List of longest-reigning monarchs

This is a list of the longest-reigning monarchs of all time, detailing the monarchs and lifelong leaders who have reigned the longest in world history, ranked by length of reign.

Louis XIV, the longest-reigning sovereign monarch whose reign is verifiable by exact date

Monarchs of sovereign states with verifiable reigns by exact dateEdit

Twenty-five longest-reigning monarchs of states who were internationally recognized as sovereign for most or all of their reign.

No. Portrait Name State Reign Duration Ref.
From To (days) (years, days)
1   Louis XIV 14 May 1643 1 September 1715 26,407 72 years, 110 days [1]
2   Elizabeth II

[a]

6 February 1952 8 September 2022 25,782 70 years, 214 days[b] [2][3][4]
3   Rama IX
(Bhumibol Adulyadej)
  Thailand 9 June 1946 13 October 2016 25,694 70 years, 126 days [5]
4   Johann II   Liechtenstein 12 November 1858 11 February 1929 25,658 70 years, 91 days [6]
5   Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal I Palenque (Mexico) 27 July 615[c] 29 August 683 24,870 68 years, 33 days [7][9]
6   Franz Joseph I
2 December 1848 21 November 1916 24,825 67 years, 355 days [10]
7   Chan Imix Kʼawiil Copán (Honduras) 8 February 628[d] 18 June 695 25,697 67 years, 130 days [13][14]
8   Ferdinand III
6 October 1759 4 January 1825 23,831 65 years, 90 days [15]
9   Victoria   United Kingdom 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 23,226 63 years, 216 days [16]
10   James I   Aragon (Spain)
County of Barcelona
12 September 1213 27 July 1276 22,964 62 years, 319 days [17]
11   Emperor Shōwa[e]
(Hirohito)
  Japan 25 December 1926 7 January 1989 22,659 62 years, 13 days [18]
12   Kangxi Emperor[f]   Qing dynasty (China) 5 February 1661 20 December 1722 22,597 61 years, 318 days [19]
13   Honoré III   Monaco 29 December 1731 13 January 1793 22,296 61 years, 15 days [20][21]
14   Itzamnaaj Bahlam III[g] Yaxchilan (Mexico) 20 October 681[h] 15 June 742 22,152 60 years, 238 days [11]
15   Kʼakʼ Tiliw Chan Yopaat Quiriguá (Guatemala) 2 January 725[i] 31 July 785 22,125 60 years, 210 days [22][23]
16   Qianlong Emperor[j]   Qing dynasty (China) 18 October 1735 9 February 1796[k] 22,029 60 years, 114 days [24]
17   Christian IV   Denmark–Norway 4 April 1588 28 February 1648 21,879 59 years, 330 days [25]
18   George III
25 October 1760 29 January 1820 21,644 59 years, 96 days [26]
19   Louis XV 1 September 1715 10 May 1774 21,436 58 years, 251 days [27]
20   Pedro II   Brazil 7 April 1831 15 November 1889 21,407 58 years, 222 days [28]
21   Al-Mustansir Billah Fatimid Caliphate (Egypt) 13 June 1036[m] 29 December 1094 21,383 58 years, 199 days [29][30]
22   Nicholas I
13 August 1860 26 November 1918 21,288 58 years, 105 days [33]
23   Wilhelmina   Netherlands 23 November 1890 4 September 1948 21,104 57 years, 286 days [34]
24   James VI   Scotland 24 July 1567 27 March 1625 21,066 57 years, 246 days [35]
25   Conrad I   Burgundy 12 July 937[n] 19 October 993 20,553 56 years, 99 days [36]

Monarchs of dependent or constituent states with verifiable reigns by exact dateEdit

 
Sobhuza II, the longest-reigning verifiable monarch ever

The table below contains 100 monarchs of states that were not internationally sovereign for most of their reign.

