Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group

(Redirected from Sony Pictures Releasing)

The Sony Pictures Entertainment Motion Picture Group (commonly known as the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, formerly known as the Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group until 2013, and abbreviated as SPMPG) is a division of Sony Pictures Entertainment to manage its motion picture operations. It was launched in 1998 by integrating the businesses of Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. and TriStar Pictures, Inc.[1]

Sony Pictures Entertainment Motion Picture Group
FormerlyColumbia TriStar Motion Picture Group (1998–2013)
Company typeDivision
IndustryEntertainment
Founded1998; 26 years ago (1998) Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Headquarters10202 West Washington Boulevard, Culver City, California, US
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
ProductsMotion pictures
Services
ParentSony Pictures Entertainment
Divisions
Websitesonypictures.com/movies

History edit

The Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group was founded in 1998 as the Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group, as a current division of Sony Pictures Entertainment, owned by Sony. It has many of Sony Pictures' current motion picture divisions as part of it. Its divisions at that time were Columbia Pictures, TriStar Pictures, Triumph Films, Sony Pictures Classics, and Sony Pictures Releasing.

On December 8, 1998, SPE resurrected its former animation and television division Screen Gems as a film division of Sony Pictures Entertainment's Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group that has served several different purposes for its parent companies over the decades since its incorporation.[2]

In 2002, Columbia TriStar Television was renamed as Sony Pictures Television. The last three remaining companies, with the "Columbia TriStar" brand in its name, were Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, the Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group, and Columbia TriStar Marketing Group. Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment and Columbia TriStar Film Distributors became Sony Pictures Home Entertainment and Sony Pictures Releasing International in 2004 and 2005 and Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group became the second-to-last subsidiary of Sony Pictures Entertainment to use the "Columbia TriStar" brand name in its name.

In 2013, TriStar Productions was launched, as a joint venture of Sony Pictures Entertainment and former 20th Century Fox chairman Thomas Rothman.[3][4]

In October 2013, Sony Pictures rebranded its motion picture group under the monicker "Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group". Sony Pictures Animation and Sony Pictures Imageworks were moved from Sony Pictures Digital to its motion picture group.

On June 2, 2016, Doug Belgrad had announced he was to step down as president of the SPMPG and would transition his role to producer at the studio.[5] Belgrad was promoted as president of the SPMPG back in 2014.[5]

On July 15, 2019, former Fox 2000 Pictures president Elizabeth Gabler and the entire Fox 2000 staff joined Sony Pictures Entertainment and formed 3000 Pictures with the motion picture group. HarperCollins would be funding half of the division's overhead and development. 3000 Pictures would also pursue projects for TV and streaming.[6]

Film divisions edit

Studio divisions
Production Distribution Other
  • Sony Pictures Releasing
  • Sony Pictures Releasing International

Sony Pictures Releasing edit

Sony Pictures Releasing
FormerlyTriumph Releasing Corporation (1982–1994)
Company typeDivision
IndustryMotion pictures
FoundedNovember 23, 1994; 29 years ago (1994-11-23)
Headquarters,
United States
Services
ParentSony Pictures Entertainment
DivisionsSony Pictures Releasing International
Websitesonypictures.com

Sony Pictures Releasing is an American film distributor owned by Sony. Established in 1994[7] as a successor to Triumph Releasing Corporation, the company handles theatrical distribution, marketing and promotion for films produced and released by Sony Pictures Entertainment, including Columbia Pictures, TriStar Pictures (as well as TriStar Productions), Screen Gems, Sony Pictures Classics, Sony Pictures Animation, Crunchyroll, Stage 6 Films, Affirm Films, Destination Films, and Triumph Films.[citation needed] It is a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group. It also has an international division called Sony Pictures Releasing International, which from 1991 until 2005 was known as Columbia TriStar Film Distributors International.[citation needed]

