EMI Films was a British film studio and distributor. A subsidiary of the EMI conglomerate, the corporate name was not used throughout the entire period of EMI's involvement in the film industry, from 1969 to 1986, but the company's brief connection with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Anglo-EMI, the division under Nat Cohen, and the later company as part of the Thorn EMI conglomerate (following the merger with Thorn) are outlined here.
Headed by Bryan ForbesEdit
The company was formed after the takeover of Associated British Picture Corporation (ABPC) in 1969 by EMI, following the acquisition of Warner Bros.' shares in ABPC the previous year. At the time ABPC owned 270 ABC Cinemas, a half share in the ITV contractor Thames Television, Elstree Studios at Shenley Road, and had recently bought Anglo-Amalgamated, a film studio in which Nat Cohen had been a partner.
EMI moved into film production with the foundation of a new company, EMI-Elstree. Bernard Delfont appointed writer-director Bryan Forbes as the head of production at Elstree in April 1969 for three years at £40,000 a year, plus a percentage of the profits. As part of the general shake up of EMI, Nat Cohen was appointed to the Board.
EMI announced they would make 28 films for $36 million – 13 of these would be from Cohen's unit for £7 million, the rest from Forbes'. Bernard Delfont called it "probably the most ambitious program ever undertaken by a British film company."
Forbes announced his intention to make a variety of films at Elstree, steering away from what he called the "pornography of violence." He claimed EMI would make 14 films in 18 months with such stars as Peter Sellers and Roger Moore at a cost of £5–10 million pounds in total. His aim was to keep budgets down and create a varied slate which would increase the chances of appealing to audiences and making a sufficient return to continue productions.
Forbes soon announced his slate of projects, including:
- Hoffman (with Peter Sellers, directed by Alvin Rakoff),
- The Go-Between directed by Joseph Losey,
- The Breaking of Bumbo directed by Kevin Brownlow and Andrew Mollo,
- The Feathers of Death directed by Richard Attenborough from a story by Simon Raven,
- a film of a script by Richard Condon,
- an adaptation of The Railway Children directed by Lionel Jeffries,
- A Fine and Private Place, directed by Paul Watson
- Dulcima directed by Frank Nesbitt with John Mills,
- Forbrush and the Penguins.
"This is the first serious effort to revitalize the British film industry in 20 years," said Forbes. He added, "We intend to give youth a chance and not merely pay lip service to it. This is our first program and it won't be our last."
However, the first few films of Forbes' regime actually performed poorly commercially: Eyewitness, Hoffmann, And Soon the Darkness and The Man Who Haunted Himself (starring Moore). The Breaking of Bumbo (1970), and Mr. Forbush and the Penguins (1971) flopped and A Fine and Private Place was abandoned. Forbes clashed with Bernard Delfont and their American backers, in this case Columbia, over the artistic and commercial value of director Joseph Losey's film The Go-Between (1970). Forbes was also criticised within EMI for directing his own film, The Raging Moon (US: Long Ago, Tomorrow, 1971). The Railway Children and Tales of Beatrix Potter (1971) were Forbes' only hits.
The company was affected with labour problems. Forbes felt as though he did not have the support of the EMI board, arguing that he never had the funds to market his films, in contrast with those available to Anglo-EMI, which was headed by Nat Cohen.
Forbes resigned in March 1971, after committing himself to a no-redundancy policy. He had made eleven films in total for an estimated cost of £4 million. Although Forbes' regime was seen at the time to have been a commercial failure, he later claimed that by 1993 his £4 million program of films had eventually brought EMI a profit of £16 million.
Among the films Forbes wished to make but was unable to during his time at Elstree were adaptations of The Living Room, the play by Graham Greene to be directed by Michael Powell; Feathers of Death from the Simon Raven novel to be directed by Richard Attenborough; a musical about the Bernado Boys; and The Loud, Loud Silence a post-apocalyptic story from Richard Condon. He turned down Ned Kelly (1970) because its projected budget was too high.
In April 1970, EMI struck up a co-production agreement with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The Hollywood studio announced they would sell their Borehamwood facility and move their equipment to EMI's Elstree studio. MGM and EMI would then distribute and produce films in co-operation through a joint venture to be called MGM-EMI. and MGM began to finance some of EMI's productions. EMI's studio complex was renamed EMI-MGM Elstree Studios while a film distribution company MGM-EMI Distributors Ltd. was formed as part of the co-production agreement. This company, headed by Mike Havas would handle domestic distribution of MGM and EMI-produced films in the United Kingdom.
