Batman Forever is a 1995 American superhero film directed by Joel Schumacher and produced by Tim Burton, based on the DC Comics character Batman. It is the third installment of the initial Batman film series, with Val Kilmer replacing Michael Keaton as Bruce Wayne / Batman. The film also stars Chris O'Donnell, Nicole Kidman, Tommy Lee Jones, and Jim Carrey. The plot focuses on Batman trying to stop Two-Face (Jones) and the Riddler (Carrey) in their villainous scheme to extract confidential information from all the minds in Gotham City and use it to learn Batman's identity and bring the city under their control. He gains allegiance from a love interest—psychiatrist Dr. Chase Meridian (Kidman) and a young, orphaned circus acrobat named Dick Grayson (O'Donnell), who becomes his sidekick Robin.
Theatrical release poster by John Alvin
|Directed by||Joel Schumacher|
|Music by||Elliot Goldenthal|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros. Pictures|
|Box office||$336.5 million|
Batman Forever's tone is significantly different from the previous installments, becoming more family-friendly since Warner Bros. believed that the previous Batman film, Batman Returns (1992), failed to outgross its predecessor due to parent complaints about the film's violence and dark overtones. Schumacher eschewed the dark, dystopian atmosphere of Burton's films by drawing inspiration from the Batman comic book of the Dick Sprang era, as well as the 1960s television series. Keaton chose not to reprise the role due to failing to negotiate with studio executives Terry Semel and Bob Daly about the overall approach to the script. William Baldwin and Ethan Hawke were initially considered for Keaton's replacement before Kilmer joined the cast. Rene Russo was originally set to play Chase Meridian, based on her chemistry with Keaton in One Good Cop, but was replaced with the much younger Nicole Kidman after being deemed "too old" for Kilmer.
The film was released on June 16, 1995, receiving mixed reviews, but was a financial success. Batman Forever grossed over $336 million worldwide and became the sixth-highest-grossing film worldwide of 1995.
In Gotham City, the crime fighter Batman defuses a hostage situation caused by a criminal known as Two-Face, the alter ego of the former district attorney Harvey Dent, but Two-Face escapes and remains at large. Edward Nygma, a researcher at Wayne Enterprises who idolizes Bruce Wayne, has developed a device that can beam television into a person's brain. Bruce offers to let Nygma come up with schematics for the device and set up a meeting with his assistant. However, after Nygma demands an answer from him immediately, Bruce rejects the invention, believing it to be too close to mind manipulation. After killing his supervisor and staging it as a suicide, Nygma resigns and begins sending Bruce riddles, seeking retaliation against him.
Bruce meets Chase Meridian, a psychiatrist who is obsessed with Batman, and invites her to come with him to a circus event. After a performance from the circus performers, The Flying Graysons, Two-Face arrives and threatens to blow up the circus unless Batman comes forward and surrenders his life to him. The Flying Graysons attempt to stop Two-Face, but most of them get killed as a result. Only Dick Grayson, the youngest member, survives as he climbs to the roof and throws Two-Face's bomb into a river.
Bruce invites the orphaned Dick to stay at Wayne Manor. Dick, still troubled by the murder of his family, intends to kill Two-Face and avenge his family. When he discovers that Bruce is Batman, he demands that Bruce help him find Two-Face so that he can kill him, but Bruce refuses. Meanwhile, Nygma, inspired and delighted by watching Two-Face's raid at the circus, turns himself into a criminal called the Riddler and forms an alliance with Two-Face. The two steal capital in order to mass-produce Nygma's brainwave device so that Riddler can use it to learn Batman's secret identity.