No. Portrait Name State Reign Duration Ref.
From To (days) (years, days)
1   Sobhuza II[o]   Swaziland (British protectorate until 1968) 10 December 1899 21 August 1982 30,204 82 years, 254 days [38]
2   Bernhard VII   Lippe (Holy Roman Empire) 12 August 1429 2 April 1511 29,818 81 years, 234 days [39]
3 Udai Pratap Nath Shah Deo Chotanagpur (British Raj) 9 July 1869 21 September 1950 29,658 81 years, 74 days [40]
4   William IV   Henneberg-Schleusingen (Holy Roman Empire) 26 May 1480 24 January 1559 28,731 78 years, 243 days [39]
5 Karansinhji II Vajirajji Lakhtar State [p] 15 June 1846 8 August 1924 28,543 78 years, 54 days [41]
6   Maeda Tsunanori   Kaga Domain (Japan) 30 April 1645 6 May 1723 28,494 78 years, 6 days [42]
7   Heinrich XI[q]   Reuss-Obergreiz (Holy Roman Empire) 17 March 1723 28 June 1800 28,227 77 years, 103 days [43][44][39]
8 Idris ibni Muhammad al-Qadri, Tunku Besar of Tampin Tampin (Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia) (part of British Malaya until 1957) 31 May 1929 26 December 2005 27,968 76 years, 209 days [39]
9   Christian August   Palatinate-Sulzbach (Holy Roman Empire) 14 August 1632 23 April 1708 27,645 75 years, 253 days [39]
10 Bishan Chandra Jenamuni Rairakhol State [p] 13 March 1825 10 June 1900 27,482 75 years, 89 days [45]
11   Charles I   Eu (France) 16 June 1397 25 July 1472 27,432 75 years, 39 days [46]
12   Mudhoji IV Rao Naik Nimbalkar   Phaltan State [p] 7 December 1841 17 October 1916 27,342 74 years, 315 days [39]
13   Bhagvatsingh Sahib   Gondal State (British Raj) 14 December 1869 10 March 1944 27,114 74 years, 87 days [39]
14   George William   Schaumburg-Lippe [r][s] 13 February 1787 21 November 1860 26,944 73 years, 282 days [39]
15   Charles Frederick   Baden (Holy Roman Empire until 1806) 12 May 1738 10 June 1811 26,691 73 years, 29 days [39]
16 Catherine Eu (France) 13 February 1561 11 May 1633 26,385 72 years, 87 days
17   John III Louis   Nassau-Saarbrücken (Holy Roman Empire) 19 October 1472 4 June 1545 26,525 72 years, 228 days[t]
18 Itō Nagatomo Okada Domain (Japan) 24 July 1778 19 July 1850 26,292 71 years, 360 days
19 Henry Frederick   Hohenlohe-Langenburg (Holy Roman Empire) 29 January 1628 5 August 1699 26,121 71 years, 188 days
20   Jagatjit Singh Bahadur   Kapurthala State (British Raj) 3 September 1877 20 August 1948 25,918 70 years, 352 days[u]
21 Parashuramrao Shrinivas   Aundh State (British India) 30 August 1777 11 June 1848 25,852 70 years, 286 days
22 Franz Karl Fürstenberg-Donaueschingen (Holy Roman Empire) 15 November 1627 19 July 1698 25,814 70 years, 246 days
23 Henryk IX Starszy Żagań-Głogów (Holy Roman Empire) March 14, 1397 November 11, 1467 25,808 70 years, 242 days
24 Werner   Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (Holy Roman Empire) 31 October 1559 26 December 1629 25,624 70 years, 56 days [48]
25   Carl I August   Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach[v] 28 May 1758 14 June 1828 25,584 70 years, 17 days
26 George I   Anhalt-Dessau (Holy Roman Empire) 19 January 1405 21 September 1474 25,447 69 years, 245 days [49]
27   Alberico I   Massa and Carrara (Holy Roman Empire) 6 June 1553 18 January 1623 25,428 69 years, 226 days
28 Heinrich Joseph Johann   Principality of Auersperg (Holy Roman Empire) 6 November 1713 9 February 1783 25,297 69 years, 95 days
29   Frederick III Inner Austria (Holy Roman Empire) 10 June 1424 19 August 1493 25,272 69 years, 70 days
30   George William Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (Holy Roman Empire) 16 December 1600 25 December 1669 25,211 69 years, 9 days
31   Godefroy Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne   Duchy of Bouillon (Holy Roman Empire) 9 August 1652 26 July 1721 25,187 68 years, 351 days [50]
32   Frederick V   Hesse-Homburg [w] 7 February 1751 20 January 1820 25,183 68 years, 347 days
33   Vikramatji Khimojiraj   Porbandar State[p] 20 June 1831 21 April 1900 25,142 68 years, 305 days
34   Krishnaraja Wadiyar III   Kingdom of Mysore (Princely State of East India Company after 1831; British Raj after 1857) 30 June 1799 27 March 1868 25,107 68 years, 271 days [51]
35 Chintaman Rao I Appa Sahib   Sangli State (British India) 6 November 1782 15 July 1851 25,087 68 years, 251 days [52]
36   Johann Friedrich [de] Castell-Rüdenhausen (Holy Roman Empire) 10 January 1681 23 June 1749 25,000 68 years, 164 days
37 Otto VI the One-Eyed Brunswick-Göttingen (Holy Roman Empire) 13 November 1394 6 February 1463 24,921 68 years, 85 days [53]
38 Sawant Singh   Pratapgarh State (British India) 26 October 1775 5 January 1844 24,907 68 years, 71 days
39   Christian Karl Reinhard   Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg (Holy Roman Empire) 3 November 1698 17 November 1766 24,850 68 years, 14 days
40 Raja Ram Singh   Bundi State [p] 14 May 1821 28 March 1889 24,790 67 years, 318 days
41   Malietoa Tanumafili II   Samoa 5 July 1939 11 May 2007 24,782 67 years, 310 days
42 Vakhatsinhji Meghrajji   Vallabhipura State (British Raj) 20 August 1875 5 June 1943 24,760 67 years, 289 days [54]
43 Bernard Strzelce, Niemodlin and South Poland (Holy Roman Empire) 21 October 1382 31 July 1450 24,754 67 years, 283 days
44   Philip I[x] Lippe-Alverdissen (1613-1640)
Schaumburg-Lippe (1640-1681) (Holy Roman Empire)
7 December 1613 10 April 1681 24,596 67 years, 124 days [55][56]
45   Henry III Margraviate of Meissen (Holy Roman Empire) 18 January 1221 15 February 1288 24,499 67 years, 28 days
46 Eberhard IV   Arenberg (Holy Roman Empire) 15 November 1387 12 November 1454 24,468 66 years, 362 days [57]
47   Eleanor[y] Aquitaine (France) 9 April 1137 1 April 1204 24,464 66 years, 358 days
48   Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah Sultanate of Serdang (part of Dutch East Indies until 1945 and part of Indonesia since 1945) 20 December 1879 16 October 1946 24,406 66 years, 300 days
49 Augustus   Anhalt-Plötzkau (Holy Roman Empire) 6 December 1586 22 August 1653 24,366 66 years, 259 days [58]