It was originally announced that MGM-EMI would make six to eight films a year, but they ended up producing far fewer. Forbes was given the title of managing director of MGM-EMI to add to his existing title of head of production. In July 1970 MGM-EMI announced they would make four co-productions: The Go-Between, Get Carter, The Boyfriend and The Last Run directed by John Boorman. Of these only the last was not made.
MGM pulled out of the amalgamation in 1973, and became a member of CIC, which took over international distribution of MGM produced films. At this point the distribution company became EMI Film Distributors Ltd., and EMI-MGM Elstree Studios reverted to EMI-Elstree Studios.
EMI's other filmmaking division, Anglo-EMI Film Distributors Ltd, which had come out of Anglo-Amalgamated, was run autonomously by Nat Cohen. This wing of the company had released films such as Percy (1971). They also financed and distributed a series of films made by Hammer Film Productions, which partly came about through Bernard Delfont's friendship with James Carreras.
Nat Cohen took over Forbes' responsibilities as head of production after his resignation in 1971. Cohen backed productions intended for international success, and EMI had a more obviously commercial outlook.
In October 1971, EMI's chairman John Read admitted the film division had performed disappointingly. "Profits were negligible last year and we felt it was desirable to make one or two provisions to write off some of the costs." However films like On the Buses and Up Pompeii performed well in relation to their budgets. "The experts say you're doing well if you make money out of one in three films," said Read. "We see filmmaking as a significant profit earner in the future."
Cohen was responsible for overseeing about 70% of the films produced in the UK during 1973, following a significant decline in domestic projects overall. In particular, long-term duopoly rival Rank had by now greatly reduced its own investment in British film production to a token presence. Cohen was not unaware of the problems inherent in his dominant position. Meanwhile, dependent on support from the most profitable parts of EMI, the company's financial position meant that they had to avoid backing any risky productions.
The greatest success of Cohen's regime was Murder on the Orient Express (1974), which Cohen later claimed was the first British movie fully financed by a British company to reach the top of the American box office charts.
Cohen resigned as chairman on 31 December 1977.
Michael Deeley and Barry SpikingsEdit
In May 1976, the company purchased British Lion Films and the two men who ran British Lion, Michael Deeley and Barry Spikings, became joint managing directors of EMI Distributors, with Nat Cohen remaining as chairman and chief executive. They also joined the EMI board, headed by Bernard Delfont.
Deeley and Spiking's method was to only make a film if at least half the budget was put up by an American studio, reducing their financial risk although making the studio's product less obviously British. They focused on movies with international appeal – i.e. action films – and big stars.
The initial Deeley-Spikings slate included three films shot in the US, with $18 million in all" The Deer Hunter, Convoy (1978) and The Driver (1978). They also did three shot in the UK, Death on the Nile (1978), Warlords of Atlantis (1978) and Sweeney 2 (1978). Films announced by not made include The Last Gun and Chinese Bandit.
EMI also signed an agreement to invest $5 million in Columbia films. They picked Close Encounters of the Third Kind, The Deep and The Greatest.
In July 1976 EMI bought Roger Gimbel's production company, Tomorrow Enterrrises, and formed EMI Television, headed by Gimbel. They made a large number of American TV movies like Deadman's Curve and The Amazing Howard Hughes.
EMI backed out of funding Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979) at the last moment, after Bernard Delfont read the script and objected to its treatment of religion.
In April 1978 EMI announced they would make films with the newly formed Orion Pictures, including Cutter and Bone, Arabian Adventure and Chinese Bandit.
Michael Deeley left EMI in 1979 but Barry Spikings remained in charge of film production.
Spikings and Associated Film DistributionEdit
Spikings announced a slate of films under his auspices: The Jazz Singer with Neil Diamond, Franco Zeffereli's biopic of Maria Callas, The Elephant Man, Discoland, The Awakening, The Knight directed by Ridley Scott, and Honky Tonk Freeway.
