 Johann Friedrich II Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE) 17 October 1702 24 August 1765 22,957 62 years, 311 days
51 Bernhard II Saxe-Meiningen (HRE*) 24 December 1803 20 September 1866 22,916 62 years, 270 days
52 Philip II Nassau-Weilburg (HRE) 2 July 1429 19 March 1492 22,906 62 years, 261 days[s]
53 Nicolas Leopold I Salm-Hoogstraat (HRE) 6 June 1707 4 February 1770 22,889 62 years, 243 days
54 Christian II [t] Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler (HRE) 16 September 1654 25 April 1717 22,866 62 years, 221 days
55 Léopold Philippe Arenberg (HRE) 19 August 1691 4 March 1754 22,842 62 years, 197 days
56 Muhammad Ibrahim Ali Khan Tonk (British Raj) 20 December 1867 23 June 1930 22,830 62 years, 185 days
57 Saqr bin Mohammed Al Qasimi Ras Al Khaimah (part of the British Protectorate of Trucial states until 1971, then the United Arab Emirates) 17 July 1948 27 October 2010 22,747 62 years, 102 days
58 Nahar Singh Shahpura (British Raj) 21 April 1870 24 June 1932 22,709 62 years, 64 days[citation needed]
59 Franz William Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedbur (HRE) 1 January 1673 31 December 1734 22,643 61 years, 364 days
60 Tuanku Abdul Hamid Halim Shah Kedah Sultanate (British Malaya) 22 September 1881 13 May 1943 22,512 61 years, 233 days
61 Philip IV Waldeck-Wildungen (HRE) 28 May 1513 30 November 1574 22,466 61 years, 186 days
62 Wakhat Singh Dalil Singh Lunavada (British Raj) 31 October 1867 27 April 1929 22,458 61 years, 178 days
63 Paku Alam VIII Pakualaman (Indonesia) 12 April 1937 11 September 1998 22,432 61 years, 152 days
64 Victor Amadeus Anhalt-Bernburg (HRE) 22 September 1656 14 February 1718 22,424 61 years, 145 days
65 Lakshman Singh, Maharawal of Banswara Banswara State (British protectorate, then part of British Raj from 1858) 2 February 1844 29 April 1905 22,366 61 years, 86 days[citation needed]
65 Ulrich V Württemberg-Stuttgart (HRE) 2 July 1419 1 September 1480 22,342 61 years, 61 days[u]
67 Ranbir Singh Jind (British Raj) 7 March 1887 31 March 1948 22,304 61 years, 24 days[v][citation needed]
68 Ernst Ludwig Hesse-Darmstadt (HRE) 31 August 1678 12 September 1739 22,291 61 years, 12 days
69 Johann Friedrich I Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (HRE) 11 October 1641 17 October 1702 22,285 61 years, 6 days
70 Wilhelm Moritz II Isenburg-Philippseich (HRE) 8 March 1711 7 March 1772 22,280 60 years, 365 days
71 Christian Ernest Stolberg-Wernigerode (HRE) 9 November 1710 25 October 1771 22,265 60 years, 350 days
72 Adolf III Schauenburg and Holstein (HRE) 6 July 1164 3 January 1225 22,096 60 years, 181 days
73 Leopold Louis Palatinate-Veldenz (HRE) 3 June 1634 29 September 1694 22,033 60 years, 118 days
74 Johann Jakob I Waldburg-Zeil (HRE) 4 May 1614[w] 18 April 1674 21,899 59 years, 349 days
75 Gustav Adolph Mecklenburg-Güstrow (HRE) 23 April 1636 6 October 1695 21,715 59 years, 166 days
76 George Frederick I Brandenburg-Ansbach (HRE) 27 December 1543 25 April 1603 21,669 59 years, 119 days
77 Charles I Hesse-Kassel (HRE) 1 December 1670 23 March 1730 21,661 59 years, 112 days
78 Marie Teresa Cybo-Malaspina Massa and Carrara (HRE) 17 October 1731 29 December 1790 21,623 59 years, 73 days
79 Abdul Halim Kedah Sultanate (Malaysia) 14 July 1958 11 September 2017 21,609 59 years, 59 days
80 Pakubuwono XII Surakarta (Indonesia) 11 June 1945 11 June 2004 21,550 59 years, 0 days[34]
81 Barnim I Pomerania-Stettin (HRE) 23 January 1220 13 December 1278 21,509 58 years, 324 days[35]
82 Ludovico I Saluzzo (HRE) October 1416 8 April 1475 21,373 58 years, 189 days
83 Philip Hesse-Philippsthal (HRE) 16 July 1663 18 June 1721 21,156 57 years, 337 days
84 Philipp I Nassau-Weilburg (HRE) 20 September 1371 2 July 1429 21,104 57 years, 285 days
85 Philipp I Hesse (HRE) 11 July 1509 31 March 1567 21,082 57 years, 263 days

Monarchs whose exact dates of rule are unknownEdit

 
Pepi II the longest reigning monarch to have a document.

