PolyGram Filmed Entertainment

PolyGram Filmed Entertainment (formerly known as Filmworks, Casablanca Records & Filmworks, PolyGram Films and PolyGram Pictures or simply PFE) was a film production company founded in 1975 as an American film studio, which became a European competitor to Hollywood within two decades, but was eventually sold to Seagram Company Ltd. in 1998 and was folded a year later. Among its most successful and well known films were The Deep (1977), Midnight Express (1978), An American Werewolf in London (1981), Flashdance (1983), Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994), Dead Man Walking (1995), The Big Lebowski (1998), Fargo (1996), The Usual Suspects (1995), The Game (1997), Barney's Great Adventure (1998) and Notting Hill (1999).

PolyGram Filmed Entertainment
FormerlyFilmworks (1975–1976)
Casablanca Record & Filmworks (1976–1980)
PolyGram Pictures (1980–1983)
Company typeSubsidiary
PredecessorCasablanca Filmworks
Founded1975; 49 years ago (1975)
FoundersPeter Guber
Defunct1999; 25 years ago (1999)
FateAcquired by Seagram and folded into Universal Pictures
Some of its North American distribution assets sold to USA Networks
SuccessorsStudio:
Universal Pictures
USA Films
Focus Features
PolyGram Entertainment
Library:
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(pre-April 1996 films with exceptions)
Universal Pictures
(post-March 1996 films with exceptions and some pre-March 1996 films)
Owner
Parent
  • PolyGram (1980–1998)
  • Universal Pictures (1998–1999)
DivisionsPolyGram Television
PolyGram Video

Overview edit

In 1975, Peter Guber formed its own production company FilmWorks, then in 1976, it became Casablanca Records & FilmWorks after a merger with Casablanca Records, which PolyGram got a 50% by 1977, and by 1980, PolyGram took the other 50% stake in the company and renamed the film unit as PolyGram Pictures.

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, PolyGram continued to invest in a diversified film unit with the purchases of individual production companies. In 1995, PolyGram purchased ITC Entertainment for $156 million.

In May 1998, PolyGram was sold to Seagram, which owned Universal Pictures and Universal Music Group (UMG), for $10 billion. Seagram sold off some of PolyGram's assets while mainly acquiring its music division: the ITC Entertainment library was sold to Carlton Communications for £91 million, the pre-March 1996 PFE library was sold to MGM, and PolyGram's US distribution operation was sold to USA Network.

After many of its assets were sold, the remains of PolyGram's film division were folded into Universal Pictures. When the newly formed entertainment division of Seagram faced financial difficulties, it was sold to Vivendi, and MCA became known as Universal Studios, as Seagram ceased to exist.

Vivendi remained the majority owner of the UMG until 2021, when it sold most of its stake. MGM owns the rights to most of the pre-April 1996 library, and the remaining post-March 1996 film and television library is owned by NBCUniversal.

In 2017, Universal Music Group established a film and television division, resurrecting the PolyGram Entertainment name.[1]

History edit

FilmWorks, Casablanca Records & FilmWorks and PolyGram Pictures edit

In 1975, Peter Guber quit Columbia Pictures to start out FilmWorks with a producing deal. A year later, during the production of The Deep, it was merged with Casablanca Records to form Casablanca Records & FilmWorks.[2] The company would enjoy success with The Deep and Midnight Express. The music company PolyGram (owned by Dutch-based Philips and Germany's Siemens) bought out its share of Casablanca Records & FilmWorks in 1977. Two years later, in 1979, Casablanca Record & Filmworks left Columbia Pictures to join Universal Pictures, and gave Casablanca Records & Filmworks creative control over the pictures.[3] A year later, PolyGram took on its stake of the company and it was renamed to PolyGram Pictures in 1980.[4] PolyGram reserved the finances and Guber would run as CEO. Guber would form a partnership with Barbra Streisand's hairdresser Jon Peters, who co-produced his client's A Star Is Born remake. Peters would produce PolyGram's films, and eventually become a stockholder with Guber.[5] He had intended to work with Boardwalk Records, but he was forced to join PolyGram Pictures instead.[6][7][3]