Delfont created a new company, Associated Film Distribution, to distribute films of EMI and ITC Entertainment, then controlled by Lew Grade, his brother. This move proved to be financially unsuccessful as EMI suffered a number of box office failures, in particular Can't Stop the Music (1980), Honky Tonk Freeway (1981), and Raise the Titanic (1980).
In March 1980 EMI were only making one film in Britain The Mirror Crack'd. Lord Delfont announced that the company had purchased two British scripts, The Defense by John Mortimer and Off the Record by Frederick Forsyth. He admitted that sixty percent of the company's film budget would be spent in America the following year but "100% of the profits would come to this country... We have got to make films we believe are international, to get the money to bring exports back to this country."
In February 1981, Barry Spikings announced a slate of films worth £70 million, including Honky Tonk Freeway, Memoirs of a Survivor, Comrades and The Knight (a Walter Hill film). The latter was not made.
In March 1981 Spikings admitted AFC has not "gotten off to a flying start" and would be wound up, with Universal taking over distribution of EMI Films. He argued that "production and distribution are not linked" and pointed to the five Oscars that EMI films had earned.
In January 1983 Barry Spikings left the company and Verity Lambert was appointed head of production. Gary Dartnall became executive chairman. Lambert's first slate was Slayground, Comfort and Joy, Illegal Aliens (which became Morons from Outer Space) and Dreamchild. Lambert said they aimed to make five films a year ranging from five to ten million dollars.
In December 1984, Thorn EMI offered investors the chance to invest in several films by issuing £36 million worth of shares. The films were A Passage to India (1984), Morons from Outer Space, Dreamchild, Wild Geese II and The Holcroft Covenant (all 1985).
In March 1985 Thorn EMI announced they would set up a production fund worth $175 million to make twenty films. Financier John Reis said the fund would be used as loans for filmmakers or to invest in films budgeted around $13-14 million. Reis said that the films would be made for international audiences, their typical audience member being a 42-year-old factory worker from Cincinnati.
Lambert resigned in July 1985. After this TESE wound down its in-house production arm and relied on films from independent outfits. The last films made under her watch were Clockwise and Link.
Lambert later recalled the after she was hired, "the person who hired me left, and the person who came in didn't want to produce films and didn't want me. While I managed to make some films I was proud of... Dreamchild, and Clockwise... it was terribly tough and not a very happy experience. But I was determined to see out my three-year contract. By the end I'd had enough of corporate life and wanted to see what I could do as an independent."
Thorn EMI later sold its film production and distribution arm (Thorn EMI Screen Entertainment), home video (Thorn EMI Video), and cinema (ABC Cinemas) operations to businessman Alan Bond in April 1986. Bond, in turn, sold it to The Cannon Group a week later. A year after the purchase, a cash-strapped Cannon sold the film library to Weintraub Entertainment Group.
The library ended up in the hands of several companies over the years and is now owned by StudioCanal, a sister company to Universal Music Group who acquired EMI in 2012 and parent company Canal+ Group's acquisition of European cinema operator UGC who acquired the library's then-owner, the United Kingdom-based Lumiere Pictures and Television in 1996, via Cannon Films. EMI Films also owned Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, England; in turn, Cannon ended up purchasing the studio as well, but later sold it to Brent Walker Group plc in 1988, who in turn ended up selling half of the EMI Elstree Studios site to Tesco for a supermarket, before Hertsmere Council eventually acquired what was left of the Elstree Studios, and, as of 2018, still operates it as a film and television studios centre.