At Nygma's business party, Nygma discovers Bruce's alter ego using the brainwave device. Two-Face arrives and crashes the party. He nearly kills Batman, but Dick manages to save him. Meanwhile, Chase has fallen in love with Bruce, which surpasses her obsession with Batman. Bruce decides to stop being Batman in order to have a normal life with Chase, and to prevent Dick from murdering Two-Face. Dick runs away while Bruce and Chase have dinner together in the manor, where Bruce reveals his secret identity to her. The Riddler and Two-Face arrive and attack Wayne Manor; in the process, the Riddler blows up the Batcave. The criminals kidnap Chase after Two-Face shoots Bruce, and the Riddler leaves him another riddle.
Using the riddles, Bruce and his butler, Alfred, deduce the Riddler's secret identity. Chase is imprisoned by the Riddler and Two-Face in their hideout. Dick returns and becomes Batman's sidekick, Robin. Batman and Robin head to Riddler and Two-Face's lair, Claw Island, where they are separated. Robin encounters Two-Face and nearly kills him, but chooses to spare his life and is captured. The Riddler gives Batman a chance to save only one hostage, but Batman destroys the Riddler's brainwave collecting device, causing the Riddler to suffer a mental breakdown. Batman then rescues both Robin and Chase. Two-Face corners the trio and determines their fate with the flip of a coin, but Batman throws a handful of identical coins in the air, causing Two-Face to stumble and fall to his death.
The Riddler is taken to Arkham Asylum and imprisoned, but he claims he knows who Batman is. Chase is asked to consult on the case, but Nygma says that he himself is Batman, due to his damaged memories. Chase meets Bruce outside and tells him that his secret is safe before parting ways. Bruce resumes his crusade as Batman with Robin as his partner to protect Gotham from crime.
- Val Kilmer as Bruce Wayne / Batman
After coming across the journal of his father, he starts questioning his act of vengeance. Bruce struggles with his dual identity as a crime fighter, becoming romantically involved with Dr. Chase Meridian. Michael Keaton, the actor that portrayed Batman in the first two films, was originally attached to reprise his role, but he declined after learning that Schumacher would direct the film. Keaton later recalled, "I knew it was in trouble when [Schumacher] said, ‘Why does everything have to be so dark?’" Ramsey Ellis plays a young Bruce Wayne.
- Tommy Lee Jones as Harvey Dent / Two-Face
Formerly the good district attorney of Gotham City, half of Harvey's face is scarred with acid during the conviction of a crime boss. Driven insane, he becomes the criminal Harvey Two-Face obsessed with killing Batman. He flips a two-headed coin to determine if he kills (damaged side) or not (clean side). Billy Dee Williams, the actor that portrayed Dent in the first film, was supposed to reprise the role, but Joel Schumacher gave the role to Jones, as he had worked with him previously in The Client.
- Jim Carrey as Edward Nygma / The Riddler
A former Wayne Enterprises employee, Edward resigns after his newest invention is personally rejected by Bruce Wayne, with whom he is obsessed. He becomes the villainous Riddler, leaving riddles and puzzles at crime scenes. Robin Williams was previously considered for the role, but he declined, although later regretted. Singer Micky Dolenz was also in contention for the role, but he also turned down the offer.
- Nicole Kidman as Dr. Chase Meridian
A psychologist and love interest of Bruce Wayne. Chase is fascinated by the dual nature of Batman. She is held as a damsel in distress in the climax.
- Chris O'Donnell as Richard "Dick" Grayson / Robin
Once a circus acrobat, Dick is taken in by Bruce after Two-Face murders his parents and brother at a circus event. Bruce is reminded of when his parents were murdered when he sees the same vengeance in Dick, and decides to take him in as his ward. He eventually discovers the Batcave and learns Bruce's secret identity. In his wake, he becomes the crime fighting partner, Robin.
- Michael Gough as Alfred Pennyworth
The Wayne family's faithful butler and Bruce's confidant. Alfred also befriends the young Grayson.
- Pat Hingle as Commissioner James Gordon
The police commissioner of Gotham City.
- Drew Barrymore as Sugar
Two-Face's "good" assistant.
