Screen Gems is an American film production and distribution studio that is a division of Sony Pictures Entertainment's Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group. It has served several different purposes for its parent companies over the decades since its incorporation. The label currently specializes in genre films, namely horror.
(as animation studio)|
1948 (as television subsidiary)
December 8, 1998 (as film studio)
|Headquarters||Culver City, California, United States|
|Clint Culpepper (President)|
|Parent||Sony Pictures Entertainment|
Animation studio: 1933–1946Edit
The name was originally used in 1933, when Columbia Pictures acquired a stake in Charles Mintz's animation studio. The name was derived from an early Columbia Pictures slogan, "Gems of the Screen"; itself a takeoff on the song "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean".
For an entire decade, Charles Mintz distributed his Krazy Kat, Scrappy, and Color Rhapsody animated film shorts through Columbia Pictures. When Mintz became indebted to Columbia in 1939, he ended up selling his studio to them. Mintz's production manager became the studio head, but was shortly replaced by Mintz's brother-in-law, George Winkler. Columbia then decided to "clean house" by ousting the bulk of the staff (including Winkler), and hiring creative cartoonist Frank Tashlin. After Tashlin's short stay came Dave Fleischer, formerly of the Fleischer Studios, and after several of his successors came Ray Katz and Henry Binder from Warner Bros. Cartoons (previously Leon Schlesinger Productions). Animators, directors, and writers at the series included people such as Art Davis, Sid Marcus, Bob Wickersham, and during its latter period, Bob Clampett.
Like most studios, the Screen Gems studio had several established characters on their roster. These included Flippity and Flop, Willoughby Wren, and Tito and His Burrito. However, the most successful characters the studio had were The Fox and the Crow, a comic duo of a refined Fox and a street-wise Crow.
Screen Gems was, in an attempt to keep costs low, the last American animation studio to stop producing black and white cartoons. The final black-and-white Screen Gems shorts appeared in 1946, over three years after the second-longest holdouts (Famous Studios and Leon Schlesinger Productions). During that same year, the studio shut its doors for good, though their animation output continued to be distributed until 1949.
The Screen Gems cartoons were only moderately successful in comparison to those of Disney, Warner Bros., and MGM. The studio's purpose was assumed by an outside producer, United Productions of America (UPA), whose cartoons, including Gerald McBoing Boing and the Mr. Magoo series, were major critical and commercial successes.
Theatrical short film seriesEdit
- Color Rhapsodies (1939–1949, inherited from Charles Mintz)
- Fables (1939–1942)
- Phantasies (1939–1943)
- Flippity and Flop (1946)
- The Fox and the Crow (1940–1946)
- Li'l Abner (1944)
One-shot theatrical short filmsEdit
- How War Came (1941)
- The Great Cheese Mystery (1941)
- The Dumbconscious Mind (1942)
- The Vitamin G-Man (1943)
- He Can't Make It Stick (1943)
Television subsidiary: 1948–1974Edit
Screen Gems logo used from 1965 to 1974.
|Television subsidiary of Columbia Pictures|
|Fate||Renamed as Columbia Pictures Television|
|Successor||Columbia Pictures Television
Columbia TriStar Television
Sony Pictures Television
|Defunct||May 6, 1974|
|Headquarters||New York City
Los Angeles, California USA
|Parent||Sony Pictures Entertainment|
In November 1948, Columbia borrowed the Screen Gems name for its television production subsidiary when the studio acquired Pioneer Telefilms, a television commercial company founded in 1947 by Ralph Cohn, the nephew of Columbia's head Harry Cohn. Pioneer was later reorganized as Screen Gems. The studio started its new business in New York on April 15, 1949.
By 1951, Screen Gems became a full-fledged television studio by producing and syndicating several popular shows (see below).
By 1952, the studio had produced a series of about 100 film-record coordinated releases for television under the brand "TV Disk Jockey Toons" in which the films "synchronize perfectly with the records".