EMI financed films under a variety of corporate names and with a series of production partners. Below are the main ones:
- Eyewitness (Jun 1970) (ABPC)
- And Soon the Darkness (Jul 1970) (ABPC)
- Hoffman (Jul 1970) (ABPC)
- The Man Who Haunted Himself (Jul 1970) (ABPC)
- The Breaking of Bumbo (Sep 1970) (ABPC)
- The Railway Children (Dec 1970)
- A Fine and Private Place (1970) (abandoned)
- The Raging Moon (Jan 1971)
- The Tales of Beatrix Potter (Jun 1971)
- Mr. Forbush and the Penguins (Dec 1971)
- Dulcima (Dec 1971)
- On the Buses (Jul 1971)
- Blood from the Mummy's Tomb (Oct 1971)
- Mutiny on the Buses (Jun1972)
- Straight on Till Morning (Jul 1972)
- Demons of the Mind (Nov 1972)
- Man at the Top (1973) (AE/H)
- Love Thy Neighbour (Jul 1973)
- Holiday on the Buses (Dec 1973)
- To the Devil a Daughter (Mar 1976) (H)
- All the Way Up (1970) (AA)
- Spring and Port Wine (Feb 1970) (AA)
- Entertaining Mr Sloane (Apr 1970) (AA)
- Percy (Feb 1971) (AE)
- Up Pompeii (Mar 1971) (AE)
- Villain (May 1971) (AE) - produced by Kanter, Ladd and Kastner
- Family Life (Dec 1971) (AE) - directed by Ken Loach
- Up the Chastity Belt (Jan 1972)
- Steptoe and Son (Jan 1972)
- I Am a Dancer (Jun 1972) (AE)
- Afternoon of a Champion (Jun 1972) (AE) (documentary)
- Up the Front (Jul 1972) (AE)
- Henry VIII and His Six Wives (Jul 1972) (AE)
- Endless Night (Oct 1972)
- Our Miss Fred (Dec 1972) (AE)
- Fear Is the Key (Dec 1972) - produced by Kanter, Ladd and Kastner
- Never Mind the Quality Feel the Width (Jan 1973)
- Baxter! (Mar 1973) (AE)
- Steptoe and Son Ride Again (Jul 1973)
- The Final Programme (Oct 1973) (AE)
- The Dove (May 1974) (D)
- Our Cissy (1974) (short)
- Murder on the Orient Express (Nov 1974) (AE)
- Sunday in the Country (Nov 1974) (D)
- Monty Python and the Holy Grail (Apr 1975)*
- All Creatures Great and Small (May 1975)
- Trick or Treat? (1976) (abandoned)
- The Likely Lads (Apr 1976)
- Spanish Fly (Sep 1976) (D)
- It Shouldn't Happen to a Vet (Apr 1976)
- Aces High (May 1976) (D)
- Seven Nights in Japan (Aug 1976) (P)
- Sweeney! (Jan 1977)
- Cross of Iron (Jan 1977) (A-E)
- Twenty Five Years (1977) (documentary)
- Welcome to Blood City (Aug 1977)
Co-Productions with ColumbiaEdit
- Nickelodeon (Dec 1976) - also with British Lion
- The Greatest (May 1977) - also with British Lion
- Silver Bears (Jun 1977)
- The Deep (Jun 1977)
- Sink or Swim (1977)
- Close Encounters of the Third Kind (Nov 1977)
- The Cheap Detective (Jun 1978)
Michael Deeley and Barry Spikings RegimeEdit
- Sweeney 2 (Apr 1978)
- Warlords of Atlantis (May 1978) - with Columbia
- Convoy (Jun 1978) - with United Artists
- The Driver (Jul 1978) - with 20th Century Fox
- Death on the Nile (Sep 1978) - with Paramount
- The Deer Hunter (Dec 1978) - with Universal
- The Amazing Howard Hughes (Apr 1977)
- The Girl Called Hatter Fox (Oct 1977)
- Special Olympics (Feb 1977)
- Forever (Jan 1978)
- Deadman's Curve (Feb 1978)
- Just Me and You (May 1978)
- One in a Million: The Ron LeFlore Story (Sep 1978)
- Betrayal (Nov 1978)
- Steel Cowboy (Dec 1978)
- Lawman Without a Gun (Dec 1978)
- Deathmoon (May 1978)
- Lawman Without a Gun (1978)
- The Cracker Factory (Mar 1979)
- S.O.S. Titanic (Sep 1979)
- Survival of Dana (1979)
- Can You Hear the Laughter? The Story of Freddie Prinze (Sep 1979)
- Orphan Train (Dec 1979)
- The Dances Goes On (1980)
- Sophia Loren: Her Own Story (Oct 1980)
- My Kidnapper, My Love (Dec 1980)
- The Killing of Randy Webster (1981)
- Broken Promise (1981)
- The Manions of America (1981)
- A Piano for Mrs. Cimino (Feb 1982)
- A Question of Honor (1982)
- Coming Out of the Ice (1982)
- Deadly Encounter (1982)
- The Legend of Walks Far Woman (May 1982) (filmed 1979)
- Packin' It In (1983)
- Arabian Adventure (Jul 1979) - with British Lion - distributed by AFD