- Debi Mazar as Spice
Two-Face's "bad" assistant.
- Elizabeth Sanders as Gossip Gerty
Gotham's top gossip columnist.
- René Auberjonois as Dr. Burton
The head Doctor of Arkham Asylum. His surname is a reference to Tim Burton, the director of the first two installments. He originally filmed a scene in which Dr. Burton discovered that Two-Face had escaped and found his guard tied up and gagged, but the scene was deleted from the film.
- Joe Grifasi as Hawkins, the Bank Guard
Two-Face's hostage during the opening scene.
- Kimberly Scott as Margaret, Bruce Wayne's secretary.
- Don "The Dragon" Wilson as the leader of the Neon Gang.
- En Vogue as Hookers
- Ofer Samra as Two-Face's thug
- Ed Begley, Jr. as Fred Stickley
Edward Nygma's ill-tempered supervisor at Wayne Enterprises. After Stickley discovers the side effect of Edward's invention, Edward kills him and makes it look like suicide. Begley was uncredited for this role.
- Patrick Leahy in an uncredited cameo
This is the first of five cameo appearances in Batman films by Leahy, a United States Senator and DC Comics fan.
|"I always hated those titles like Batman Forever. That sounds like a tattoo that somebody would get when they're on drugs or something. Or something some kid would write in the yearbook."|
|— Producer Tim Burton|
Batman Returns was released in 1992 with financial success and generally favorable reviews from critics, but Warner Bros. was disappointed with its box office run, having made $150 million less than the first film. Director Tim Burton was asked to restrict himself to the role of producer, with approval of Joel Schumacher as director and the husband and wife screenwriting couple Lee and Janet Scott-Batchler, who agreed with him that "the key element to Batman is his duality. And it's not just that Batman is Bruce Wayne". Their original script introduced a psychotic Riddler with a pet rat accompanying him. The story elements and much of the dialogue still remained in the finished film, though Schumacher felt it could be "lighte[ne]d down". Schumacher claims he originally had in mind an adaptation of Frank Miller's Batman: Year One. Warner Bros. rejected the idea as they wanted a sequel, not a prequel, though Schumacher was able to include very brief events in Bruce Wayne's childhood with some events of the comic The Dark Knight Returns. Akiva Goldsman, who worked with Schumacher on The Client, was brought in to rewrite the script. Burton, who was more interested in directing Ed Wood, later reflected he was taken aback by some of the focus group meetings for Batman Forever, a title which he hated. Producer Peter MacGregor-Scott represented the studio's aim in making a film for the MTV Generation with full merchandising appeal.
Production went on fast track with Rene Russo cast as Dr. Chase Meridian but Michael Keaton decided not to reprise Batman because he did not like the new direction the film series was heading in. Keaton also wanted to pursue "more interesting roles", turning down $15 million. A decision was made to go with a younger actor for Bruce Wayne, and an offer was made to Ethan Hawke, who turned it down. Schumacher had seen Val Kilmer in Tombstone, but was also interested in Daniel Day-Lewis, Ralph Fiennes, William Baldwin and Johnny Depp. Kilmer signed on without reading the script or knowing who the new director was.
With Kilmer's casting, Warner Bros. dropped Rene Russo as Chase Meridian. Robin Wright, Jeanne Tripplehorn and Linda Hamilton were all considered for the role, which was eventually recast with Nicole Kidman. Billy Dee Williams took on the role of Harvey Dent in Batman on the possibility of portraying Two-Face in a sequel, but Schumacher cast Tommy Lee Jones in the role, after having worked with him on The Client. Jones was reluctant to accept the role, but did so after his son's insistence. Robin Williams was in discussions to be the Riddler at one point. In a 2003 interview, Schumacher stated Michael Jackson lobbied hard for the role, but was turned down before Jim Carrey was cast. Robin appeared in the shooting script of Batman Returns but was deleted due to too many characters. Marlon Wayans had been cast in the role, and signed for a potential sequel. It was decided to replace Wayans with a white actor. Leonardo DiCaprio was considered, but decided not to pursue the role after a meeting with Schumacher. Chris O'Donnell was cast and Mitchell Gaylord served as his stunt double. Schumacher attempted to create a cameo role for Bono as his MacPhisto character, but both came to agree it was not suitable for the film.