50   Amarsinhji Banesinhji[z]   Wankaner State (British Raj) 12 June 1881 15 February 1948 24,353 66 years, 248 days
51   Khengarji III   Cutch (British Raj) 19 December 1875 15 January 1942 24,133 66 years, 27 days
52   Raja Raj Ram Singh I   Sitamau State [p] 15 February 1802 28 November 1867 24,027 65 years, 286 days [59]
53   William IV the Victorious Brunswick-Luneburg (Holy Roman Empire) 14 October 1416 25 July 1482 24,025 65 years, 284 days [60]
54   Leopold III   Anhalt-Dessau (Holy Roman Empire) 16 December 1751 9 August 1817 23,977 65 years, 236 days
55 Makino Tadakiyo Nagaoka Domain (Japan) 5 August 1766 17 August 1831 23,752 65 years, 12 days [61]
56 Obizzo I   Este and  Ferrara (Holy Roman Empire) 15 December 1128 25 December 1193 23,751 65 years, 10 days [62]
57   Jean I   Duchy of Brittany (France) 21 October 1221 8 October 1286 23,728 64 years, 352 days
58   Frederick William   Hohenzollern-Hechingen (Holy Roman Empire) 13 January 1671 14 November 1735 23,680 64 years, 305 days
59   Johann Seyfried   Eggenberg (Holy Roman Empire) 19 February 1649 5 October 1713 23,603 64 years, 228 days [63]
60   Gangadhar Rao III Bala Sahib Patwardhan   Miraj Senior (British Raj) 6 June 1875 11 December 1939 23,563 64 years, 188 days [64]
61 Marie II County of Soissons (France) 25 October 1482 1 April 1547 23,533 64 years, 158 days [65]
62 Vishwanath Singh Bahadur   Chhatarpur State (British Raj) 4 November 1867 4 April 1932 23,527 64 years, 152 days [66]
63   Friedrich II Magnus   Salm-Neuweiler (Holy Roman Empire) 26 October 1608 25 January 1673 23,467 64 years, 91 days
64 Albert V   Anhalt-Dessau (Holy Roman Empire) 19 January 1405 19 January 1469 23,376 64 years, 0 days [49]
65   Ibrahim   Johor, Malaysia (part of British Malaya until 1957) 4 June 1895 8 May 1959 23,348 63 years, 338 days
66 Raja Rampalji Bahadur   Kutlehar State (British Raj) 15 January 1864 22 November 1927 23,321 63 years, 311 days [67][68]
67 Ranjore Singh   Ajaigarh State [p] 12 September 1855 7 June 1919 23,278 63 years, 268 days [69]
68   Sayajirao Gaekwad III   Baroda State (British Raj) 27 May 1875 6 February 1939 23,265 63 years, 256 days
69   Albert Anton   Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Holy Roman Empire) 4 November 1646 24 June 1710 23,242 63 years, 232 days
70   Anthony Günther   Duchy of Oldenburg (Holy Roman Empire) 12 November 1603 19 June 1667 23,230 63 years, 219 days
71   Frederick Augustus I[aa]   Saxony[ab] 17 December 1763 5 May 1827 23,149 63 years, 139 days
72   Ludwig I   Principality of Anhalt (Holy Roman Empire) 6 December 1586 7 January 1650 23,043 63 years, 32 days [70]
73   Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa   Bahrain[ac] 1 December 1869 9 December 1932 [ad] 23,018 63 years, 8 days
74   Charles III Upper Lorraine (Holy Roman Empire) 12 June 1545 14 May 1608 22,982 62 years, 337 days
75 Johann Friedrich II Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (Holy Roman Empire) 17 October 1702 24 August 1765 22,957 62 years, 311 days
76 Philipp Ernst Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (Holy Roman Empire) 21 February 1697 29 November 1759 22,925 62 years, 281 days
77     Bernhard II Saxe-Meiningen[ae] 24 December 1803 20 September 1866 22,916 62 years, 270 days
78   Philip II   Nassau-Weilburg (Holy Roman Empire) 2 July 1429 19 March 1492 22,906 62 years, 261 days[af]
79   Nicolas Leopold I [de]   Salm-Hoogstraat (Holy Roman Empire) 6 June 1707 4 February 1770 22,889 62 years, 243 days
80   Christian II[ag] Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler (Holy Roman Empire) 16 September 1654 25 April 1717 22,866 62 years, 221 days
81   Léopold Philippe   Arenberg (Holy Roman Empire) 19 August 1691 4 March 1754 22,842 62 years, 197 days
82   Hafiz Muhammad Ibrahim Ali Khan Bahadur   Tonk State (British Raj) 20 December 1867 23 June 1930 22,830 62 years, 185 days
83   Saqr bin Mohammed Al Qasimi   Ras Al Khaimah (United Arab Emirates) 17 July 1948 27 October 2010 22,747 62 years, 102 days
84   Hosokawa Tsunatoshi Kumamoto Domain (Japan) 18 April 1650 11 July 1712 22,729 62 years, 84 days
85 Nahar Singh   Shahpura State (British Raj) 21 April 1870 24 June 1932 22,709 62 years, 64 days
86 Gopal Lal Kamta-Rajaula State [p] 29 November 1812 23 October 1874 22,608 61 years, 328 days [71]
87   Johann Christian I   Eggenberg (Holy Roman Empire) 19 February 1649 14 December 1710 22,577 61 years, 298 days [citation needed]
88   Tuanku Abdul Hamid Halim Shah   Kedah Kedah Sultanate (British Malaya) 22 September 1881 13 May 1943 22,512 61 years, 233 days
89 Philipp IV Waldeck-Wildungen (Holy Roman Empire) 28 May 1513 30 November 1574 22,466 61 years, 186 days
90 Wakhat Singh Dalil Singh   Lunavada State (British Raj) 31 October 1867 27 April 1929 22,458 61 years, 178 days
91   Paku Alam VIII   Pakualaman (part of Dutch East Indies until 1945 and part of Indonesia since 1945) 12 April 1937 11 September 1998 22,432 61 years, 152 days
92   Victor Amadeus   Anhalt-Bernburg (Holy Roman Empire) 22 September 1656 14 February 1718 22,424 61 years, 145 days
93 Lakshman Singh, Maharawal of Banswara   Banswara State[p] 2 February 1844 29 April 1905 22,366 61 years, 86 days [citation needed]
94   Ulrich V   Württemberg-Stuttgart (Holy Roman Empire) 2 July 1419 1 September 1480 22,342 61 years, 61 days[ah]
95   Ranbir Singh Jind State (British Raj) 7 March 1887 31 March 1948 22,304 61 years, 24 days[ai] [citation needed]
96   Ernest Louis   Hesse-Darmstadt (Holy Roman Empire) 31 August 1678 12 September 1739 22,291 61 years, 12 days
97 Johann Friedrich I Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (Holy Roman Empire) 11 October 1641 17 October 1702 22,285 61 years, 6 days
98 Wilhelm Moritz II Isenburg-Philippseich (Holy Roman Empire) 8 June 1711 7 March 1772 22,280 60 years, 365 days
99   Christian Ernest   Stolberg-Wernigerode (Holy Roman Empire) 9 November 1710 25 October 1771 22,265 60 years, 350 days
100   Adolf III Schauenburg and Holstein (Holy Roman Empire) 6 July 1164 3 January 1225 22,096 60 years, 181 days