- The Crown Prince (1979)
- Can't Stop the Music (Jun 1980) - distributed by AFD
- The Awakening (Oct 1980) - with Orion - distributed by Warners
- Times Square (Oct 1980) - with Robert Stigwood, distributed by AFD
- The Elephant Man (Oct 1980) - with Brooksfilms - distributed by Columbia-EMI-Warner (UK), Paramount (US)
- The Jazz Singer (Dec 1980) - distributed by AFD
- The Mirror Crack'd (Dec 1980) - distributed by AFD
- Honky Tonk Freeway (Aug 1981) - distributed by AFD
- Evil Under the Sun (Mar 1982) - distributed by AFD
- Britannia Hospital (May 1982) . -with British Lion
- Frances (Dec 1982) - with Brooksfilms, distributed by Universal
- Second Thoughts (Feb 1983) - distributed by Universal
- Bad Boys (Mar 1983) - distributed by Universal
- Tender Mercies (Mar 1983) - distributed by Universal
- Strange Invaders (Sep 1983) - distributed by Orion
- Cross Creek (May 1983) - with Universal, distributed by AFD, Universal
- Handgun (May 1983) (made in 1981)
- Slayground (Dec 1983)
- Comfort and Joy (Aug 1984)
- Not for Publication (Nov 1984)
- A Passage to India (Dec 1984) distributed by C
- Morons from Outer Space (Mar 1985)
- Restless Natives (Jun 1985)
- Dreamchild (Oct 1985)
- Wild Geese II (Oct 1985)
- The Holcroft Covenant (Oct 1985)
- Highlander (Mar 1986)
- Clockwise (Mar 1986)
- Link (Mar 1986)
- AA = co-production with Anglo-Amalgamated
- ABPC = produced by Associated British Picture Corporation
- AE = as Anglo-EMI
- AFD = distributed by Associated Film Distributors
- C = co-production with Columbia Pictures
- D = distributor only
- H = co-production with Hammer Film Productions
- MGM = co-production with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
- Orion = co-production with Orion Pictures
- P = co-production with Paramount Pictures
- TESE = as Thorn EMI Screen Entertainment
- U = co-production with Universal
- UA = co-production with United Artists
- WB = co-production with Warner Bros.
- "Vertical integration". www.terramedia.co.uk. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- Warren, Patricia (2001). British Film Studios: An Illustrated History. London: B. T. Batsford. p. 75.
- Forbes, p 62
- Pearson, Kenneth. "The Great Film Gamble." Sunday Times 13 April 1969: 53. The Sunday Times Digital Archive. Web. 29 March 2014.
- "BUSINESS diary." Times [London, England] 9 April 1969: 23. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 6 April 2014.
- ECONOMY: Ease the squeeze now please The Observer (1901– 2003) [London (UK)] 30 November 1969: 18.
- Shot in Arm for British Film Industry Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 29 November 1969: a9.
- Dennis Barker, 'Parable of talent: DENNIS BARKER interviews Bryan Forbes', The Guardian (1959–2003) [London (UK)] 9 August 1969: 6.
- Walker, 1974, p.426-428
- 'Britain steps back into cinema's big league', The Guardian (1959–2003) [London (UK)], 13 August 1969, p.5
- John Heilpern "The End: In the Last Fifteen Years the British Cinema Has Lost Four-Fifths of its Audience. Today Half of the Industry'sTechnicians Are Out of Work", The Observer (London), 28 June 1970, p.9
- In the Picture Sight and Sound38.4 (Fall 1969): 181.
- British Film Czar Plans to Revitalize Industry McEWAN, IAN. Los Angeles Times 15 Aug 1969: d16.
- City comment: Soon the darkness The Guardian 8 March 1971: 12.
- "Forbes Quits as Flstree's Film Chief", Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 26 March 1971: e15.
- Brian McFarlane (ed.) The Encyclopedia of British Film, London: Methuen/BFI, 2003, p.203
- Walker, 1985, p 114
- Forbes, p.108
- Forbes, p.102
- Forbes, p.103
- Pearson, Kenneth. "News in the Arts." Sunday Times [London, England] 4 April 1971: 37. The Sunday Times Digital Archive. Web. 29 March 2014.