International arrangements edit

Sony Pictures Releasing International
FormerlyColumbia Tri-Star Film Distributors International (1988–1991)
Columbia TriStar Film Distributors International (1991–2005)
Company typeDivision
IndustryMotion pictures
FoundedDecember 21, 1988; 35 years ago (1988-12-21)
Headquarters,
United States
Services
ParentSony Pictures Releasing
Websitesonypictures.com

From 1971 until the end of 1987, Columbia's international theatrical distribution operations were a joint venture with Warner Bros. named Columbia-Warner, and in some countries, this joint venture also distributed films from other companies like with EMI Films and Cannon Films in the UK under the names of Columbia-EMI-Warner in 1978 and later Columbia-Cannon-Warner in 1986. The UK venture was dissolved in 1988.

In Australia, which from 1975 to 1996, 20th Century-Fox and Columbia Pictures formed an alliance that they would distribute films for the Australian market, initially going under the name Fox Columbia Film Distributors, before Hoyts came to the venture, and it was renamed first to Hoyts Fox Columbia TriStar Films, then Fox Columbia TriStar Films.[8]

On February 6, 2014, Columbia TriStar Warner Filmes de Portugal Ltda., a joint venture with Warner Bros. which distributed films from both companies in Portugal, announced that they will close their offices on March 31.[9] Sony Pictures' films are distributed in Portugal by Big Picture Films since then, while NOS Audiovisuais took over the distribution duties for Warner Bros. films in the country.

From June 2014 until February 2020, Sony Pictures' Philippine releasing arm under the name of Columbia Pictures Philippines distributed films by United International Pictures' partner studios, Paramount Pictures and Universal Pictures (including films by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer), after UIP ended its nine-year distribution agreement with the studio's local distributor Solar Entertainment Corporation and their Solar Films subsidiary. The Philippine distribution to films made by Universal lasted up until January 2020, when distribution reverted to Warner Bros. (UIP's former local distributor from the 1990s to 2000) in October 2021 while most Focus Features titles are instead released through a start-up online distribution company, UPSTREAM. Paramount later renewed their distribution agreements with Sony in October 2021.

The theatrical distribution of Sony Pictures' films in Italy was handled by Warner Bros. from 2011 to 2023. One notable example of this is Call Me By Your Name, where Warner Bros. handled Italian theatrical distribution (although the Sony label is still being used) while home video distribution went through Sony itself. In 2023, Eagle Pictures took over theatrical distribution of Sony's films in the country.

Sony Pictures and Walt Disney Studios formed a film distribution joint venture in Southeast Asia in 1997.[10] By December 2006, 14 joint distribution ventures between Sony Pictures Releasing International and Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures were formed and exist in countries including Brazil, Mexico, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines. In January 2007, their 15th such partnership began operations in Russia and CIS.[11] In February 2017, Sony starting leaving the Southeast Asia venture with the Philippines. In August 2017, Sony terminated the joint venture agreement for their own operations.[10] On January 31, 2019, in anticipation of Disney's then-pending acquisition of most 21st Century Fox assets (including 20th Century Fox), it was agreed that Disney would sell its stake in the Mexican joint venture named Walt Disney Studios Sony Pictures Releasing de México to Sony Pictures Releasing.[12] As part of the global economic fluctuations caused by the Disney's acquisition, Sony Pictures Production and Release LLC and Disney Studios LLC parted amicably signing a formal demerger on 21 January 2020. The contract would allow Sony Pictures Releasing to operate autonomously.[13][14]

In Argentina and Poland, United International Pictures handles theatrical distribution of films released by Sony Pictures.

In the Netherlands, Universal Pictures International currently handles theatrical distribution of films released by Sony Pictures since 2013.

In the Netherlands and Sweden, Columbia TriStar Films (now known as Sony Pictures Releasing) formerly handled theatrical distribution of films released by 20th Century Fox from 1992 to 1997 in the former country and from 1994 to 1996 in the latter.

In South Africa, Ster-Kinekor handles theatrical and home video distribution of films released by Sony Pictures and Columbia Pictures.