These monarchs are grouped according to length of reign by year in whole numbers. Within each year-grouping, they appear in historical order. In a given year, there may have been a wide array of actual reign lengths based on days. Thus, this table does not present a precise ranking by length of reign. The list is limited to those that might reasonably be expected to lie within the range of those in the tables above, at minimum 57 years.

Japanese legendary emperors, according to the ancient Japanese calendar, reigned for very long terms of 60–70 years each. The longest ruler of the legendary emperors, Emperor Kōan, was claimed to have reigned for about 101 years. These figures are not included in the table because they are regarded as inaccurate by modern scholars. For those see Longevity myths.

No. Name Country Reign Duration
(approx. years)
from to
1 Minhti[36] Kingdom of Mrauk U 1279 1374 95 years (disputed)
2 Pepi II Neferkare[x] Ancient Egypt 2278 BC 2184 BC 94 years94 years (disputed)
3 Taejo[y] Goguryeo 53 146 93 years93 years (disputed)
4 Ermanaric the Ostrogoth Oium 296 (disputed) 376 80 years (disputed)
5 Hanayos Hariphunchai (Thailand) 670 750 80 years
6 Raja Sawai Basavalinga I Sundem (India) 1763 1843
7 Jangsu Goguryeo 413 491 78 years
8 Mirian III Kingdom of Iberia 268 or 284 345 or 361 77 years
9 Raisingh Deo of Patna Patna (India) 1685 1762
10 Otto I[z] Baden-Hachberg-Sausenberg (HRE) 1308 1384 76 years
11 Tai Wu Shang (China) 1486 BC 1411 BC 75 years
12 Mohan Singh Rajgarha (India) 1639 14 April 1714
13 Vakhtang Gorgasali Kingdom of Iberia 447 522
14 Johann Philipp[aa] Stadion (HRE) 1666 1741
15 Sauromaces I Kingdom of Iberia 234 BC 159 BC
16 Sukhachain Jind (India) 1676 1751
17 Yo-Tha Hariphunchai (Thailand) 1197 1271 74 years
18 Wilhelm I Sayn-Wittgenstein (HRE) 1494 1568
19 Fazl Ali Khan II Bahadur Banganapalle 1686 1759 73 years
20 Tezozomoc Azcapotzalco 1353, 1367, or 1370 1426 73–56 years
21 Zhao Tuo Nanyue 209 BC 137 BC 72 years
22 Raja Sang Tawal Kelantan Sultanate 1267 1339
23 Arwa al-Sulayhi Yemen 1067 1138 71 years
24 Simon I Lippe (HRE) 1273 1344
25 Heinrich VIII Fürstenberg-Wolfach (HRE) 1419 30 November 1490
26 Pandukabhaya Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) 437 BC 367 BC 70 years
27 Shapur II[ab] Sasanian Empire (Persia) 309 379
28 Ponhea Yat Khmer Empire (Cambodia) 1393 1463
29 Johann Ulrich Stadion (HRE) 1530 1600
30 Muhtarram Shah Kator The First Chitral (India) 1585 1655
31 Huan Qi (China) 636 BC 567 BC 69 years
32 Tshudpud Namgyal Sikkim (part of British Raj from 1858) 1794 1863
33 Ernest II Oettingen-Wallerstein (HRE) 1602 1670 68 years
34 Alberto Azzo II Este and Milan 1029 20 August 1097
35 Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II Kedah Sultanate 1710 1778
36 Louis II Stadion (HRE) 1260 1328
37 Odo II Blois (France) 1047 1115
38 Malojirao III Mudhol (India) 1737 1805
39 Sizzo II Schwarzburg (HRE) 1050 1118
40 Robert[ac] Bar (HRE) 1344 20 November 1411 67 years
41 Sultan Mahmud Shah II Perak (Malaysia) 1653 1720
42 Johann III Sponheim-Starkenburg (HRE) 1331 1398
43 Ramesses II Ancient Egypt 1279 BC 1213 BC 66 years
44 Pharnavaz I Kingdom of Iberia 302 BC 237 BC 65 years
45 Nandivarman II Pallava Empire (India) 731 796