Its first film under the Universal/PolyGram alliance was King of the Mountain (1981), which was a box-office flop. More money-losers followed. Ancillary markets such as home video and pay television were not yet established, and broadcast television networks were paying less for licenses to films. PolyGram's European investors were not happy; they had lost about $80 million on its film division. Not long after, Siemens parted with Philips. Guber and Peters left PolyGram Pictures in 1982, taking their plans for a new Batman movie with them, along with a few other projects. The duo eventually found a home at Warner Bros. A part of their exit proceedings, PolyGram would still own 7.5% of profits from some of its projects, including the 1989 Batman film.[5] Also in 1980, PolyGram launched a syndicated television division PolyGram Television, to be headed by former Columbia Pictures Television syndication executive Norman Horowitz,[8] both the film and TV units eventually closed down by 1983 after a string of first-run syndication strip flops.[9]

PolyGram Filmed Entertainment edit

In the early 1980s, PolyGram Video was launched. PolyGram Video, headed by Michael Kuhn and David Hockman, was created to distribute concert films and feature films acquired from third-parties, as well as long-form music videos, and even had a video label, originally set up as a joint venture with Heron Communications, that was called Channel 5 Video.[10] Kuhn and Hockman were able to parlay PolyGram Video's success into financing feature films. The first film produced by PolyGram's new film division was P.I. Private Investigations in 1987.[11] During the late 1980s and early 1990s, PolyGram continued to invest in a diversified film unit with the purchases of individual production companies.[12] In 1989, PolyGram launched Manifesto Film Sales to handle the licensing of films outside North America.[13] In 1991, PolyGram's Michael Kuhn became the head of PolyGram Filmed Entertainment,[12] with US$200 million pumped in with the intention of developing a European film studio that could produce and distribute films internationally on a scale to match the major Hollywood studios.

Following the style of its music business, the company produced films through a number of creatively semi-autonomous 'labels', such as Working Title Films in the UK and Propaganda Films and Interscope Communications in the United States; it also built up its own network of distribution companies.

Film production within PolyGram differed from traditional Hollywood studios, in that power to make ('green light') a film was not centralised in the hands of a small number of executives, but instead was decided by negotiations between producers, management and marketing. Kuhn claimed that "movies sort of green lit themselves."

In 1993, PolyGram purchased the video arm of Virgin Group from General Electric Capital for $5.6 million and remodeled the label as Vision Video Ltd.

PolyGram also built up a sizable film and television library that could be profitable. In 1995, the company purchased ITC Entertainment for $156 million.[14] Through this purchase, PolyGram acquired 350 feature films, several thousand hours of television programming, and gained further access into the television market.[12] That same year, PolyGram Filmed Entertainment acquired a 75% majority stake in British home video distributor Abbey Home Entertainment. In 1997, PFE agreed to purchase the Epic film library, which included a thousand feature films, from Crédit Lyonnais for $225 million.[15] PolyGram also attempted purchasing MGM[16] and The Samuel Goldwyn Company's library,[17] but to no avail. In July 1998, Polygram was in talks to sell their stake in Abbey Home Entertainment back to Ian and Anne Miles, letting AHE trade independently again. On December 7, 1997, PolyGram and Warner Bros. reached a deal to co-finance films produced by Castle Rock Entertainment.[18]

PFE's film distribution arm was based in the United Kingdom, and invested heavily in British film making — some credit it with reviving the British film industry in the 1990s. Despite a successful production history, Philips decided to sell PolyGram to the beverage conglomerate Seagram in 1998.

Only interested in PolyGram's music operations, Seagram, which at the time controlled Universal Pictures, looked forward to divesting in PFE. After being dissatisfied with offers to buy the studio (including a joint venture between Canal+ and Artisan Entertainment), Seagram opted to sell off individual assets and folded whatever remained into Universal.[19] In October 1998, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)[20] paid $235–250 million to acquire 1,300 films released before March 31, 1996, from PolyGram.[21] In 1999, the ITC library was sold to Carlton Communications (later known as ITV Studios) for $150 million.[22] Some of PFE's North American distribution assets were sold to USA Network.[23] Universal would later take over the remaining titles, which included a third of the pre-April 1996 films, as well as PolyGram Television's library. Universal would eventually set up their international arm on the ashes of PFE's international division on February 9, 1999, that included theatrical and video distribution when its contracts with United International Pictures and CIC Video expired.[24] After the box office failure of Mickey Blue Eyes, a title inherited from PolyGram that became one of the few titles that were self-distributed by Universal internationally, all the theatrical assets of Universal Pictures International were merged with United International Pictures, which continued to exist until 2007.[25]

PolyGram Video took over the distribution of Manga Entertainment's titles in Australia and New Zealand in late 1996 after Siren Entertainment's license to the Manga Video catalog expired, but PolyGram lost the license to the Manga Video catalog in 1998 after Madman Entertainment took over the licenses. This was due to Manga Entertainment being moved from Island Records to Palm Pictures.