Film library edit

Film series edit

Title Release date No. Films Studio(s) Notes
The Three Stooges 1934–70 2 Columbia
Mr. Deeds 1936–2002
Blondie 1938–50 28 co-production with King Features Entertainment
Five Little Peppers 1939–40 4
Boston Blackie 1941–49 14
Cantinflas films 1942–82 34 (from Los tres mosqueteros to El barrendero)
Crime Doctor 1943–49 10
The Whistler 1944–48 8
Rusty 1945–49 8
Jungle Jim 1948–56 16
Frankenstein 1958–94 4 Columbia/TriStar co-production with Hammer Film Productions (1958), Colgems Productions Ltd. (1985), Taft Entertainment Pictures (1987), The IndieProd Company and American Zoetrope (both 1994)
13 Ghosts 1960–2001 2 Columbia
Matt Helm 1966–68 4 co-production with Meadway-Claude Productions Company
Guess Who 1967–2005 2
Dracula 1972–95 6 Columbia/TriStar co-production with Hammer Horror (1972-74 series only), American Zoetrope and Osiris Films (both 1992)
Death Wish 1974–82 2 Columbia International distributor; co-production with Paramount Pictures and Filmways Pictures
Fun with Dick and Jane 1977–2005
Spider-Man 1977–present 13 co-production with Danchuck Productions (1977-81 series only), Marvel Entertainment, Marvel Studios and Sony Pictures Animation (including the MCU Spider-Man films)
Ice Castles 1978–2010 2 Columbia/Stage 6
When a Stranger Calls 1979–2006 Columbia/Screen Gems
The Blue Lagoon 1980–2012 3 Columbia/Sony Pictures Television
Heavy Metal 1981–2000 2 Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with CineGroupe
Annie 1982–2021 7 Columbia/TriStar/Sony Pictures Television co-production with Rastar, Overbrook Entertainment, Village Roadshow Pictures, Storyline Entertainment, Chris Montan Productions and Walt Disney Television (1999 TV movie only)
Ghostbusters 1984–present 4 Columbia co-production with Ghost Corps (since 2016) and Village Roadshow Pictures
The Karate Kid 5 co-production with JW Films and Overbrook Entertainment
The Muppets 1984, 1999–2002 3 TriStar/Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with The Jim Henson Company and Jim Henson Pictures
Fright Night 1985–89 2 Columbia/TriStar
Rambo 1985–2008 3 TriStar/Sony Pictures Releasing International co-production with Carolco Pictures, Lionsgate, StudioCanal, and The Weinstein Company
Wild Orchid 1989–91 2 Triumph
Look Who's Talking 1989–93 3 TriStar
Total Recall 1990–2012 2 TriStar/Columbia co-production with Carolco Pictures, Original Film, and Relativity Media
Flatliners 1990–2017 Columbia
City Slickers 1991–94 co-production with Castle Rock Entertainment, Nelson Entertainment (1991 film only) and Face Productions
My Girl co-production with Imagine Entertainment
Terminator 1991–2009 3 TriStar/Columbia co-production with Carolco Pictures, Intermedia, C2 Pictures, Warner Bros. Pictures, and The Halcyon Company
Universal Soldier 1992–present 4 TriStar/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Fortress 1992–2000 2 Columbia/TriStar co-production with Dimension Films, Village Roadshow Pictures, Davis Entertainment, Gower Productions, The Carousel Picture Company, and John Flock Productions
Single White Female 1992–2005 Columbia/Destination
Basic Instinct 1992–2006 TriStar/Sony Pictures Releasing co-production with Carolco Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and C2 Pictures
Sniper 1993–present 8 TriStar/Destination
El Mariachi 1992–2003 3 Columbia co-production with Dimension Films and Troublemaker Studios