46 Sagramji I Kumbhoji Gondal (India) 1648 1713
47 Zhao Song (China) 468 BC 404 BC 64 years
48 Khuman III Udaipur (India) 878 942
49 Amoghavarsha Rashtrakuta Empire (India) 814 878
50 Zhuang I Qi (China) 794 BC 731 BC
51 Friedrich IV Castell (HRE) 1285 1349
52 Ja'far ibn Muhammad Nizari Ismailism (Umayyad Caliphate) 701 or 702 765 63–64 years
53 Mahmud III Mansa (Empire of Mali) 1496 1559 63 years
54 Friedrich II Salm-Neuweiler (HRE) 1610 1673
55 Jayavarman VIII Khmer Empire (Cambodia) 1232 1295
56 Philipp Ernst Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (HRE) 1697 1759 62 years
57 Charles Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen (HRE) 1741 1803
58 Abdul Jalilul Akbar Bruneian Empire late 1597 or early 1598 1659 61–62 years
59 Bhavsinhji I Ratanji Bhavnagar (India) 1703 1764 61 years
60 Aescwine Kingdom of Essex 527 587 60c. 60 years
61 Pawl Glywysing (Wales) 480 540
62 Cynan Garwyn Kingdom of Powys (Wales) 550 610
63 Mutasiva Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) 367 BC 307 BC 60 years
64 Sophie Bar (HRE) 1033 1093
65 Adesida I Akure (Nigeria) June 1897 1957
66 Friedrich I Salm-Blankenburg (HRE) 1210 1270
67 Henry VI Henneberg-Aschach-Römhild (HRE) 1292 1356
68 Heinrich II Salm-Blankenburg (HRE) 1301 1361
69 Otto I Solms-Braunfels (HRE) 1349 1409
70 Ludwig Salm-Blankenburg (HRE) 1443 1503
71 Mayadunne Sitawaka (Sri Lanka) 1521 1581
72 Vanghoji II Jagpalrao Nimbalkar Phaltan (India) 1570 1630
73 Gerhard I the Elder Schwarzburg (HRE) 1266 1325 or 1326 59 or 60 years
74 Matilda Tuscany July 1055 24 July 1115
75 Hu Chen (China) 1045 BC 986 BC 59 years
76 Guilhem III Toulouse 978 1037
77 Otto I Salm-Kyrburg (HRE) 1548 7 June 1607
78 Nan China (Zhou) 314 BC 256 BC 58 years
79 Harald I Norway 872 930 58 years c. 58 years
80 Henry II Baden-Hachberg (HRE) 1231 1289 58 years
81 Rudolf I Saxe-Wittenberg (HRE) 1298 1356
82 Jayaba Mukne Jawhar (India) 1342 1400
83 Henry V Henneberg-Schleusingen (HRE) 1347 1405
84 Nicholas III Tecklenburg (HRE) 1450 1508
85 Mulraj II Jaisalmer State (India) 1762 1820
86 Muhammad Shafi ud-din II Sambas (Borneo) 1866 1924
87 Pharasmanes I the Great Kingdom of Iberia 1 CE 58 c.57 years
88 Maredydd ap Rhain Kingdom of Dyfed (Wales) 740 797 57 years
89 Sourigna Vongsa Lan Xang (Laos) 1637 1694
90 Jing Qi (China) 547 BC 490 BC
91 Mithridates VI Pontus 120 BC 63 BC
92 Vseslav of Polotsk[ad] Polotsk 1044 1101
93 Kori Oyo 1300 1357
94 Bernhard I Bentheim-Bentheim (HRE) 1364 1421
95 Yi Hham Hka Kengtung (Burma) 1403 1460
96 Sargon Akkadian Empire 2271 BC 2215 BC
97 John Waldburg-Waldsee (HRE) 1667 1724
98 Zhaoxiang Qin (China) 307 BC 250 BC
99 Adolf Ludwig Wilhelm Sayn-Wittgenstein-Karlsburg (HRE) 1749 1806

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Length of reign applies only to the states that were independent at accession.
  2. ^ In the Maya calendar, acceded 9.9.2.4.8, 5 Lamat 1 Mol; died 9.12.11.5.18, 6 Etz'nab 11 Yax. Long Count dates are converted using the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation.
  3. ^ Junior co-emperor to Romanos II (962–963), Nikephoros II Phokas (963–969), John I Tzimiskes (969–976) and Basil II (976–1025).
  4. ^ Junior co-emperor to Romanos II (960–963), Nikephoros II Phokas (963–969) and John I Tzimiskes (969–976).