Relaunch as PolyGram Entertainment edit

Production companies edit

US distribution edit

In 1992, PolyGram partnered with Universal Pictures to create a joint venture called Gramercy Pictures. Gramercy primarily distributed PolyGram films in the United States, and it doubled as a specialty label for Universal. In January 1996, PolyGram bought out Universal[27] and in 1997, PolyGram Films was founded to release PFE's mainstream titles in the United States, while Gramercy became a low-budget/art-house sublabel.[28][29] PolyGram Films' first release was The Game.[29][27] After PolyGram's merger with Universal in 1999, the company merged Gramercy with October Films, which included its subsidiary Rogue Pictures[30] to create USA Films, which eventually became Focus Features. Gramercy was revived in 2015 as a label of Focus Features,[31] but shut down and went dormant the next year.

Selected films edit

Among the films directly produced by PFE were:

1970s edit

Release Date Title Notes
17 June 1977 The Deep co-production with Columbia Pictures and EMI Films
19 May 1978 Thank God It's Friday co-production with Columbia Pictures and Motown Productions
6 October 1978 Midnight Express co-production with Columbia Pictures
9 February 1979 Agatha co-production with First Artists and Warner Bros.

1980s edit

Release Date Title Notes
29 February 1980 Foxes co-production with United Artists
30 May 1980 The Hollywood Knights co-production with Columbia Pictures
1 May 1981 King of the Mountain co-production with Universal Pictures
17 July 1981 Endless Love co-production with Universal Pictures
14 August 1981 Deadly Blessing distributed by United Artists
21 August 1981 An American Werewolf in London co-production with Universal Pictures
13 November 1981 The Pursuit of D. B. Cooper co-production with Universal Pictures
12 March 1982 Missing co-production with Universal Pictures
3 October 1982 Split Image distributed by Orion Pictures
24 December 1982 Six Weeks co-production with Universal Pictures
15 April 1983 Flashdance co-production with Paramount Pictures
13 December 1985 A Chorus Line co-production with Columbia Pictures and Embassy Pictures
Clue co-production with Paramount Pictures
05 June 1987 P.I. Private Investigations co-production with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
22 April 1988 The Blue Iguana co-production with Paramount Pictures
24 March 1989 Troop Beverly Hills co-production with Weintraub Entertainment Group
23 June 1989 Batman co-production with Warner Bros. and The Guber-Peters Company
27 October 1989 Kill Me Again co-production with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
8 December 1989 Fear, Anxiety & Depression co-production with The Samuel Goldwyn Company