Filming started in September 1994. Schumacher hired Barbara Ling for production design, claiming that the film needed a "force" and good design. Ling could "advance on it". Schumacher wanted a design that was not to be in any way connected to the previous films, and instead was to be inspired by the images from the Batman comic books seen in the 1940s/early 1950s and taken from that of New York City architecture in the 1930s, with a combination of modern Tokyo. He also wanted a "city with personality", with more statues, as well as various amounts of neon.
Schumacher had problems filming with Kilmer, whom he described as "childish and impossible", reporting that he fought with various crewmen, and refused to speak to Schumacher during two weeks after the director told him to stop behaving in a rude way. Schumacher also mentioned Tommy Lee Jones as a source of trouble: "Jim Carrey was a gentleman, and Tommy Lee was threatened by him. I'm tired of defending overpaid, overprivileged actors. I pray I don't work with them again." Carrey later acknowledged Jones was not friendly to him, telling him once off-set during the production, "I hate you. I really don't like you ... I cannot sanction your buffoonery."
Design and effects
Rick Baker designed the prosthetic makeup. John Dykstra, Andrew Adamson and Jim Rygiel served as visual effects supervisors, with Pacific Data Images also contributing to visual effects work. PDI provided a computer-generated Batman for complicated stunts. For the costume design, producer Peter MacGregor-Scott claimed that 146 workers were at one point working together. Batman's costume was redesigned along the lines of a more "MTV organic, and edgier feel" to the suit. Sound editing and mixing was supervised by Bruce Stambler and John Levesque, which included trips to caves to record bat sounds. A new Batmobile was designed for Batman Forever, with two cars being constructed, one for stunt purposes and one for close-ups. Swiss surrealist painter H.R. Giger provided his version for the Batmobile but it was considered too sinister for the film.
Elliot Goldenthal was hired by Schumacher to compose the film score before the screenplay was written. In discussions with Schumacher, the director wanted Goldenthal to avoid taking inspiration from Danny Elfman, and requested an original composition. The film's promotional teaser trailer used the main title theme from Elfman's score of 1989's Batman.
The soundtrack was commercially successful, selling almost as many copies as Prince's soundtrack to the 1989 Batman film. Only five of the songs on the soundtrack are actually featured in the movie. Hit singles from the soundtrack include "Hold Me, Thrill Me, Kiss Me, Kill Me" by U2 and "Kiss from a Rose" by Seal, both of which were nominated for MTV Movie Awards. "Kiss from a Rose" (whose video was also directed by Joel Schumacher) reached No. 1 in the U.S. charts as well. The soundtrack itself, featuring additional songs by The Flaming Lips, Brandy (both songs also included in the film), Method Man, Nick Cave, Michael Hutchence (of INXS), PJ Harvey, and Massive Attack, was an attempt to (in producer Peter MacGregor-Scott's words) make the film more "pop".
Batman Forever went through a few major edits before its release. Originally darker than the final product, the movie's original length was closer to 2 hours and 40 minutes according to director Joel Schumacher. There was talk of an extended cut being released to DVD for the film's 10th anniversary in 2005. While all four previous Batman films were given special edition DVD releases on the same day as the Batman Begins DVD release, none of them were given extended cuts, although some of the following scenes were in a deleted scenes section in the special features.
There was an undercurrent theme involving Bruce having repressed memories of an aspect of his parents' death that he hadn't faced which was finding his father's diary on the night of his parents' wake and reading that Bruce insisted his parents go to the theater so he could watch one of the shows, meaning the reason he became Batman was out of the guilt that he was responsible for their deaths.