RoboCop 1993–2014 2 co-production with Orion Pictures and Metro-Goldwyn Mayer
3 Ninjas 1994–98 3 TriStar co-production with Sheen Productions
Little Women 1994–2019 2 Columbia co-production with DiNovi Pictures (1994), Pascal Pictures and Regency Enterprises (both 2019)
The Swan Princess 1994–2023 12 Columbia TriStar Film Distributors Intl./Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Bad Boys 1995–present 3 Columbia co-production with Jerry Bruckheimer Films
Jumanji 4 TriStar/Columbia
The Net 1995–2006 2 Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Screamers 1995–2009 Triumph/Screen Gems
The Craft 1996–present Columbia
Matilda 1996–2022 TriStar
Men in Black 1997–2019 4 Columbia co-production with Amblin Entertainment, Parker MacDonald, Imagenation Abu Dhabi, Overbrook Entertainment, and Relativity Media
Anaconda 1997–present 5 Columbia/Screen Gems/Stage 6/Destination
I Know What You Did Last Summer 3 Columbia/Destination co-production with Mandalay Entertainment
Starship Troopers 5 TriStar/Destination/Stage 6 co-production with Touchstone Pictures
Zorro 1998–2005 2 TriStar/Columbia co-production with Spyglass Entertainment, Amblin Entertainment and Parker MacDonald
8mm Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Wild Things 1998–2010 4 co-production with Mandalay Entertainment
Urban Legend 1998–present 3 TriStar/Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with Phoenix Pictures
Cruel Intentions 1999–2004 Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with Original Film and Newmarket Capital Group
Baby Geniuses 2 TriStar/Triumph/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with Crystal Sky Pictures
Stuart Little 1999–2005 3 Columbia/Sony Pictures Entertainment co-production with Franklin/Waterman Productions and Red Wagon Entertainment
Bats 1999–2007 2 Columbia/Destination
Anatomy 2000–03 Columbia
Hollow Man 2000–06 Columbia/Destination
Charlie's Angels 2000–19 3 Columbia co-production with Leonard Goldberg Productions, Flower Films, Tall Trees Productions (all 2000–03), Wonderland Sound and Vision (2003), 2.0 Entertainment, Brownstone Productions and Cantillon Company (all 2019)
Final Fantasy 2001–present Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with Square Enix
Resident Evil 2002–present 7 Screen Gems co-production with Constantin Film, Capcom, Davis Films, Impact Pictures and New Legacy Films (2002)
XXX 2002–05 2 Columbia co-production with Original Film, and Revolution Studios
Half Past Dead 2002–07 Screen Gems/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Daddy Day Care 2003–07 Columbia/TriStar co-production with Revolution Studios
Underworld 2003–16 5 Screen Gems co-production with Lakeshore Entertainment and Sketch Films (2009–16)
S.W.A.T. 2003–17 3 Columbia/Destination co-production with Original Film
The Grudge 2004–present 4 Screen Gems/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with Ghost House Pictures
The Punisher 2004–14 Columbia/Sony Pictures Releasing International/Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan co-production with Marvel Entertainment, Marvel Studios, and Lionsgate
Boogeyman 2005–08 3 Screen Gems/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment/Stage 6 co-production with Ghost House Pictures
Into the Blue 2005–09 2 Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Mandalay Pictures
Hostel 2005–11 3 Screen Gems/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment/Stage 6 co-production with Lionsgate Films