1990s edit

Release Date Title Notes
27 July 1990 Chicago Joe and the Showgirl co-production with New Line Cinema and Working Title Films
17 August 1990 Wild at Heart co-production with The Samuel Goldwyn Company
14 September 1990 Fools of Fortune co-production with New Line Cinema
24 May 1991 Drop Dead Fred co-production with New Line Cinema and Working Title Films
21 August 1991 Barton Fink distributed by 20th Century Fox; co-production with Working Title Films
15 November 1991 Driving Me Crazy co-production with Motion Picture Corporation of America
17 January 1992 A Gnome Named Gnorm co-production with Vestron Pictures
27 March 1992 Ruby co-production with Triumph Films
15 May 1992 Rubin & Ed co-production with Working Title Films
19 June 1992 Batman Returns distributed by Warner Bros.; co-production with DC Comics, Tim Burton Productions and De Novi Pictures
7 August 1992 London Kills Me distributed by New Line Cinema; co-production with Fine Line Features
4 September 1992 Bob Roberts distributed by Paramount Pictures; co-production with Miramax Films, Live Entertainment and Working Title Films
16 October 1992 Candyman distributed by Sony Pictures Releasing; co-production with TriStar Pictures and Propaganda Films
23 April 1993 Map of the Human Heart distributed by Miramax Films; co-production with Working Title Films
14 May 1993 Posse distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films (owned by MGM)
20 August 1993 The Ballad of Little Jo distributed by Fine Line Features
3 September 1993 Kalifornia distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Propaganda Films (owned by MGM)
1 October 1993 Malice distributed by Sony Pictures Releasing; co-production with Columbia Pictures, New Line Cinema, Castle Rock Entertainment and Nelvana
8 October 1993 The Young Americans distributed by Live Entertainment; co-production with Working Title Films
5 November 1993 A Home of Our Own distributed by Gramercy Pictures (owned by MGM)
7 January 1994 The Air Up There distributed by Hollywood Pictures; co-production with Interscope Communications (owned by Disney)
4 February 1994 Romeo Is Bleeding distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
Most 1994–95 PolyGram films currently owned by MGM unless mentioned otherwise
9 March 1994 Four Weddings and a Funeral distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films and Channel Four Films
11 March 1994 The Hudsucker Proxy distributed by Warner Bros.; co-production with Working Title Films and Silver Pictures (co-owned by Warner Bros. and Universal)
8 April 1994 Holy Matrimony distributed by Buena Vista Pictures; co-production with Hollywood Pictures and Interscope Communications
Red Rock West distributed by Roxie Releasing (theatrical), Columbia TriStar Home Video (home video); co-production with Propaganda Films
15 April 1994 Backbeat distributed by Gramercy Pictures (owned by Universal)
6 May 1994 Dream Lover distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Propaganda Films
18 May 1994 Final Combination co-production with Propaganda Films
15 July 1994 A Pig's Tale distributed by PolyGram Filmed Entertainment; co-production with Propaganda Films (owned by Universal)
10 August 1994 The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert distributed by Gramercy Pictures
23 September 1994 Terminal Velocity distributed by Hollywood Pictures; co-production with Interscope Communications
28 September 1994 Jason's Lyric distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Propaganda Films
16 December 1994 Nell distributed by 20th Century Fox
20 January 1995 S.F.W. distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Propaganda Films
10 February 1995 Shallow Grave distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Channel Four Films
24 February 1995 Before the Rain distributed by Gramercy Pictures
17 March 1995 Candyman: Farewell to the Flesh distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Propaganda Films
21 April 1995 The Basketball Diaries distributed by New Line Cinema; co-production with Island Pictures
3 May 1995 Panther distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
5 May 1995 French Kiss distributed by 20th Century Fox; co-production with Working Title Films
16 June 1995 Batman Forever distributed by Warner Bros.; co-production with DC Comics and Tim Burton Productions
30 June 1995 Innocent Lies
28 July 1995 Operation Dumbo Drop distributed by Buena Vista Pictures; co-production with Walt Disney Pictures and Interscope Communications
16 August 1995 The Usual Suspects distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Bad Hat Harry Productions and Spelling Films
15 September 1995 Coldblooded distributed by IRS Media; co-production with Motion Picture Corporation of America and Propaganda Films
22 September 1995 Canadian Bacon distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Propaganda Films
29 September 1995 Moonlight and Valentino distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
3 November 1995 Home for the Holidays distributed by Paramount Pictures
10 November 1995 Carrington distributed by Gramercy Pictures
15 December 1995 Jumanji distributed by Sony Pictures Releasing; co-production with TriStar Pictures and Interscope Communications
28 December 1995 12 Monkeys distributed by Universal Pictures; co-production with Classico (owned by Universal)
29 December 1995 Dead Man Walking distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
29 December 1995 Mr. Holland's Opus distributed by Buena Vista Pictures; co-production with Hollywood Pictures and Interscope Communications
9 February 1996 Loch Ness distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
23 February 1996 La Haine distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Le Studio Canal+ and Arte France Cinema
Most films released since this point are owned by Universal Pictures[32]
8 March 1996 Fargo distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films (owned by MGM)