On July 1, 1956, studio veteran Irving Briskin stepped down as stage manager of Columbia Pictures and form his production company Briskin Productions, Inc. to release series through Screen Gems and supervise all of its productions. On December 10, 1956, Screen Gems expanded into television syndication by acquiring Hygo Television Films (a.k.a. Serials Inc.) and its affiliated company United Television Films, Inc. Hygo Television Films was founded in 1951 by Jerome Hyams, who also acquired United Television Films in 1955 that was founded by Archie Mayers. During that year, the studio began syndicating Columbia Pictures' theatrical film library to television, including the wildly successful series of two-reel short subjects starring The Three Stooges in 1957. Earlier on August 2, 1957, they also acquired syndication rights to "Shock!", a package of Universal horror films (later shifted to MCA TV), which was enormously successful in reviving that genre. The name "Screen Gems," at the time, was used to hide the fact that the film studio was entering television production and distribution. Many film studios saw television as a threat to their business, thus it was expected that they would shun the medium. However, Columbia was one of a few studios who branched out to television under a pseudonym to conceal the true ownership of the television arm. That is until 1955, when Columbia decided to use the woman from its logo under the Screen Gems banner, officially billing itself as a part of "the Hollywood studios of Columbia Pictures", as spoken in announcements at the end of some Screen Gems series.
From 1958 to 1974, under President John H. Mitchell and Vice President of Production Harry Ackerman, Screen Gems delivered classic TV shows and sitcoms: Father Knows Best, Dennis the Menace, The Donna Reed Show, Hazel, Here Come the Brides, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Gidget, Bewitched, I Dream of Jeannie, The Flying Nun, The Monkees, and The Partridge Family. It was also the original distributor for Hanna-Barbera Productions, an animation studio founded by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera after leaving Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and was also the distributor of the Soupy Sales show. The company also entered a co-production deal with Canada's CTV Television Network and produced several shows, many of which were filmed or taped in Toronto for distribution to Canadian stations (Showdown, The Pierre Berton Show). The company even expanded as far as Australia, opening Screen Gems Australia to produce shows for that country's networks, including The Graham Kennedy Show for the Nine Network.
In the late 1950s, Screen Gems also entered into ownership and operation of television stations. Stations owned by Screen Gems over the years included KCPX (Salt Lake City; now KTVX, owned by Nexstar Media Group), WVUE (New Orleans; now owned by the Louisiana Media Company), WAPA (San Juan; now owned by the Hemisphere Media Group), WNJU (Linden, NJ; now owned by NBCUniversal), and several radio stations as well, including 50,000-watt clear channel WWVA (Wheeling WV; now owned by iHeartMedia). As a result, in funding its acquisitions, 18% of Screen Gems' shares was spun off from Columbia and it became a publicly traded company in NYSE until 1968.
In 1965, Columbia Pictures acquired a fifty percent interest in the New York-based commercial production company EUE, which was incorporated into Screen Gems and renamed EUE/Screen Gems. The studios were sold in 1982 to longtime Columbia Pictures Executive, George Cooney, shortly after Columbia Pictures was sold to The Coca-Cola Company.
On December 23, 1968, Screen Gems merged with its parent company Columbia Pictures Corporation and became part of the newly formed Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. for $24.5 million.
On May 6, 1974, Screen Gems was renamed Columbia Pictures Television as suggested by then-studio president David Gerber. The final notable production from this incarnation of Screen Gems before the name change was the 1974 mini-series QB VII. Columbia was, technically, the last major studio to enter television by name.
Changes in corporate ownership of Columbia came in 1982, when Coca-Cola bought the company, although continuing to trade under the CPT name. In the mid-1980s, Coca-Cola reorganized its television holdings to create Coca-Cola Television, merging CPT with the television unit of Embassy Communications as Columbia/Embassy Television, although both companies continued to use separate identities until January 4, 1988, when it and Tri-Star Television were reunited under the CPT name. Columbia also ran Colex Enterprises, a joint venture with LBS Communications to distribute the Screen Gems library, which ended in 1988.
On December 21, 1987, Coca-Cola spun off its entertainment holdings and sold it to Tri-Star Pictures, Inc. for $3.1 billion. It was renamed to Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc., also creating Columbia/Tri-Star by merging Columbia and Tri-Star. Both studios continued to produce and distribute films under their separate names. In 1989, Columbia Pictures Entertainment was purchased by Sony Corporation of Japan. On August 7, 1991, Columbia Pictures Entertainment was renamed as Sony Pictures Entertainment as a film production-distribution subsidiary, and subsequently combined CPT with a revived TriStar Television in 1994 to form Columbia TriStar Television.
The television division today is presently known as Sony Pictures Television.