  5. ^ Served as Regent for his father Emperor Taishō, from 29 November 1921 until his formal accession. Status as head of state not formally defined in the 1947 constitution of Japan, but the emperor of Japan can act as a head of state, whenever needed.[13]
  6. ^ Longest de jure ruler of China, although the Qianlong Emperor held longer de facto power.
  7. ^ Longest de facto ruler of China, although the Kangxi Emperor held longer de jure power.
  8. ^ a b c Great Britain and Ireland were joined as the United Kingdom in 1801.
  9. ^ Elector of Hanover (intermittently) from 1760. Proclaimed King of Hanover in 1814.
  10. ^ He was proclaimed king at the age of four months, and his grandmother, Labotsibeni Mdluli, acted as regent until 22 December 1921 and then formally transferred all monarchial power to Sobhuza II.[29] Some sources take the date of succession as the date on which his grandmother handed over the royal duties to him, not when he was proclaimed king. Swaziland became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968.
  11. ^ Heinrich XI succeeded to the throne as Count of Reuss-Obergreiz in 1723 on the death of his brother, Heinrich IX (all male members of the family were named Heinrich in order of birth, even across cousins). In 1778 he became the first Prince of Reuss Elder Line.
  12. ^ Count John Louis was born posthumously, after the death of his father Count Johann II on 25 July 1472; he succeeded to the throne at birth.
  13. ^ Acceded to the Union of India on 15 August 1947. Merged Kapurthala into the Patiala and Eastern Punjab States Union (PEPSU) on 5 May 1948, relinquished his sovereign powers with effect from 20 August. Rajpramukh of the PEPSU from 5 May 1948 until his death on 17 June 1949
  14. ^ Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III 1452–1493.
  15. ^ Eleanor was Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, although medieval law dictated that her various husbands (Louis VII of France, Henry II of England) and sons (Richard I and John of England) reign with her jointly.
  16. ^ Merged his state into the United State of Kathiawad on 15 February 1948, but lived until 28 June 1954.
  17. ^ Frederick Augustus I was known as Frederick Augustus III before 1806.
  18. ^ after 1603 he also ruled Anhalt-Köthen after that line went extinct.
  19. ^ Philipp II ruled as co-ruler with his brother till 1442 when they divided their inheritances.
  20. ^ After 1671 Christian also ruled Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld after that line went extinct.
  21. ^ Ulrich V was Count of all Württemberg until its partition between Württemberg-Urach and Württemberg-Stuttgart in 1442. He continued as Count of the latter branch until his death in 1480.
  22. ^ Acceded to the Union of India on 14 August 1947, but retained sovereignty over his state until his death on 31 March 1948
  23. ^ Johann Jakob I succeeded as Truchsess (Archsteward), and was raised to the rank of Graf (Count) in 1628.
  24. ^ Pepi II's figure has been disputed by some Egyptologists who favour a shorter reign length of 64 years, given the absence of attested dates known for Pepi after his 31st Count, which would equate to 62 years assuming the count to be biennial. Others point, however, to the consistency between the existing historical sources all crediting Pepi with over 90 years of reign. Finally, the lack of evidence beyond his 62nd year does not preclude a much longer reign, especially in view of the decay of the Egyptian state into the chaos of the First Intermediate Period at the end of Pepi's reign.
  25. ^ A dispute exists concerning when Taejo 's reign ended. Lower estimates suggest 121-145 and higher ones up to 167 but the most widely believed one is 146 since Korean historians claim that he died in that year.
  26. ^ During his lifetime he had many co Monarchs including his father Rudolph IV made him ruler in 1308 he also ruled with his brother Henry IV until he died in 1318 and also his brother Rudolph VI who died in 1352.
  27. ^ Johann Philipp succeeded to the Lordship of Stadion at age 14 in 1666, was raised to Baron in 1686 and Reichsgraf (Count) in 1704.
  28. ^ Shapur II was crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king; the government was conducted by his mother and the magnates.
  29. ^ Robert was in co-rule with his step-brother Edward II until 1352
  30. ^ He also ruled Russia for a brief period between 1068 and 1069.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "BBC – History – Historic Figures: Louis XIV (1638–1715)". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  2. ^ Crossette, Barbara (13 October 2016). "Bhumibol Adulyadej, 88, People's King of Thailand, Dies After 7-Decade Reign". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  3. ^ "Biographies of the Princes and Princesses". House of Liechtenstein.
  4. ^ Waites, Rosie (6 February 2012). "The moment a princess became a queen". BBC News. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Her Majesty the Queen". Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  6. ^ "K'inich Janaab' Pakal I (Great-Sun-Shield), King of Palenque, depicted on an incense burner". museums.gov.il. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
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