Jesse Stone 2005–15 9 Sony Pictures Television co-production with Brandman Productions and TWS Productions II
The Pink Panther 2006–09 2 Columbia co-production with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
James Bond 2006–15 4 co-production with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (from Casino Royale to Spectre)
Open Season Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with Sony Pictures Animation
The Robert Langdon series 2006–16 3 Columbia co-production with Imagine Entertainment and Relativity Media
The Messengers 2007–09 2 Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment/Stage 6
Stomp the Yard 2007–10 Screen Gems/Stage 6 co-production with Rainforest Films
Ghost Rider 2007–11 Columbia co-production with Marvel Entertainment, Crystal Sky Pictures, Hyde Park Entertainment, Saturn Films, Imagenation Abu Dhabi, and Relativity Media
Surf's Up 2007–17 Columbia/Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with Sony Pictures Animation and WWE Studios
Quarantine 2008–11 Screen Gems co-production with Vertigo Entertainment
Paul Blart: Mall Cop 2009–15 Columbia co-production with Happy Madison Productions
Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs 2009–13 co-production with Sony Pictures Animation
Grown Ups 2010–13 co-production with Happy Madison Productions
Insidious 2011–present 4 Stage 6/Screen Gems co-production with Blumhouse Productions, Atomic Monster, and Universal Pictures
Dragon Tattoo Stories 2 Columbia co-production with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
The Smurfs 2011–17 3 co-production with Sony Pictures Animation and The K Entertainment Company
Jump Street 2012–14 2 co-production with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Relativity Media, and Original Film
Hotel Transylvania 2012–22 4 co-production with Sony Pictures Animation
The Equalizer 2014–23 2 co-production with Village Roadshow Pictures, Relativity Media, and Original Film
Goosebumps 2015–18 co-production with Sony Pictures Animation, Scholastic Productions, Village Roadshow Pictures, and Original Film
Angry Birds 2016–19 co-production with Rovio Animation and Sony Pictures Animation (2019)
Don't Breathe 2016–present Screen Gems/Stage 6 co-production with Ghost House Pictures
The Marine 2017–18 Sony Pictures Home Entertainment co-production with WWE Studios
Sword Art Online 2017–present 3 Sony Pictures Only licensed, produced by A-1 Pictures and Aniplex
Marvel Cinematic Universe Columbia in association with Marvel Studios, Pascal Pictures and Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures (licensed only)
Sony's Spider-Man Universe 2018–present 4 co-production with Marvel and Pascal Pictures
Peter Rabbit 2 co-production with Sony Pictures Animation (2018), Animal Logic, Olive Bridge Entertainment, 2.0 Entertainment, Screen Australia, and Screen NSW
Spider-Verse co-production with Sony Pictures Animation, Marvel, and Pascal Pictures
My Hero Academia 3 Sony Pictures Only licensed, produced by Bones and Toho
Searching 2018–23 2 Screen Gems co-production with Bazelevs Company
Escape Room 2019–present Columbia co-production with Original Film
Demon Slayer: Kimetsu no Yaiba 2021–present 3 Sony Pictures Only licensed, produced by Ufotable and Aniplex
PlayStation films 2022–present 2 Columbia Co-production with PlayStation Productions