Many scenes were filmed but deleted from the film, other scenes had footage removed. These included:
- The escape of Two-Face from Arkham Asylum. René Auberjonois had another scene filmed here in the role of Doctor Burton, but his role was reduced in the final film. He discovers Two-Face's escape, encountering his psychologist hanged in Two-Face's cell with "The Bat Must Die" written in blood on the wall. This was supposed to be the film's opening scene, but producers decided this was far too dark for a family audience.
- When Two-Face addresses the crowd from the helicopter in the opening action scene, the speech was truncated and several lines that appeared in the Theatrical Trailer were removed, including the line "If the Bat wants to play, we'll play!"
- There was a sequence that contained an extended fight scene between Two-Face and Batman, where they both struggle for control of the helicopter. In this scene, Two-Face accuses Batman of being "a killer too"(a continuity reference to the previous Burton films). Two-face then manages to escape by the parachute, after Batman realizes he has locked the steering wheel into position. This sequence is included in rough form on the special edition DVD.
- A scene right before Edward Nygma arrived at Wayne Manor. It featured Bruce Wayne watching a local Gotham talk show with Chase Meridian as a guest, talking about Batman.
- One scene right before Riddler and Two-face team up featured a little conversation with Dick and Bruce in the gym of the manor. This would explain why Dick suddenly has martial arts training. This scene appears in a rough edit on the Special Edition DVD.
- The scene where the Riddler fails to punch a security guard out. The guard is then brutally beaten by the Riddler using his cane.
- One sequence came directly after the casino robbery, where Batman follows a robbery signal on a tracking device in the Batmobile. He shows up at the crime scene and finds he is at the wrong place (a beauty salon), in which a room full of girls laugh at him. The Riddler had been throwing Batman off the track by messing with the Batmobile's tracking device. This would explain why in the theatrical version Batman seems to give Riddler and Two-Face moments of free rein over the city. This scene appears in a rough edit on the Special Edition DVD.
- The construction of NygmaTech was after Batman solves the third riddle and was more in-depth. There were scenes shot that appear in publicity stills of Edward Nygma with a hard hat helping with the construction of his headquarters on Claw Island.
- Sugar and Spice, played by Drew Barrymore and Debi Mazar, try out the Riddler's device during the montage when it goes on sale. They are seated with the Riddler and Two-Face on the couch where Chase is handcuffed later in the film. This scene appears in the comic adaptation but not in the final film.
- There was originally a scene after the montage of Alfred and Bruce examining the NygmaTech "Box".
- An extended scene established Bruce in the Batcave shortly after having discussed with Dick then that this would have saved his life after the battle with Two-Face in the subway system under construction. In this scene he is appreciated as the GNN news (Bruce watching in the Batcomputer) attacking Batman and Two-Face after the battle in the Subway and after that Bruce talking to Alfred turns into the dilemma of continuing to be Batman and try a normal life with Chase. Like the deleted Helicopter fight sequence, this scene also makes reference to Batman himself being "a killer", and in the original production screenplay, this scene was to contain footage from Batman Returns, specifically taken from the rooftop fight scene with Catwoman. This would explain why in the theatrical version Bruce turns off all the systems in the Batcave telling Dick he gives up being Batman. This scene appears in a rough form on the Special Edition DVD.
- Another scene in the Wayne Manor raid sequence was longer, featuring Bruce and Chase fighting Two-Face and his thugs.
- The scene involving Chase Meridian on the couch originally included a longer ending where the Riddler injects her with a green sleeping agent so he can easily place her in the small tube with the trap door.