Monarchs whose exact dates of rule are unknownEdit

These monarchs are grouped according to length of reign by year in whole numbers. Within each year-grouping, they appear in historical order. In a given year, there may have been a wide array of actual reign lengths based on days. Thus, this table does not present a precise ranking by length of reign. The list is limited to those that might reasonably be expected to lie within the range of those in the tables above, at minimum 56 years. The list is sorted alphabetically. Emphasised states were sovereign. Japanese legendary emperors, according to the ancient Japanese calendar, reigned for very long terms of 60–70 years each. The longest ruler of the legendary emperors, Emperor Kōan, was claimed to have reigned for about 101 years. These figures are not included in the table because they are regarded as inaccurate by modern scholars. For those, see Longevity myths.

Portrait Name Country Reign Duration
(approx. years)
Ref.
from to
Min Hti[72] Launggyet Kingdom of Arakan (Myanmar) 1279 1374 95 years [72]
  Pepi II Neferkare[aj] Old Kingdom of Egypt 2278 BC 2184 BC (disputed) 94 years (disputed) [73]
Taejo[ak] Goguryeo (Korea) 53 146[al] (disputed) 93 years (disputed) [74]
  Nintoku[am]   Japan (Kofun period) 313 (disputed) 399 (disputed) 86 years (disputed) [75]
  Abd al-Muttalib Quraysh (Mecca, Saudi Arabia) 497 578 81 years [76]
Ermanaric[an] Oium (Ukraine) 296 (disputed) 376 80 years [77]
Hanayos Hariphunchai (Thailand) 669 (disputed)[ao] 749 [78]
Kaba Seyon Limu-'Enarya (Ethiopia) 1450 1530
Raja Sawai Basavalinga I Rajendra Udaiyar Sundem (Portuguese India) 1763 15 May 1843
Trần Minh Công Trần Lãm (Vietnam) 888 967 79 years
  An Dương Vương Âu Lạc (Vietnam) 257 BC (disputed) 179 BC (disputed) 78 years
Jangsu Goguryeo (Korea) 413 491 [74]
Ram Singh I Ramgarh Raj (India) 18 June 1459 1537 [79]
Abu'l-Jaysh Ishaq ibn Ibrahim Ziyadid dynasty (Yemen) 904 981 77 years [80]
Azmat Tallah Khan Rajouri (British India from 1712) 1683 12 November 1760 [81]
  Mirian III Kingdom of Iberia (Georgia) 284 361
Raisingh Deo Patna State (British India from 1712) 1685 1762
Chandranveta Singh Chandra dynasty (India) 234 311 [82]
Darma Raja Kedah Sultanate (Malaysia) 712 12 January 788 76 years
Mulla Ismail   Dir State
(Pakistan, British India from 1712)
1676 1752 [83]
Mohan Singh   Rajgarh State (India) 1638 14 April 1714
  Otto I[ap] Baden-Hachberg-Sausenberg
(Holy Roman Empire)
1308 1384
Jadunath Singh Mangaraj   Khandpara State (India) 1599 1675 [84]
Johann Philipp   Stadion (Holy Roman Empire) 1666 1741
Aji Raja Mahkota Mulia Alam [id] Kutai Kartanegara (Indonesia) 1525 1600 75 years
Mfon Koutou Kingdom of Bamum (Cameroon) 1682 1757
Raja Abhiram Singh   Saraikela State (British India) 1743 1818
Sauromaces I Kingdom of Iberia (Georgia) 234 BC 159 BC [86]
Sukhachain Jind State (British India from 1712) 1676 1751
Tai Wu Shang dynasty (China) 1486 BC (disputed) 1411 BC (disputed)
  Vakhtang I Gorgasali Kingdom of Iberia (Georgia) 447 522
Uthiyan Cheralathan Chera dynasty (India) 55 130 [87]
Wilhelm I Sayn-Wittgenstein (Holy Roman Empire) 1494 18 April 1568 74 years
Yo-Tha Hariphunchai (Thailand) 1197 1271 [87]
  Afonso I Henriques County of Portugal (1112–1139)
  Kingdom of Portugal (1139-1185)
1112 [aq] 6 December 1185 73 years [88][89]
Fazl Ali Khan II Bahadur   Banganapalle State
(Pakistan, British India from 1712)
1686 1759
  Gangesvara Anantvarman Chodaganga Deva Eastern Ganga (India) 1077 1150 [90]
  Tezozomoc Altepetl (Mexico) 1353 (disputed) 1426 [91]
Grigor II Syunik (Armenia) 1094 1166 72 years
Raja Sang Tawal (Abdullah)   Kelantan (Malaysia) 1267 1339 [92]
  Arwa al-Sulayhi Sulayhid Sultanate (Yemen) 1067 5 May 1138 71 years [93]
Heinrich VIII Fürstenberg-Wolfach (Holy Roman Empire) Late 1419 30 November 1490
Poppo IX   Henneberg-Aschach (Holy Roman Empire) 1292 1363
Simon I   County of Lippe (Holy Roman Empire) 1273 10 August 1344
Johann Ulrich   Stadion (Holy Roman Empire) 1530 1600 70 years
Mihirakula Gonanditya (India) 735 BC 665 BC
Muhtarram Shah Kator I   Chitral State (Pakistan) 1585 1655
Niandfo the Great Oubritenga (Nigeria) 1441 1511 [94]
Pratap Manikya I Twipra Kingdom (India) 1280 1350
Pandukabhaya of Anuradhapura Kingdom of Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) 437 BC 367 BC [95]
  Shapur II[ar] Sasanian Empire (Iran) 309 379
Tshudpud Namgyal Kingdom of Sikkim[as] 1793 1863
Jai Chandra Katoch Lambagraon-Kangra (British Raj) 1864 1933 69 years
Gerlach IV Isenburg-Grenzau (1220-1258)
Isenburg-Limburg (1258-1289)
(Holy Roman Empire)
1220 1289 [96]
  Henry VI County of Gorizia (Holy Roman Empire) 6 May 1385 1454
Huan State of Qi (China) 636 BC 567 BC [97]
  Sultan Deria Hassan   Isaaq Sultanate
(British Somaliland from 1884)
1870 1939 [98]
  Alberto Azzo II Margraviate of Milan and   Este
(Holy Roman Empire)
1029 20 August 1097 68 years
Bhagirathi Birabara Harichandan Talcher State (British India) 1778 1846
Debi Singh Chanderi (British India from 1712) 1646 1714
Fàn Tiānzhú Funan (Cambodia) 289 357
  Ernest II Oettingen-Wallerstein (Holy Roman Empire) 1602 1670
Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II   Kedah Sultanate (Malaysia) 1710 1778 [99]
  Hkun Ti Mongpawn (Myanmar) 1860 1928
Karma I Kingdom of Kedah (Malaysia) 512 580
Louis II   Stadion (Holy Roman Empire) 1260 1328
Malojirao III   Mudhol State (British India) 1737 1805
Sizzo II County of Schwarzburg (Holy Roman Empire) 1050 1118