Selected TV showsEdit
Television programs produced and/or syndicated by Screen Gems (most shows produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions are now owned and distributed by Warner Bros. Television Distribution, except for Jeannie and Partridge Family 2200 A.D. (see below):
- The Ford Television Theatre (1948–57):partial support:partial support
- Burns & Allen (syndicated reruns of filmed episodes from 1952-1958)
- Art Linkletter's House Party (produced by John Guedel) (1952–1969)
- Captain Midnight [later rebranded on television as Jet Jackson, Flying Commando] (1954–1956)
- The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin (produced by Herbert B. Leonard) (1954–1959)
- Father Knows Best (1954–1962)
- Tales of the Texas Rangers (1955–1957)
- Treasure Hunt (1956–1959)
- Playhouse 90 (selected filmed episodes) (1956–1960)
- Celebrity Playhouse (1955-1956)
- Jungle Jim (1955-1956)
- Ranch Party (1957-1958)
- Jefferson Drum (produced by Mark Goodson-Bill Todman Productions) (1958)
- The Donna Reed Show (1958–66)
- Naked City (produced by Herbert B. Leonard) (1958–1963)
- Behind Closed Doors (1958–1959)
- Tightrope (1959–1960)
- Dennis the Menace (1959–1963)
- The Three Stooges [190 two-reel short subjects produced 1934-1958] (1959–1974; distributed thereafter by other Columbia/Sony divisions)
- Two Faces West (1960–1961); syndicated
- My Sister Eileen (1960–1961)
- Route 66 (produced by Herbert B. Leonard) (1960–1964) (Sony surrendered the rights to the estate of Herbert B. Leonard)
- Hazel (1961–1966)
- Grindl (1963–1964)
- The Farmer's Daughter (1963–1966)
- Bewitched (1964–1972; produced by Ashmont Productions 1971–1972)
- Days of Our Lives (produced by Corday Productions 1965–1974; produced thereafter by Columbia Pictures Television, Columbia TriStar Television and Sony Pictures Television)
- Camp Runamuck (1965–1966)
- Gidget (1965–1966)
- The Soupy Sales Show (1965–1966; produced by WNEW-TV New York City)
- I Dream of Jeannie (1965–1970; produced by Sidney Sheldon Productions)
- Morning Star (1965–1966) (in conjunction with Corday Productions)
- The Wackiest Ship in the Army (1965–1966)
- Hawk (1966)
- Love on a Rooftop (1966–1967)
- The Monkees (1966–1968; produced by Raybert Productions)
- Adventures of the Seaspray (1967; produced by Pacific Films)
- Everybody's Talking (1967)
- The Flying Nun (1967–1970)
- The Second Hundred Years (1967–1968)
- Here Come the Brides (1968–1970)
- The Ugliest Girl in Town (1968–1969)
- The Johnny Cash Show (1969–1970)
- Playboy After Dark (1969–1970; produced by Playboy Enterprises)
- Nancy (1970–1971; produced by Sidney Sheldon Productions)
- The Partridge Family (1970–1974)
- The Young Rebels (1970–1971)
- Getting Together (1971–1972)
- The Good Life (1971–1972; produced by Lorimar Television)
- Bridget Loves Bernie (1972–1973)
- The Paul Lynde Show (1972–1973; produced by Ashmont Productions)
- Temperatures Rising (1972–1973; produced by Ashmont Productions)
- Needles and Pins (1973)
- The New Temperatures Rising Show (1973–1974; produced by Ashmont Productions)
- The Young and the Restless (produced by Bell Dramatic Serial Company 1973–1974; produced thereafter by Columbia Pictures Television, Columbia TriStar Television and Sony Pictures Television)
- Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice (1973–1974)
- Police Story (produced by David Gerber Productions 1973–1974; produced thereafter by Columbia Pictures Television from 1974 to 1977)
- The Girl with Something Extra (1973–1974)
- Sale of the Century (1973–1974)
- Jeannie (1973; co-produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions. Sony Pictures Television owns the distribution rights due to the show's connection to I Dream of Jeannie)
- Partridge Family 2200 A.D. (1974; co-produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions. Slated to be Screen Gems production but produced by its successor; Columbia Pictures Television; Sony Pictures Television owns the distribution rights due to the show's connection to The Partridge Family)
- That's My Mama (1974–1975; Slated to be a Screen Gems production but produced by its successor; Columbia Pictures Television)
Note: The following shows were produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions.