- Another deleted scene involved Bruce waking up after being shot in the head by Two-Face, temporarily forgetting his origin and life as the Dark Knight. Alfred takes him to the Batcave, which has been destroyed by the Riddler. They stand on the platform where the Batmobile was, and Alfred says, "Funny they did not know about the cave beneath the cave." The platform then rotates downward to another level where the sonar-modification equipment is kept, from the special Batsuit to the hi-tech weaponry. Bruce then discovers the cavern where he first saw the giant bat that inspired him to become Batman. Inside he finds his father's red diary which he had dropped when he first fell into the Batcave after his parents death. He reads the entry about him insisting his parents take him to the theater to see a show the same night they were killed. He realizes he had misread it, and his father had written 'even though Bruce insists, we wanted to see Zorro so his show will have to wait until next week'. Bruce realizes his parents death was not his fault after all. The giant bat then appears and Bruce raises his arms to match the wing anatomy of the bat and the shot shows that they are one. Bruce now remembers who he is and goes with Alfred to solve the riddles left throughout the film. Screenwriter Akiva Goldsman admitted the scene was very theatrical on the special edition DVD and felt it would have made a difference to the final cut. The bat was designed and created by Rick Baker, who was in charge of the make-up of Two-Face. This scene appears in a rough form on the special edition DVD.
- The fight scene between Two-Face and Robin on Claw Island was originally longer.
- The original ending was similar in style to the previous Batman films, which had involved a scene with Alfred in the limousine, the camera tracking upward through the Gotham cityscape, followed by a rooftop shot involving a silhouetted hero (Batman in the original, Catwoman in Batman Returns) facing the Bat Signal. When Alfred drives Doctor Chase Meridian back to Gotham she asks him "Does it ever end, Alfred?" Alfred replies, "No, Doctor Meridian, not in this lifetime..." The Bat-Signal shines on the night sky and Batman is standing on a pillar looking ahead. Robin then comes into shot and joins his new partner. They both leap off the pillar, towards the camera. A rough edit of the first half of the scene appears on the special edition DVD, but not in its entirety.
Batman Forever opened in 2,842 theaters in the United States on June 16, 1995, making $52.8 million in its opening weekend, breaking Jurassic Park's record for highest opening weekend gross of all-time (it was surpassed two years later by The Lost World: Jurassic Park's $72.1 million). The film went on to gross $184 million in North America, and $152.5 million in other countries, totaling $336.53 million. The film earned more money than its predecessor Batman Returns, and was the second-highest (behind Toy Story) grossing film of 1995, in the U.S.
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 39% based on 61 reviews, with an average rating of 5.2/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Loud, excessively busy, and often boring, Batman Forever nonetheless has the charisma of Jim Carrey and Tommy Lee Jones to offer mild relief." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 51 out of 100, based on 23 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A–" on an A+ to F scale.
Peter Travers said "Batman Forever still gets in its licks. There's no fun machine this summer that packs more surprises." However, he criticized the film's excessive commercialism and felt that "the script misses the pain Tim Burton caught in a man tormented by the long-ago murder of his parents" seeing the Bruce Wayne of Kilmer as "inexpressive". Brian Lowry of Variety believed "One does have to question the logic behind adding nipples to the hard-rubber batsuit. Whose idea was that supposed to be anyway, Alfred's? Some of the computer-generated Gotham cityscapes appear too obviously fake. Elliot Goldenthal's score, while serviceable, also isn't as stirring as Danny Elfman's work in the first two films."
James Berardinelli enjoyed the film. "It's lighter, brighter, funnier, faster-paced, and a whole lot more colorful than before." Scott Beatty felt "Tommy Lee Jones played Harvey Dent as a Joker knock-off rather than a multi-layered rogue." Lee Bermejo called Batman Forever "unbearable". Gene Siskel and Roger Ebert both gave the film mixed reviews, but with the former giving it a thumbs up and the latter a thumbs down. In his written review, Ebert wrote: "Is the movie better entertainment? Well, it's great bubblegum for the eyes. Younger children will be able to process it more easily; some kids were led bawling from Batman Returns where the PG-13 rating was a joke." Mick LaSalle had a mixed reaction, concluding "a shot of Kilmer's rubber buns at one point is guaranteed to bring squeals from the audience."