22 March 1996 Jack and Sarah distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Granada Productions and Le Studio Canal+ (owned by MGM)
Land and Freedom distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
3 May 1996 Barb Wire distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Propaganda Films
31 May 1996 Eddie distributed by Hollywood Pictures; co-production with Island Pictures (co-owned by Disney and MGM)[33]
Last film in the pre-April 1996 library owned by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer via Orion Pictures
The Arrival distributed by Orion Pictures; co-production with LIVE Entertainment, Steelework Films and Interscope Communications (owned by Lionsgate)
First film in the post-March 1996 library owned by Universal Pictures
17 July 1996 Walking and Talking distributed by Miramax Films; co-production with Channel Four Films, Zenith Productions, Pandora Film, Mikado Films (France), Electric, TEAM Communications Group and Good Machine (co-owned by Miramax and Universal)
Kazaam distributed by Buena Vista Pictures; co-production with Touchstone Pictures and Interscope Communications (co-owned by Disney and Universal)
19 July 1996 Trainspotting distributed by Miramax Films; co-production with Channel Four Films
18 October 1996 Sleepers distributed by Warner Bros.; co-production with Propaganda Films (co-owned by Warner Bros. and Universal)
Jude distributed by Gramercy Pictures
24 December 1996 The Portrait of a Lady distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Propaganda Films
10 January 1997 The Relic distributed by Paramount Pictures; co-production with Tele-München Gruppe, BBC Films, Toho, Pacific Western Production, Marubeni and Cloud Nine Entertainment
29 January 1997 Gridlock'd distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Interscope Communications
14 February 1997 When We Were Kings distributed by Gramercy Pictures
7 March 1997 The Eighth Day distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
11 April 1997 Keys to Tulsa distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with ITC Entertainment (owned by ITV Studios)
9 May 1997 Twin Town distributed by Gramercy Pictures
20 June 1997 Batman & Robin distributed by Warner Bros.; co-production with DC Comics
6 August 1997 Def Jam's How to Be a Player distributed by Gramercy Pictures
24 August 1997 Snow White: A Tale of Terror co-production with Interscope Communications
12 September 1997 The Game distributed by PolyGram Films; co-production with Propaganda Films
19 September 1997 Going All the Way distributed by Gramercy Pictures
3 October 1997 The Matchmaker distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
24 October 1997 A Life Less Ordinary distributed by 20th Century Fox (co-owned by Disney and Universal)
7 November 1997 Bean distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
5 December 1997 The Borrowers distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
16 January 1998 Hard Rain distributed by Paramount Pictures; co-production with BBC Films, Mutual Film Company, Nordisk Film Production and Toho
23 January 1998 Spice World distributed by Sony Pictures Releasing; co-production with Columbia Pictures, Icon Entertainment International and Fragile Films
The Gingerbread Man distributed by PolyGram Films; co-production with Island Pictures and Enchanter Entertainment
18 February 1998 I Want You distributed by Gramercy Pictures
26 February 1998 Dead Letter Office distributed by Southern Star Entertainment
6 March 1998 The Big Lebowski distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
3 April 1998 No Looking Back distributed by Gramercy Pictures
The Proposition distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Interscope Communications
Barney's Great Adventure: The Movie distributed by PolyGram Films; co-production with Lyrick Studios
1 May 1998 Wilde UK distribution only; produced by BBC Films, Capitol Films and Pony Canyon
Go Now distributed by Gramercy Pictures
29 May 1998 The Last Days of Disco distributed by Gramercy Pictures in North America and Warner Bros. internationally;[34] co-production with Castle Rock Entertainment (co-owned by Universal and Warner Bros.)
12 June 1998 The Land Girls distributed by Gramercy Pictures
14 August 1998 Return to Paradise distributed by PolyGram Films; co-production with Propaganda Films and Tetragram
21 August 1998 Your Friends & Neighbors distributed by Gramercy Pictures
25 September 1998 Clay Pigeons distributed by Gramercy Pictures
2 October 1998 What Dreams May Come distributed by PolyGram Films; co-production with Interscope Communications
13 November 1998 Thursday distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Propaganda Films
22 November 1998 Elizabeth distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films and Channel Four Films
25 November 1998 Very Bad Things distributed by PolyGram Films; co-production with Interscope Communications
22 January 1999 The Hi-Lo Country distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
February 1999 Choke distributed by PolyGram Visual Programming; co-production with Propaganda Films
5 March 1999 Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels distributed by Gramercy Pictures; co-production with The Steve Tisch Company, SKA Films, HandMade Films and Summit Entertainment
1 April 1999 Millionaire Dogs distributed by Pop Twist Entertainment in U.S.; co-production with Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg, EIV Entertainment Invest GmbH & Company KG, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen and Benchmark Entertainment
28 May 1999 Notting Hill distributed by Universal Pictures; co-production with Working Title Films
9 July 1999 Arlington Road distributed by Sony Pictures Releasing; co-production with Screen Gems and Lakeshore Entertainment
1 October 1999 Plunkett & Macleane international distribution only; co-production with Working Title Films
10 December 1999 The Green Mile distributed by Warner Bros.; co-production with Castle Rock Entertainment and Darkwoods Productions