- The Ruff and Reddy Show (1957-1960)
- The Huckleberry Hound Show (1958–1961)
- The Quick Draw McGraw Show (1959–1962)
- The Flintstones (1960–1966; syndicated by Screen Gems until 1974)
- The Yogi Bear Show (1961–1962)
- Top Cat (1961–1962)
- The Jetsons (1962–1963)
- The Hanna-Barbera New Cartoon Series (1962-1963)
- The Magilla Gorilla Show (1963–1967)
- Peter Potamus (1964–1966)
- Jonny Quest (1964–65)
- The Atom Ant/Secret Squirrel Show (1965-1967)
- Alice in Wonderland (1966)
- Yogi's Gang (1973)
Specialty feature film studio, 1998–presentEdit
On December 8, 1998, Screen Gems was resurrected as a fourth specialty film-producing arm of Sony's Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group. It was created after Triumph Films was closed down. Screen Gems produces and releases "films that fall between the wide-release films traditionally developed and distributed by Columbia Pictures and those released by Sony Pictures Classics". Many of its releases are of the horror, thriller, action, comedy and urban genres, making the unit similar to Dimension Films (part of The Weinstein Company), Hollywood Pictures (part of the Walt Disney Company), and Rogue Pictures (currently owned by Relativity Media, but distributed by former owners Universal Studios).
The highest grossing Screen Gems film as of March 2017, is Resident Evil: The Final Chapter, which grossed a total of $307 million worldwide so far.
Screen Gems filmsEdit
|June 4, 1999||Limbo||$10 million||$2,160,710|
|July 9, 1999||Arlington Road||co-production with Lakeshore Entertainment||$21.5 million||$41,067,311|
|April 5, 2000||Black and White||$5,277,299|
|April 28, 2000||Timecode||$4 million|
|September 29, 2000||Girlfight||$1,666,028|
|January 19, 2001||Snatch||$10 million||$83,557,872|
|March 23, 2001||The Brothers||$6 million||$27,958,191|
|April 27, 2001||The Forsaken||$15 million||$7,288,451|
|August 24, 2001||Ghosts of Mars||$28 million||$14,010,832|
|September 7, 2001||Two Can Play That Game||$13 million||$22,391,450|
|January 25, 2002||The Mothman Prophecies||$42 million||$54,639,865|
|February 1, 2002||Slackers||$14 million||$6,413,915|
|March 15, 2002||Resident Evil||$33 million||$102,441,078|
|October 11, 2002||Swept Away||$10 million||$598,645|
|October 18, 2002||The 51st State||$27 million||$14,439,698|
|November 15, 2002||Half Past Dead||$25 million||$19,233,280|
|August 22, 2003||The Medallion||theatrically released by TriStar Pictures in USA||$41 million||$34,268,701|
|September 19, 2003||Underworld||also with Lakeshore Entertainment||$22 million||$95,708,457|
|October 31, 2003||In the Cut||$12 million||$23,726,793|
|January 30, 2004||You Got Served||$8 million||$48,631,561|
|May 14, 2004||Breakin' All the Rules||$10 million||$12,544,254|
|August 27, 2004||Anacondas: The Hunt for the Blood Orchid||$25 million||$70,992,898|
|September 10, 2004||Resident Evil: Apocalypse||$45 million||$129,394,835|
|February 4, 2005||Boogeyman||also with Ghost House Pictures||$20 million||$67,192,859|
|March 25, 2005||Steamboy||European distribution only; co-production with Sunrise, Toho and Triumph Films||$20 million||$18,900,000|
|August 26, 2005||The Cave||$30 million||$33,296,457|
|September 9, 2005||The Exorcism of Emily Rose||$19 million||$140,238,064|
|October 7, 2005||The Gospel||co-production with Rainforest Films||$3.5 million||$15,778,152|
|January 6, 2006||Hostel||also with Lionsgate||$4.8 million||$80.6 million|
|January 20, 2006||Underworld: Evolution||also with Lakeshore Entertainment||$50 million||$111,340,801|
|February 3, 2006||When a Stranger Calls||$15 million||$66,966,987|
|March 3, 2006||Ultraviolet||$30 million||$31,070,211|
|September 8, 2006||The Covenant||$20 million||$37,597,471|
|January 12, 2007||Stomp the Yard||co-production with Rainforest Films||$13 million||$75,511,123|