- Sian Barber The British Film Industry in the 1970s: Capital, Culture and Creativity, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p.47
- Patricia Warren British Film Studios: An Illustrated History, London: B.T Batsford, 2001, p.76
- "MGM to Close, Down English Film Facility", Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif], 25 April 1970: p.a6
- Spectrum Of Interest: Film Notes By Gary Arnold. The Washington Post, Times Herald 15 July 1970: B5.
- Sue Harper Women in British Cinema: Mad, Bad and Dangerous to Know, London & New York: Continuum, 2000, p.128
- EMI faces the music Braham, Michael. The Observer 10 Oct 1971: 14.
- Barber, p.48
- "News in Brief." Times [London, England] 9 May 1973: 4. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 6 April 2014.
- "'Murder on the Orient Express' tops US charts." Times [London, England] 11 February 1975: 7. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 6 April 2014.
- "BFI Screenonline: Film Studios and Industry Bodies > EMI Film Productions". www.screenonline.org.uk. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- Walker, 1985 p141
- "News in Brief." Times [London, England] 9 July 1975: 3. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 6 April 2014.
- FILM CLIPS: 'The Body Snatchers' Moves Up Kilday, Gregg. Los Angeles Times 22 Oct 1977: c11.
- Mills, Bart. "British money is suddenly big in Hollywood,'right up with Fox and Warner." The Guardian 2 September 1977: 8.
- Acquisitionof B Lion The Guardian (1959-2003); London (UK) [London (UK)]19 May 1976: 18.
- Michael Deeley, Blade Runners, Deer Hunters and Blowing the Bloody Doors Off: My Life in Cult Movies, Pegasus Books, 2009, p. 128-199
- If a Movie Goes in America, Will Rest of World Buy It?: E.M.I. Films Chief Says Answer Depends Upon Motion and Stars By ALJEAN HARMETZ Special to The New York Times. New York Times (1923–Current file) [New York, N.Y] 1 August 1977: 34.
- CRITIC AT LARGE: In Search of World Viewers Champlin, Charles. Los Angeles Times (1923-1995); Los Angeles, Calif. [Los Angeles, Calif]27 May 1977: g1.
- Deeley in his memoirs says the sixth film was Arabian Adventure. See Deeley p 134
- Deeley p 134
- Gimbel Will Head EMI-TV Los Angeles Times 26 July 1976: f12.
- Orion's Star Rises in Hollywood: Contrasts to M-G-M's Contract No Punches Pulled By ALJEAN HARMETZ. New York Times 19 Apr 1978: C19.
- The man who came to film The Guardian 18 July 1979: 10.
- FILM CLIPS: A New Dimension for a Brother Act Kilday, Gregg. Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 28 October 1978: b11.
- British films get British boost Barker, Dennis. The Guardian 12 Mar 1980: 2.
- Orange order The Guardian (1959-2003); London (UK) [London (UK)]02 Feb 1981: 11.
- British role in US film market is cut Barker, Dennis. The Guardian 3 Mar 1981: 2.
- Cinema Verity: Peter Fiddick talks toEMI-Thorn 's new film production chief Fiddick, Peter. The Guardian 24 Nov 1983: 13.
- Walker 1985 p286
- Producer splits cost of films The Guardian 10 Jan 1985: 4.
- Thorn EMI plans $175m film fund Brown, Maggie. The Guardian 20 Mar 1985: 24.
- Walker, 1985, p35-36
- Three of the best: David Newpart on three big theatrical names going into films Newport, David. The Guardian 1 Aug 1985: 11.
- "CV; VERITY LAMBERT Founder, Cinema Verity". The Independent. 5 May 1997.
- JR, WILLIAM K. KNOEDELSEDER (7 August 1987). "Cannon Group Loses $9.9 Million in Quarter". Retrieved 21 February 2018 – via LA Times.
- Forbes, Bryan, A Divided Life, Mandarin Paperbacks, 1993
- Walker, Alexander, Hollywood England, Harrap and Stein, 1974
- Walker, Alexander, National Heroes: British Cinema in the Seventies and Eighties, Harrap, 1985
- Walker, Alexander, Icons in the Fire: The Rise and Fall of Practically Everyone in the British Film Industry 1984–2000, Orion Books, 2005