At the 68th Academy Awards, Batman Forever was nominated for Cinematography (lost to Braveheart), Sound Mixing (Donald O. Mitchell, Frank A. Montaño, Michael Herbick and Petur Hliddal; lost to Apollo 13) and Sound Editing (John Leveque and Bruce Stambler) (also lost to Braveheart). "Hold Me, Thrill Me, Kiss Me, Kill Me" by U2 was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song (lost to "Colors of the Wind" from Pocahontas), but was also nominated for the Worst Original Song Golden Raspberry Award (lost to "Walk Into the Wind" from Showgirls). At the Saturn Awards, the film was nominated for Best Fantasy Film (lost to Babe), Make-up (lost to Seven), Special Effects (lost to Jumanji) and Costume Design (lost to 12 Monkeys). Composer Elliot Goldenthal was given a Grammy Award nomination. Batman Forever received six nominations at the 1996 MTV Movie Awards, four of which were divided between two categories (Carrey and Lee Jones for Best Villain; and Seal's "Kiss from a Rose" and U2's "Hold Me" in Best Song from a Movie). However, it won in just one category—Best Song from a Movie for Seal's "Kiss from a Rose".
In addition to a large line of toys and action figures from Kenner, the McDonald's food chain released several collectibles and mugs to coincide with the release of the film. Peter David and Alan Grant wrote separate novelizations of the film. Dennis O'Neil authored a comic book adaptation, with art by Michal Dutkiewicz.
Six Flags Great Adventure theme park re-themed their "Axis Chemical" arena, home of the Batman stunt show, to resemble "Batman Forever", and the new show featured props from the film. Because of the mostly negative critical reaction however, the stunt arena was changed back to its original version after the season. Six Flags Over Texas featured a one-time fireworks show to promote the movie, and replica busts of Batman, Robin, Two-Face, and the Riddler can still be found in the Justice League store in the Looney Tunes U.S.A. section.
- "Batman Forever (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- "Michael Keaton Would Play Batman Again; Explains Passing on 'Batman Forever'". October 13, 2014. Archived from the original on November 13, 2016.
- "Michael Keaton reveals the reason he left the 'Batman' franchise: 'It sucked'". Fox News. January 5, 2017. Archived from the original on January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Muir, John Kenneth (2008). The Encyclopedia of Superheroes on Film and Television (2nd ed.). North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-7864-3755-9.
- "Billy Dee Williams Talks Two-Face, Did Not Get Paid For Batman Forever". Comicbook.com. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014.
- "'Batman & Robin' at 20: Joel Schumacher and More Reveal What Really Happened". Archived from the original on September 11, 2017.
- "Actors who were almost cast as The Joker". Archived from the original on November 13, 2016.
- "7 Facts for Monkee Micky Dolenz's 70th Birthday - Nerdist". March 8, 2015. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016.
- Cooper, Matthew (March 1996). "Hollywood, D.C." Los Angeles. p. 70.
Vermont senator Patrick Leahy filmed a cameo appearance in Batman Forever;
- Heintz, Paul (July 11, 2012). "Fair Game: Holy Cash, Batman!". Seven Days. Archived from the original on April 14, 2015.
Warner Bros has cast the caped crusader aficionado in four films — from 1995's Batman Forever to the brand-new The Dark Knight Rises.
- Salisbury, Mark; Burton, Tim (2000). Burton on Burton. Faber and Faber. p. 155. ISBN 0-57120-507-0.
- "Batman 3". Entertainment Weekly. October 1, 1993. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- "Interview with Batman Forever's Janet Scott Batchler". Archived from the original on July 8, 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight-Reinventing a Hero (DVD). Warner Bros. 2005.