|February 2, 2007||The Messengers||also with Columbia Pictures and Ghost House Pictures||$16 million||$54,957,265|
|April 20, 2007||Vacancy||$19 million||$35,300,645|
|June 8, 2007||Hostel: Part II||also with Lionsgate Films||$10.2 million||$35,619,521|
|September 21, 2007||Resident Evil: Extinction||$45 million||$147,717,833|
|November 21, 2007||This Christmas||co-production with Rainforest Films||$13 million||$50,778,121|
|January 11, 2008||First Sunday||$38,608,838|
|January 25, 2008||Untraceable||also with Universal Pictures and Lakeshore Entertainment||$35 million||$52,431,162|
|March 11, 2008||Outpost||co-production with Newmarket Films|
|April 11, 2008||Prom Night||co-production with Alliance Films||$20 million||$57,197,876|
|June 3, 2008||Wieners|
|September 19, 2008||Lakeview Terrace||$20 million||$44,653,637|
|October 10, 2008||Quarantine||$12 million||$41,319,906|
|January 9, 2009||Not Easily Broken||$5 million||$10,708,890|
|January 23, 2009||Underworld: Rise of the Lycans||$35 million||$91,327,197|
|February 20, 2009||Fired Up||$20 million||$18,598,852|
|April 24, 2009||Obsessed||co-production with Rainforest Films||$20 million||$73,830,340|
|October 16, 2009||The Stepfather||co-production with Granada Productions||$20 million||$31,178,915|
|December 4, 2009||Armored||$20 million||$20,900,733|
|January 22, 2010||Legion||co-production with Bold Films||$26 million||$67,918,658|
|February 5, 2010||Dear John||co-production with Relativity Media||$25 million||$112,157,433|
|April 16, 2010||Death at a Funeral||$21 million||$49,050,886|
|August 27, 2010||Takers||co-production with Rainforest Films||$32 million||$70,587,268|
|September 10, 2010||Resident Evil: Afterlife||$60 million||$300,228,084|
|September 17, 2010||Easy A||$8 million||$74,952,305|
|November 24, 2010||Burlesque||$55 million||$90,000,000|
|January 7, 2011||Country Strong||$15 million||$20,529,194|
|February 4, 2011||The Roommate||$16 million||$40,424,438|
|May 13, 2011||Priest||$60 million||$78,309,131|
|July 22, 2011||Friends with Benefits||co-production with Castle Rock Entertainment, Zucker and Olive Bridge Entertainment||$35 million||$149,542,245|
|July 29, 2011||Attack the Block||U.S distribution only; produced by Stage 6 Films, Icon Productions, StudioCanal, the UK Film Council, Big Talk Productions and Film4 Productions||$13 million||$5,824,175|
|September 16, 2011||Straw Dogs||$25 million||$10,324,441|
|January 20, 2012||Underworld: Awakening||$70 million||$130,856,741|
|February 10, 2012||The Vow||co-production with Spyglass Entertainment||$30 million||$153,214,597|
|April 20, 2012||Think Like a Man||co-production with Rainforest Films||$12 million||$96,070,507|
|September 14, 2012||Resident Evil: Retribution||$65 million||$240,159,255|
|August 21, 2013||The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones||U.S distribution only; produced by FilmDistrict, Entertainment One, and Constantin Film||$60 million||$75,965,567|
|September 20, 2013||Battle of the Year||$20 million||$14,185,460|
|October 18, 2013||Carrie||co-production with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Misher Films||$30 million||$82,394,288|
|February 14, 2014||About Last Night||co-production with Rainforest Films and Olive Bridge Entertainment||$13 million||$49,002,684|
|June 20, 2014||Think Like a Man Too||co-production with Will Packer Productions||$24 million||$70,181,428|
|July 2, 2014||Deliver Us from Evil||co-production with Jerry Bruckheimer Films and Ingenious Film Partners||$30 million||$87,937,815|
|September 12, 2014||No Good Deed||co-production with Will Packer Productions||$13 million||$54,323,210|
|January 16, 2015||The Wedding Ringer||co-production with Miramax Films, LStar Capital, and Will Packer Productions||$23 million||$79,799,880|
|September 11, 2015||The Perfect Guy||$12 million||$60,185,587|