Gopal Singha Dev II Mallabhum[p] Spring 1809 31 December 1876 67 years
  Osman Mahamuud/
Uthman III ibn Mahmud
  Majeerteen Sultanate
(Italian Somaliland from 1889)
1860 30 September 1927
Rawal Kehar Singh II   Jaisalmer State (India) 1335 1402
Johann III Sponheim-Starkenburg (Holy Roman Empire) 1324 1398
Man Singh, Raja of Jhabua   Jhabua State (India) 1610 1677
  Robert I[at]  Duchy of Bar (Holy Roman Empire) 1344 12 April 1411
Lạng Chượng Ngưu Hống (Vietnam) 1000 1067
Sultan Abdul Kadir Moh Aidid   Sultanate of Gowa (Indonesia) 1826 30 January 1893
Sultan Mahmud Shah II   Perak (Malaysia) 1653 1720
Eberhard I Katzenelnbogen Junior (Holy Roman Empire) 1245 1311 66 years
Henry II Isenburg-Grenzau (Holy Roman Empire) 1220 1286
Narayana Rautara Chikiti-Eastern Ganga (India) Early 1464 Mid 1530
  Ramesses II New Kingdom of Egypt 1279 BC 1213 BC
Togbi Amedor Kpegla I Anlo Ewe (Ghana) 1840 14 March 1906
  Zhao Tuo[au] Nanyue 203 BC 137 BC
Aji Raja Mahkota Mulia Alam [id] Kutai Kartanegara (Indonesia) 1545 1610 65 years
  Catherine De' Medici Auvergne (France) 1524 5 January 1589
  Dayang Kalangitan Pasig (Metro Manila, Philippines) 1450 1515
Haydar Mohammad Khan Bahadur Pathari State[p] 1794 29 December 1859
Matilda I Nevers (France) 1192 1257
Raja Miyan Syed Nuruddin Ali Tarakote Raj[p] 1804 21 January 1869
Nandivarman II Pallava Empire (India) 731 796
  Pharnavaz I Kingdom of Iberia (Georgia) 299 BC 234 BC
Sagramji I Kumbhoji   Gondal State (British India from 1712) 1648 1713
Raja Ashoka Challa Khasa-Malla (India) 1222 1287
  Amoghavarsha Rashtrakuta Empire (India) 814 878 64 years
Dharma Brihadratha (India) 1107 BC 1043 BC
Harisingh Vidyadhara   Dhenkanal State (India) 1530 1594
Henry VI   Henneberg-Aschach-Römhild
(Holy Roman Empire)
1292 1356
Friedrich IV County of Castell (Holy Roman Empire) 1285 1349
Inere Ughelli (Nigeria) 1460 1524
Khuman III Udaipur State (India) 878 942
Srutasravas Brihadratha (India) 1603 BC 1539 BC
Subrata Brihadratha (India) 1171 BC 1107 BC
Zhao Song State (China) 468 BC 404 BC
Zhuang I State of Qi (China) 794 BC 730 BC
Bagauda / Yakano Kingdom of Kano (Nigeria) 998 / 999 1063 / 1064 63 years [av]
Andrew I Vitré (France) 1072 1135
Danarnava Eastern Ganga (India) 589 Summer 652
Fahrettin Behramşah Mengüjek (Turkey) 1162 1225
  Frederick I   Zollern (Holy Roman Empire) 1062 1124
Ganapati Deva Kakatiya Dynasty (India) 1199 1262
Hamirji Kutch (India) 1472 1535 [103]
Maharana Bhimdev Harisinhji Sahib   Kingdom of Rajpipla (India) 1463 1526
Ngawang Tashi Drakpa Phagmodrupa dynasty of Tibet (China) 1499, 1554 1556, 1564
Mahmud III Mali Empire 1496 1559
Naba Zombré Wogodogo (Nigeria) 1681 1744
Philip Isenburg-Büdingen-Birstein (Holy Roman Empire) 1533 1596
Pradip Shah   Garhwal Kingdom
(  British India from 1712)
1709 28 December 1772
Raimund II Principality of Orange (Holy Roman Empire) 1319 1382
Rudolf I Bregenz-Chur-Lower Raetia (Holy Roman Empire) 1097 1160
Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi   Sharjah and Ras Al Khaimah (United Arab Emirates) 1803 10 September 1866
Sripurusha Western Ganga (India) 725 788
Jayavarman VIII Khmer Empire (Cambodia) 1232 1295
Johann Gerhard Manderscheid-Gerolstein-Bettingen (Holy Roman Empire) 1648 1711
Raja Vaka Gonanditya (India) 665 BC 602 BC
Vijaya Sena Sena dynasty (India) 1096 1159
Abdul Jalilul Akbar   Brunei 1597 1659 62 years
Bhola Bhima II Gurjaradesa (India) 1178 1240
Charles Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen
(Holy Roman Empire)
1741 1803
Georg II Montfort-Pfannberg (Holy Roman Empire) 1482 1544
Henry I Isenburg-Grenzau (Holy Roman Empire) 1158 1220
  Joseph Wilhelm Ernst[aw] Fürstenberg-Fürstenberg (Holy Roman Empire) 1700 1762
Kaloji I Panchanji Dhrol (India) 1644 1706
King Oldman Miskito Nation (Nicaragua and Honduras) 1625 1687
Madhaba Rautara Chikiti-Eastern Ganga (India) 997 1059
Oubri Oubritenga (Nigeria) 1182 1244
Phạm Phòng Át Phạm Bạch Hổ (Vietnam) 910 972
Prithvi Shah   Garhwal Kingdom (India) 1552 9 January 1614
Askia Hanga the Great Dendi State (Niger) 1700 1761 61 years
Bhavsinhji I Ratanji   Bhavnagar State (British India from 1712) 1703 1764
Chera Udaya Martanda Varma Venadu Chera (India) 1383 1444
Cleomenes II Sparta (Greece) 370 BC 309 BC
Donnchadh MacMurrough Kavanagh Laighin (Ireland) 1417 1478
Francis William Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedbur
(Holy Roman Empire)
1673 1734
Hyeokgeose Geoseogan Silla (Korea) 57 BC 4
Leon II Abasgia (767-778), Abkhazia (778-828) 767 828
Moritz Kasimir I Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda
(Holy Roman Empire)
1707 1768
Nguyễn Thái Bình Nguyễn Khoan (Vietnam) 906 967
Peter II   Urgell (Catalonia, Spain) 1347 31 June 1408
Orontes III Armenia 321 BC 260 BC
Otto I Solms-Braunfels (Holy Roman Empire) 1349 1410
Rao Shri Vijayraj Singh Sirohi (India) 1250 1311
Ravi Varma Chera Venadu Chera (India) 1252 1313
Winnemar Manderscheid (Holy Roman Empire) 1206 1267
Adesida I Kingdom of Akure (Nigeria) 22 June 1897 1957 60 years
Aescwine Kingdom of Essex (Wales) 527 587
Ali ibn Dawud I Kilwa Sultanate(Tanzania) 1023 1083
Aji Maharaja Sultan [id] Kutai Kartanegara (Indonesia) 1360 1420
Aksha Gonanditya (India) 460 BC 400 BC
Avinita Western Ganga (India) 469 529
  Cleopatra II Ptolemaic Egypt 175 BC 115 BC
Cynan Garwyn Kingdom of Powys (Wales) 550 610
Kotokuhene Nana Attafua Akyem Kotoku (Ghana) 1867 25 September 1927
Padam Singh Bundela Jigni State (British India) 1730 1790
Durbar Raja I Kingdom of Kedah (Malaysia) 330 390