- Jeff Gordinier (July 15, 1994). "Next at Batman". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- Army Archerd (December 1, 1994). "Culkin kids ink with WMA". Variety. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- Staff (October 12, 2014). "Michael Keaton takes wing in "Birdman"". CBS News. Archived from the original on October 16, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- Wiener, Jonah (October 2011). "Q&A: Ethan Hawke". Details. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Jett (December 16, 2009). "William Baldwin Talks Batman And "Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths"". Batman-on-Film. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012.
- Nathan, Ian (August 1995). "Hold me, thrill me, kiss me, Kilmer". Empire. pp. 108–117.
- Judy Brennan (1994-06-03). "Batman Battles New Bat Villains". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- Batman Heroes Profile: Harvey Dent (DVD). Batman Special Edition: Warner Bros. Home Video. 2005.
- Cindy Pearlman (July 22, 1994). "The Good Son". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
- "Christopher Nolan: The Movies. The Memories". Empire. July 2010. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
- Cindy Pearlman (December 17, 1993). "Flashes: No Joker". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- Mike Thomas (2003-03-31). "Hey, what about that man in the glass booth?". Chicago Sun-Times.
- Nathan Rabin (1998-02-25). "Wayans World". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
- "DiCaprio Interview". Shortlist. July 15, 2010. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
- "Bono's Movie Debut Stays Out Of Reach". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Tribune Media Services. December 16, 1994. section Showtime, p. 14. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Rebecca Ascher-Walsh (May 31, 1995). "Psycho Kilmer". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
- Benjamin Svetkey (July 12, 1996). "Holy Happy Set!". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- "Tommy Lee Jones Once Told Jim Carrey I Hate You, I Really Don't Like You". US Weekly. October 29, 2014. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- Menache, Alberto (1999). Understanding motion capture for computer animation and video games. Morgan Kaufmann. p. 49. ISBN 0-12-490630-3.
- The Many Faces of Gotham City (DVD). Warner Bros. 2005.
- Kenny, Tom (October 1, 2000). Sound for picture: film sound through the 1990s. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 85–87. ISBN 978-0-87288-724-4. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
- Out of the Shadows: The Production Design of Batman Forever (DVD). Batman Forever: Special Edition: Warner Bros. 2005.
- "'Batman Forever': The Story Behind the Surprise Hit "Nobody Really Wanted"". Archived from the original on June 16, 2017.
- Scoring Forever: The Music of Batman Forever (DVD). Warner Bros. 2005.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 21, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2015. Retrieved January 27th, 2014
- "Batman Forever – What Could Be: A Guide to the Batman Forever Cutting Room Floor". Batman-On-Film.com. Archived from the original on July 2, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
- "1995 Domestic Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- "Batman Battle". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- "Batman Forever". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on August 11, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- "Batman Forever (1995): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on March 16, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com.
- Peter Travers (December 8, 2000). "Batman Forever". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on July 8, 2008.
- Brian Lowry (June 14, 1995). "Batman Forever". Variety. Archived from the original on August 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- James Berardinelli (June 16, 1995). "Batman Forever". ReelViews. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- Bill "Jett" Ramey (November 28, 2005). "BOF Interview: Scott Beatty". Batman-on-Film. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- Bill "Jett" Ramey (October 13, 2005). "Interview: Lee Bermejo". Batman-on-Film. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- Gene Siskel and Roger Ebert. Batman Forever / Smoke / 2 Girls in Love (1995). Siskel & Ebert.org. Archived from the original on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- Roger Ebert. "Batman Forever". rogerebert.com. Archived from the original on July 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- Mick LaSalle (June 16, 1995). "Batman Forever Goes On and On". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- "The 68th Academy Awards (1996) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015.
- "Batman Forever (Paperback)". Amazon. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- "Batman Forever: The Novelization". Amazon. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- "Batman Forever: The Official Comic Adaptation of Motion Picture". Amazon. Retrieved 2008-08-17.