|February 5, 2016||Pride and Prejudice and Zombies||co-production with Cross Creek Pictures, Sierra Pictures, MadRiver Pictures, Darko Entertainment and Handsomecharlie Films||$28 million||$16,374,328|
|August 26, 2016||Don't Breathe||co-production with Stage 6 Films and Ghost House Pictures||$9.9 million||$89,985,571|
|September 9, 2016||When the Bough Breaks||co-production with Unique Features||$10 million||$30,658,387|
|January 6, 2017||Underworld: Blood Wars||co-production with Lakeshore Entertainment and Sketch Films||$35 million||$81,093,313|
|January 27, 2017||Resident Evil: The Final Chapter||co-production with Constantin Film, Davis Films, Impact Pictures, Capcom Co, Ltd.||$40 million||$312,242,626|
|October 31, 2017||Keep Watching||co-production with Voltage Productions||Sean Carter|
|January 12, 2018||Proud Mary||Babak Najafi|
|May 18, 2018||Slender Man||Sylvain White|
|August 24, 2018||Cadaver||Diederik Van Rooijen|
|TBA||He's Out There||Dennis Iliadis|
|TBA||Patient Zero||Stefan Ruzowitzky|
- "Sony Pictures - Divisions". sonypictures.com. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Lang, Brent (April 12, 2016). "Sony Pictures Chief Tom Rothman Says Movie Business Must Stay Committed to Originality". Variety. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
- "Los Angeles Times" History of Gems articles.latimes.com June 12, 1999, Retrieved on 4 April 2016
- "Juvenile Stars Of These Movies Work As Long As Asked". The Helena Daily Independent. Helena, Montana. Associated Press. October 8, 1939. p. 4. Retrieved September 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Thomas, Bob (November 28, 1946). "Future of Movie Cartoons Gloomy As Costs Increase". The Paris News. Paris, Texas. Associated Press. p. 13. Retrieved September 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Screen gems has new iron in fire". Broadcasting: 70. April 13, 1959.
- Kleiner, Richard (May 10, 1952). "Video Disc Jockey Rolls Films, Too". Anderson Daily Bulletin. Anderson, Indiana. Retrieved September 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Briskin to Form Company". Broadcasting: 52. June 11, 1956.
- "SCREEN GEMS BUYS HYGO, UNITED, SETS UP TV OWNERSHIP DIVISION". Broadcasting: 60. December 10, 1956.
- "Milwaukee Hosts of Horror table of contents". Web.archive.org. 2004-06-10. Archived from the original on June 10, 2004. Retrieved 2015-04-17.
- "Closing credits, The Graham Kennedy Show, date unknown". YouTube.com. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
- "Columbia, SG complete $24.5 million merger". Broadcasting: 53. December 23, 1968.
- "Remodeling at Screen Gems". Broadcasting: 39–40. 1974-05-06.
- KATHRYN HARRIS "Los Angeles Times" November 25, 1986 Nation articles.latimes.com, Retrieved on May 31, 2013
- "Sale in the works for 'Eden' mini-series". Broadcasting: 45. 1984-01-30.
- KATHRYN HARRIS (September 2, 1987) Coke, Tri-Star Confirm Plans for $3.1-Billion Deal Los Angeles Times, Retrieved on August 8, 2013
- Manners, Dorothy (August 21, 1952). "Will Rogers Jr. Sign to Make Another Film, for TV This Time". Albuquerque Journal. International News Service. p. 18, col. 5. Retrieved September 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Staff (November 12, 1952). "No Introduction Needed Here". The Ogden (Utah) Standard Examiner. Retrieved September 11, 2001 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Los Angeles Times" Sony Forms New Movie Division articles.latimes.com December 8, 1998, Retrieved on 4 April 2016
- "Corporate Fact Sheet". Sony Pictures Entertainment. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- Fleming, Mike (2014-09-23). "‘Pride And Prejudice And Zombies’ Gets ‘GoT’ Actors, Screen Gems Buyer". Deadline. Retrieved 2015-04-17.
- Lesnick, Silas (March 9, 2015). "Zombie Pandemic Thriller Patient Zero Begins Production". comingsoon.net. Retrieved March 10, 2015.