Dhāravarṣa Chandravati (India) 1160 1220
Friedrich I Salm-Blankenburg (Holy Roman Empire) 1210 1270
Gerhard I Schwarzburg–Hallermund (Holy Roman Empire) 1266 1326
Gopaditya Gonanditya (India) 400 BC December 340 BC
Gopinath Birabara Harichandan   Talcher State (India) 1651 1711
Gusti Ngurah Agung II Tabanan (Dutch East Indies) Mid 1843 21 November 1903
Heinrich II Salm-Blankenburg (Holy Roman Empire) 1301 1361
  Hiero II Syracuse (Sicily, Italy) 275 BC 215 BC
Hiranyakula Gonanditya (India) 855 795
  Khingila Alchon Huns (India) 430 490
Krishna Chandra Mardraj Harichandan[104] Nilagiri State[p] 1833 1893
Kualii Kauaʻi (Hawaii, United States) 1670 1730
Ludwig Salm-Blankenburg (Holy Roman Empire) 1443 1503
  Matilda Margraviate of Tuscany
(Holy Roman Empire De jure)
1055 23 July 1115
Mayadunne Kingdom of Sitawaka (Sri Lanka) 1521 1581
Mölambo Bubi Kingdom (Nigeria) 1700 1760
Mutasiva Anuradhapura Kingdom (Sri Lanka) 367 BC 307 BC
Nara II Gonanditya (India) 520 BC 460 BC
Pawl Kingdom of Glywysing (Wales) 480 540
  Phromkuman Singhanavati (Thailand) 1029 1089
Pravarsena I the Great Vakataka (India) 275 335
Sejakji, Thakore Sahib of Sejakpur Sejakpur, Jhalawar (India) 1194 1254
Siddha Gonanditya (India) 983 923
Sophie County of Bar (Holy Roman Empire) 1033 1093
  Sri Pravarasena II Alchon Huns (India) 530 590
Vanaraja Chavada/Anahilawada (India) 846 906
Vanghoji II Rao Phaltan State (India) 1570 1630
Vasukula Mukula Gonanditya (India) 795 BC 735 BC
Bhaskara Ravi Manukuladithya Kodungallur Chera (India) 962 1021 59 years
Bu Jiang Xia dynasty (China) 1890 BC 1831 BC
David I Anhoghin Tashir-Dzoraget (Armenia) 989 1048
Eberhard IV Werdenberg-Trochtelfingen
(Holy Roman Empire)
October 1416 Winter 1475
  Himiko Yamatai (Japan) 189 248
Hu State of Chen (China) 1045 BC 986 BC
Gerlach II Isenburg-Covern (Holy Roman Empire) 1158 1217
  John the Magnificent Poitou (France) 1357 15 June 1416
Muhammad Bayazid Khan Bahadur Jagir of Maler (1600–1657)
Malerkotla State (1657–1659) (India)
1600 1659
Nawab Asad Ali Khan Basoda State[p] 1800
11 May 1822[ax]
1817
22 May 1864
Nguyễn Lệnh công/ Vũ Ninh vương[ay] Nguyễn Thủ Tiệp (Vietnam) 908 967
Konrad I the Scheerer Tübingen (Holy Roman Empire) 1317 1376
Otto I Salm-Kyrburg (Holy Roman Empire) 1548 7 June 1607
Raja Adesinhji I Bhaderwah (British India) 1722 1781
Renaud II, Count of Orange Principality of Orange (Holy Roman Empire) 1062 1121
  Sri Tegin Shah Turk Shahis/Kabul Shahis (Afghanistan) Autumn 680 739
William III County of Toulouse (France) 978 30 September 1037
William IV Jülich (Holy Roman Empire) 1219 1278
Dridhasena Brihadratha (India) 970 BC 912 BC 58 years
  Gomani II Phillip[az] Maseko (Malawi) 1896 12 May 1954
Guled Abdi Isaaq Sultanate (Somaliland) 1750 1808
  Harald I Fairhair   Norway 872 930
  Henry II Baden-Hachberg (Holy Roman Empire) 1231 1289
Henry IV Henneberg-Schleusingen (Holy Roman Empire) 1347 1405
Mwezi IV Gisabo Kingdom of Burundi[ba] 1850 1908
Nan Zhou dynasty (China) 314 BC 256 BC
Rudolf II Sargans-Werdenberg (Holy Roman Empire) 1264 30 December 1322
Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan Chera Dynasty (India) 130 188
Jadumani Rautara Chikiti-Eastern Ganga (India) Winter 1633 31 December 1691
Jayaba Mukne Jawhar State (India) 1307 1365
King Obunumankoma Bono-Tekyiman (Ghana) 1363 1431
Muhammad Shafi Ud-Din II Sultanate of Sambas (Borneo) 1866 1924
Mulraj II Jaisalmer (British India) 1762 1820
Rajapala Gurjara-Pratihara (India) 960 1018
Ramasimhadeva Karnata (India) 1227 1285
Rawat Shri Suraj Mal Sahib Devgarh (India) 1473 1531
  Rudolph I Saxe-Wittenberg (Holy Roman Empire) 1298 12 March 1356
Suchi Brihadratha (India) 1257 BC 1199 BC
Somadhi Brihadratha (India) 1661 BC 1603 BC
Sukshatra Brihadratha (India) 1463 BC 1405 BC
Tuoba Liwei/Emperor Shenyuan Tuoba Clan (China) 219 277
Yusa Kingdom of Kano (Nigeria) 1036 1194 [101][102]
Adolf Ludwig Wilhelm Sayn-Wittgenstein-Karlsburg (Holy Roman Empire) 1749 1806 57 years
Balabhadra Rautara Chikiti-Eastern Ganga (India) 840 897
Bajradhar Narendra Ranpur (India) 1842 July 12, 1899
Bernhard I Bentheim-Bentheim (Holy Roman Empire) 1364 1421
Qara Yuluk Uthman Beg Aq Qoyunlu (Iran) 1378 1435
Birakesari Deva I Bhagirathi Deva Khurda Kingdom (British India) 1736 1793
Deria Sugulle Ainanshe Habr Yunis Sultanate (Somaliland) 1797 1854
Gokarna Gonanditya (India) December 340 Early 282
Jaswant Singh Nabha (British India) 1783 22 May 1840
Jing Qi (China) 547 BC 490 BC
John Waldburg-Waldsee (Holy Roman Empire) 1667 1724
John II Auxerre (France) 1304 1361
  Pharasmanes I the Great Kingdom of Iberia (Georgia) 1 58
Prithvi Chand Baghal State (British India from 1712) 1670 1727
Kori Oyo Empire (Nigeria) 1300 1357
  Mithridates VI Pontus (Turkey) 120 BC 63 BC
Nasir al-Din Muhammad Mihrabanid dynasty 1261 1318
Maredudd ap Tewdws Kingdom of Dyfed (Wales) 740 797
  Sargon Akkadian Empire(Iraq) 2272 BC 2215 BC
Sheikh Hamad bin Abdullah Al Sharqi Emirate of Fujairah (United Arab Emirates) 1879 31 December 1936
Sourigna Vongsa Lan Xang (Laos) 1637 1694
  Orontes I Armenia 401 BC 344 BC
  Vseslav II Bryachislavich[bb] Polotsk (Belarus) 1044 1101
Yi Hham Hka Kengtung (Myanmar) 1403 1460
Zhaoxiang Qin (China) 307 BC 250 BC
Abas I Tashir-Dzoraget (Armenia) 989 1045 56 Years
Berthold IV Henneberg-Schleusingen (Holy Roman Empire) 1284 1340
Bhup Singh Nalagarh State (British India from 1712) 1705 1761
Eberhard III Nordgau (Holy Roman Empire) 864 920
  Genghis Khan Khamag Mongol (1171–1206)