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Universal Music Relaunching Polygram, Announces 'Story of Motown' as First Production". Billboard. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  2. ^ "Casablanca And Filmworks Merge Into New Combine" (PDF). Billboard. 6 November 1976. p. 3.
  3. ^ a b Masters, Kim; Griffin, Nancy (12 January 2016). Hit & Run. Simon & Schuster.
  4. ^ "PolyGram Insures Home Video Base" (PDF). Billboard. 29 March 1980. p. 9.
  5. ^ a b Griffin, Nancy and Masters, Kim (1996). "Hit and Run" (pp. 100-116). New York: Touchstone, a Simon & Schuster company.
  6. ^ "Boardwalk - Music label - RYM/Sonemic". Rate Your Music. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  7. ^ Medavoy, Mike (25 June 2013). You're Only as Good as Your Next One: 100 Great Films, 100 Good Films, and 100 for Which I Should Be Shot. Atria Books.
  8. ^ "Horowitz to head new PolyGram television unit" (PDF). Broadcasting Magazine. 3 November 1980. p. 46.
  9. ^ "PolyGram to fold" (PDF). Broadcasting. 9 May 1983. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  10. ^ a b "Heron, PolyGram Set Joint Venture With Low Pricing". Variety. 1 January 1986. p. 25.
  11. ^ Kuhn, pp. 17-23
  12. ^ a b c Apodaca, Patrice (21 February 1995). "Screen Play : PolyGram Hopes to Bolster Its Hollywood Presence With Purchase of Once-Venerable ITC Entertainment". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  13. ^ Kuhn, pp. 40-41
  14. ^ "ITC Entertainment Sold to Polygram for $156 Million". Los Angeles Times. 17 January 1995. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  15. ^ Weiner, Rex (3 December 1997). "New Epic librarian".
  16. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (17 July 1996). "Kerkorian Group Plans to Buy MGM Studio for $1.3 Billion". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  17. ^ "Company News;Polygram Said To Drop Goldwyn Offer". The New York Times. 31 January 1996. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  18. ^ Cox, Dan (8 December 1997). "WB, Polygram to co-fund Castle Rock". Variety. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  19. ^ Eller, Claudia (9 October 1998). "Seagram May Settle for Sale of Film Library". Los Angeles Times.
  20. ^ "MGM Signs $250 Million Agreement to Acquire PolyGram Film Library". Sound & Vision. 25 October 1998.
  21. ^ Eller, Claudia (23 October 1998). "MGM Agrees to Acquire PolyGram Movie Library". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  22. ^ Thal, Peter (20 January 1999). "Carlton pays $150m for film library". The Independent. London. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  23. ^ "USA Will Buy Some Seagram Film Assets". Los Angeles Times. 8 April 1999.
  24. ^ Carver, Benedict; Dawtrey, Adam (10 February 1999). "U to start int'l distrib". Variety. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  25. ^ Petrikin, Chris (15 October 1999). "U, Par extend UIP pact". Variety. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  26. ^ Madigan, Nick (9 December 1997). "Polygram shutters Island Pictures".
  27. ^ a b "PolyGram joins the big Game". Screen International. 19 September 1997. p. 33.
  28. ^ Eller, Claudia (3 May 1997). "PolyGram Unit to Distribute Films in U.S." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  29. ^ a b "Partyers play 'Game'". Variety. 11 September 1997. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  30. ^ Roman, Monica (3 April 1998). "Rogue of October". Variety. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  31. ^ Petski, Denise (20 May 2015). "Focus Revives Gramercy Pictures Label For Genre Films". Deadline. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  32. ^ US Copyright Office Document No. V3495D070 / 2003-03-06
  33. ^ US Copyright Office Document No. V15006D985 / 2022-04-22
  34. ^ "Warner Bros. Teams Up with PolyGram to Co-Finance & Co-Distribute Castle Rock Pictures". WarnerMedia. Retrieved 6 April 2020.

Further reading edit

  • Michael Kuhn, One Hundred Films and a Funeral: The Life and Death of Polygram Films, Thorogood, 2002. ISBN 1-85418-216-1.