Highest-grossing films edit

Highest-grossing films in North America
Rank Title Year Domestic gross Studio label(s)
1 Spider-Man: No Way Home 2021 $814,108,407 Columbia/Marvel
2 Spider-Man 2002 $407,022,860 Columbia
3 Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle 2017 $404,540,171
4 Spider-Man: Far From Home 2019 $390,532,085 Columbia/Marvel
5 Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse 2023 $381,311,319 Columbia
6 Spider-Man 2 2004 $373,585,825
7 Spider-Man 3 2007 $336,530,303
8 Spider-Man: Homecoming 2017 $334,201,140 Columbia/Marvel
9 Jumanji: The Next Level 2019 $320,314,960 Columbia
10 Skyfall 2012 $304,360,277 Columbia/MGM
11 The Amazing Spider-Man 2012 $262,030,663 Columbia
12 Men in Black 1997 $250,690,539
13 Ghostbusters 1984 $229,242,989
14 Hancock 2008 $227,946,274
15 The Da Vinci Code 2006 $217,536,138
16 Venom: Let There Be Carnage 2021 $213,550,366
17 Venom 2018 $213,515,506
18 Terminator 2: Judgment Day 1991 $204,843,345 TriStar/Carolco
19 Bad Boys for Life 2020 $204,292,401 Columbia
20 The Amazing Spider-Man 2 2014 $202,853,933
21 Spectre 2015 $200,074,609 Columbia/MGM
22 22 Jump Street 2014 $191,719,337 Columbia
23 Men in Black II 2002 $190,418,803
24 Spider-Man: Into The Spider-Verse 2018 $190,241,310
25 Hitch 2005 $179,495,555
Highest-grossing films worldwide
Rank Title Year Worldwide gross Studio(s)
1 Spider-Man: No Way Home 2021 $1,916,306,995 Columbia/Marvel
2 Skyfall 2012 $1,142,471,295 Columbia/MGM
3 Spider-Man: Far From Home 2019 $1,131,927,996 Columbia/Marvel
4 Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle 2017 $962,126,927 Columbia
5 Spider-Man 3 2007 $894,983,373
6 Spectre 2015 $880,674,609 Columbia/MGM
7 Spider-Man: Homecoming 2017 $880,166,924 Columbia/Marvel
8 Venom 2018 $855,013,954 Columbia
9 Spider-Man 2002 $825,025,036
10 Jumanji: The Next Level 2019 $800,059,707
11 2012 2009 $791,217,826
12 Spider-Man 2 2004 $788,976,453
13 The Da Vinci Code 2006 $758,239,851
14 The Amazing Spider-Man 2012 $757,930,663
15 The Amazing Spider-Man 2 2014 $708,982,323
16 Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse 2023 $689,810,862
17 Hancock 2008 $624,386,746
18 Men in Black 3 2012 $624,026,776
19 Casino Royale 2006 $606,099,584 Columbia/MGM
20 Quantum of Solace 2008 $589,580,482
21 Men in Black 1997 $589,390,539 Columbia
22 The Smurfs 2011 $563,749,323
23 Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation 2018 $528,583,774
24 Terminator 2: Judgment Day 1991 $519,843,345 TriStar/Carolco
25 Demon Slayer: Kimetsu no Yaiba the Movie: Mugen Train 2021 $507,127,293 Aniplex/Funimation

References edit

  1. ^ "Sony Hitches TriStar to Col", Variety, March 31, 1998.
  2. ^ "Los Angeles Times" Sony Forms New Movie Division articles.latimes.com December 8, 1998, Retrieved on April 4, 2016
  3. ^ Abrams, Rachel (August 1, 2013). "Tom Rothman in Joint Venture With Sony to Run TriStar Productions". Variety. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  4. ^ CIEPLY, MICHAEL (August 1, 2013). "Sony Hires Rothman to Head Revived TriStar Unit". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
  5. ^ a b Doug Belgrad exits as president of Sony Pictures' motion picture group latimes.com, Retrieved on June 3, 2016
  6. ^ Masters, Kim. "Elizabeth Gabler Breaks Silence on Sony Move, Disney Exit, HarperCollins and Streaming Plans (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  7. ^ SONY PICTURES RELEASING CORPORATION businessprofiles.com, Retrieved on January 20, 2014
  8. ^ "The Australian Film Industry - A Duopoly in Distribution in Exhibition". Cinema Papers. March 1975. p. 37.
  9. ^ de Barros, Eurico (February 6, 2014). "Columbia Tristar Warner encerra escritórios em Portugal" [Columbia Tristar Warner closes offices in Portugal]. Diário de Notícias (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  10. ^ a b Frater, Patrick (August 14, 2017). "Sony Launches Its Own Theatrical Distributors in Southeast Asia". Variety. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  11. ^ Holdsworth, Nick (December 27, 2006). "Disney, Sony team up for Russian content". The Hollywood Reporter. AP. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  12. ^ "Clarification on Disney/Fox transaction" (PDF). Cofece. February 6, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
  13. ^ "Walt Disney to create a new distribution company in Russia". news.ru. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
  14. ^ "Disney и Sony разделят экраны" [Disney and Sony to split screens]. Kommersant (in Russian). Retrieved April 13, 2021.

External links edit