Mongol Empire (1206–1227)

1171 25 August 1227
  Gruffudd ap Cynan Gwynedd (Wales) 1081 1137
Harendra Narayan Cooch Behar State (British India) 1783 1839
Idris Ibn Abi Bakr Dar Qimr [ca] (Sudan) 1879 1935
Mun Balhae (Korea) 737 793
Nripati Beta I Garuda Kakatiya Dynasty (India) 995 1051
Prithvisimhji Gajsinhji Danta State (British India from 1712) 1687 1743
Qasim Yaqut Khan Jafarabad State (British India from 1712) 1678 1734
Sartanji II Vikmatji Porbandar State (British India) 1757 1813
Sultan Mustafa Kota Pinang (Dutch Indonesia from 1816) 1815 28 August 1871
Theodoric III County of Montbéliard (Holy Roman Empire) 1227 1283

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Queen Elizabeth II was also the Queen of Ceylon since her accession in 1952, until Ceylon became a republic on 22 May 1972.
    The following states were British dominions at the start of Queen Elizabeth II's reign in 1952, but became republics during her reign;
    •   Pakistan (became a republic on 23 March 1956.)
    •   South Africa (became a republic on 31 May 1961.)

    The following states were not sovereign at the start of Queen Elizabeth II's reign in 1952, but became sovereign and later became republics during her reign;
    •   Ghana (became sovereign on 6 March 1957 and became a republic on 1 July 1961.)
    •   Nigeria (became sovereign on 1 October 1960 and became a republic on 1 October 1963.)
    •   Sierra Leone (became sovereign on 27 April 1961 and became a republic on 19 April 1971.)
    •   Tanganyika (became sovereign on 9 December 1961 and became a republic on 9 December 1962.)
    •   Trinidad and Tobago (became sovereign on 31 August 1962 and became a republic on 1 August 1976.)
    •   Uganda (became sovereign on 9 October 1962 and became a republic on 9 October 1963.)
    •   Kenya (became sovereign on 12 December 1963 and became a republic on 12 December 1964.)
    •   Malawi (became sovereign on 6 July 1964 and became a republic on 6 July 1966.)
    •   Malta (became sovereign on 21 September 1964 and became a republic on 13 December 1974.)
    •   The Gambia (became sovereign on 18 February 1965 and became a republic on 24 April 1970.)
    •   Guyana (became sovereign on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970.)
    •   Barbados (became sovereign on 30 November 1966 and became a republic on 30 November 2021.)
    •   Mauritius (became sovereign on 12 March 1968 and became a republic on 12 March 1992.)
    •   Fiji (became sovereign on 10 October 1970 and became a republic on 6 October 1987.)

    The following states were not sovereign at the start of Queen Elizabeth II's reign in 1952, but became sovereign during her reign;
  2. ^ Length of reign applies to the independent states that have remained monarchies since her accession: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and United Kingdom.
  3. ^ In the Maya calendar, acceded 9.9.2.4.8, 5 Lamat 1 Mol; died 9.12.11.5.18, 6 Etz'nab 11 Yax. Long Count dates are converted using the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation and the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar.[7] His enthronement and death are alternatively dated to 26 July 615 and 28 August 683.[8]
  4. ^ In the Maya calendar, acceded 9.9.14.17.5, 6 Chikchan 18 K'ayab; died 9.13.3.5.7, 12 Manik' 0 Yaxk'in. His enthronement and death are alternatively dated to 15 February 628 and 15 June 695.[11][12]
  5. ^ Served as Regent for his father Emperor Taishō, from 29 November 1921 until his formal accession.
  6. ^ Longest de jure ruler of China, although the Qianlong Emperor held longer de facto power.
  7. ^ Sometimes called "Itzamnaaj Bahlam II",[11] or "Shield Jaguar".[12]
  8. ^ In the Maya calendar, acceded 9.12.9.8.1 5 Imix 4 Mak; died 9.15.10.17.14 6 Ix 12 Yaxk'in.[11]
  9. ^ In the Maya calendar, acceded 9.14.13.4.17 12 Kab'an 5 K'ayab'; died 9.17.14.13.2 11 Ik 5 Yax. His dates are alternatively given as 29 December 724 and 27 July 785.[11]
  10. ^ Longest de facto ruler of China, although the Kangxi Emperor held longer de jure power.
  11. ^ Abdicated, but maintained de facto power as Retired Emperor until 7 February 1799.
  12. ^ Great Britain and Ireland were joined as the United Kingdom effective 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800.
  13. ^ In the Islamic calendar, acceded on 15th Shaban 427; died 18th Zilhaja 487.[29] His death date is sometimes given as 6 January 1095,[29] but most sources give 29 December 1094.[30][31][32]
  14. ^ The death of Rudolph II, Conrad's predecessor, is variously given as 11, 12 or 13 July.[36][37]
  15. ^ He was proclaimed king at the age of four months, and his grandmother, Labotsibeni Mdluli, acted as regent until 22 December 1921 and then formally transferred all monarchial power to Sobhuza II. Some sources take the date of succession as the date on which his grandmother handed over the royal duties to him, not when he was proclaimed king. Swaziland became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n British India until 1858, British Raj from 1858.
  17. ^ Heinrich XI succeeded to the throne as Count of Reuss-Obergreiz in 1723 on the death of his brother, Heinrich IX (all male members of the family were named Heinrich in order of birth, even across cousins). In 1778 he became the first Prince of Reuss Elder Line.
  18. ^ Holy Roman Empire until 1806,from 1815 part of the German Confederation.
  19. ^ Ruled as Count until 1807, as Prince thereafter.
  20. ^ Count John Louis was born after the death of his father Count Johann II on 25 July 1472; he succeeded to the throne at birth.
  21. ^ Acceded to the Union of India on 15 August 1947. Merged Kapurthala into the Patiala and Eastern Punjab States Union (PEPSU) on 5 May 1948, relinquished his sovereign powers with effect from 20 August.[47] Rajpramukh of the PEPSU from 5 May 1948 until his death on 17 June 1949
  22. ^ Holy Roman Empire until 1806, from 1815 part of the German Confederation.
  23. ^ Holy Roman Empire until 1806,from 1815 part of the German Confederation.
  24. ^ From 1640 he also ruled Schaumburg-Lippe
  25. ^ Eleanor was Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, although medieval law dictated that her various husbands (Louis VII of France, Henry II of England) and sons (Richard I and John of England) reign with her jointly.
  26. ^ Merged his state into the United State of Kathiawad on 15 February 1948, but lived until 28 June 1954.
  27. ^ Frederick Augustus I was known as Frederick Augustus III before 1806.
  28. ^ Holy Roman Empire until 1806,from 1815 part of the German Confederation.
  29. ^ British protectorate from 1880
  30. ^ Was forced to abdicate by the British in 1923 but the Bahrinis did not recognize this and considered him the rightful monarch until 1932.
  31. ^ Holy Roman Empire until 1806,from 1815 part of the German Confederation.
  32. ^ Philipp II ruled as co-ruler with his brother till 1442 when they divided their inheritances.
  33. ^ After 1671 Christian also ruled Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld after that line went extinct.
  34. ^ Ulrich V was Count of all Württemberg until its partition between Württemberg-Urach and Württemberg-Stuttgart in 1442. He continued as Count of the latter branch until his death in 1480.
  35. ^ Acceded to the Union of India on 14 August 1947, but retained sovereignty over his state until his death on 31 March 1948
  36. ^ Pepi II's figure has been disputed by some Egyptologists who favour a shorter reign length of 64 years, given the absence of attested dates known for Pepi after his 31st Count, which would equate to 62 years assuming the count to be biennial. Others point, however, to the consistency between the existing historical sources all crediting Pepi with over 90 years of reign. Finally, the lack of evidence beyond his 62nd year does not preclude a much longer reign, especially in view of the decay of the Egyptian state into the chaos of the First Intermediate Period at the end of Pepi's reign.
  37. ^ A dispute exists concerning when Taejo's reign ended. Lower estimates suggest 121–145 and higher ones up to 167 but the most widely believed one is 146 since Korean historians claim that he died in that year.
  38. ^ 121 CE is another possible accepted date of Taejo's end reign
  39. ^ While the chronology of his reign is disputed, his existence is generally accepted by most historians.
  40. ^ Some sources just give 80 years of lifespan not reign and Chronology disputed
  41. ^ Other sources put his start date as 679 or 689.
  42. ^ During his lifetime, Otto I had many co-monarchs, including his father Rudolph IV, who made him ruler in 1308; he also ruled with his brother Henry IV until he died in 1318, as well as his brother Rudolph VI, who died in 1352.
  43. ^ In Co-Reign with his Mother until 1128
  44. ^ Shapur II was crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king; the government was conducted by his mother and the magnates.
  45. ^ Dominated by Nepal until 1816 and then by the British.
  46. ^ Robert I was in co-rule with his step-brother Edward II until 1352
  47. ^ Historians debate whether he was a Chinese or Vietnamese ruler (named Triệu Vũ Đế))
  48. ^ [100][101][102]
  49. ^ In Co-Reign with his father until 1704
  50. ^ Had a interruption between 1818 and 1822 but later regained it in 1822, counting both of his periods he had a reign of 59 years.
  51. ^ Disputed name or ruler has two names.
  52. ^ He had Regents until 1921.
  53. ^ Part of German East Africa from 1890.
  54. ^ He also ruled Russia for a brief period between 1068 and 1069.

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