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The Los Angeles Metro Rail is an urban rail transportation system serving Los Angeles County, California. It consists of six lines, including two rapid transit subway lines (the Red and Purple lines) and four light rail lines (the Blue, Green, Gold and Expo lines) serving 93 stations. It connects with the Metro Busway bus rapid transit system (the Orange Line and Silver Line) and also with the Metrolink commuter rail system.

Los Angeles Metro Rail
Lametro.svg
Ansaldobreda A650.jpg
Typical Metro Rail heavy rail train
Gold Line train on East 1st Street, July 2017.JPG
Typical Metro Rail light rail train
Overview
Area servedLos Angeles County, California
Transit typeRapid transit/light rail
Number of lines
Number of stations93
Daily ridership344,176 (2018; avg. weekday boardings)
Annual ridership108,017,525 (2018)
WebsiteMetro
Operation
Began operationJuly 14, 1990; 29 years ago (1990-07-14)
Operator(s)Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro)
Headway4–8 mins (peak); 10–20 mins (off-peak)
Technical
System length105 mi (169 km)
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification750 V DC

Metro Rail is owned and operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) and started service in 1990. It has been extended significantly since that time and several further extensions are either in the works or being considered. The system served a ridership of 344,176 on an average weekday in 2018.

Los Angeles had two previous rail transit systems, the Pacific Electric Red Car and Los Angeles Railway Yellow Car lines, which operated between the late 19th century and the 1960s. The Metro Rail system utilizes many of their former rights-of-way, and thus can be considered their indirect successor.

Contents

Current systemEdit

LinesEdit

In Los Angeles Metro terminology, common with most other metro systems, a line is a named service, defined by a route and set of stations served by trains on that route. (The word does not refer to a physical rail corridor, as it does in New York City Subway nomenclature.) Metro Rail lines are for the most part named after colors, and these colors are used to distinguish the lines on Metro's maps. (The one exception is the Expo Line, which nevertheless is consistently colored aqua on maps.) Metro also uses colors for its Metro Busway services (which are bus services operating in transitways).

In mid-2019, Metro will rename all of its rail and BRT lines with letters, while leaving their colors unchanged on maps.[1]

Six Metro Rail lines operate in Los Angeles County:[2]

Line name Opening Length Stations Termini Type
  Blue Line  1990 21.3 mi (34.3 km) 22 7th Street/Metro Center (north)
Downtown Long Beach (south)
Light rail
  Expo Line  2012 13.1 mi (21.1 km) 19 7th Street/Metro Center (east)
Santa Monica (west)
Light rail
  Gold Line  2003 29.7 mi (47.8 km) 27 APU/Citrus College (north)
Atlantic (south)
Light rail
  Green Line  1995 19.5 mi (31.4 km) 14 Redondo Beach (west)
Norwalk (east)
Light rail
  Purple Line  2006[a] 6.4 mi (10.3 km)[3] 8 Wilshire/Western (west)
Union Station (east)
Heavy rail
  Red Line  1993 16.4 mi (26.4 km)[3] 14 North Hollywood (north)
Union Station (south)
Heavy rail
  1. ^ The segments on which the Purple Line operates opened as part of the Red Line corridor in 1993 and 1996. The Purple Line was not defined as a distinct line until 2006.

The Red and Purple lines follow a fully underground route (subway), and the Green Line follows a fully elevated route. The Blue, Expo and Gold Line routes run in a mix of environments, including at-grade street running, at-grade in an exclusive corridor, elevated, and underground.[2]

The two heavy-rail lines (Red and Purple) share tracks between Union Station and Wilshire/Vermont, while two of the light-rail lines (Blue and Expo) share tracks between 7th St/Metro Center and Pico. Future system expansions are expected to use shared light-rail tracks.

StationsEdit

 
Two Siemens P2000 trainsets on the Gold Line
 
Metro Gold Line at Atlantic Station.
 
Westbound Metro Green Line train to Redondo Beach Station arrives at Long Beach Boulevard Station.
 
Metro Red Line train entering Union Station.
 
Metro Blue Line train stationed at Downtown Long Beach (formerly known as Transit Mall) Station.
 
Metro Expo Line train departing from La Cienega/Jefferson station to Downtown LA.

The large majority of light rail stations are either at ground level or elevated, while a handful are underground. All heavy rail stations are underground. Future light rail lines will add more underground stations to the system.

Stations include at least two ticket vending machines, wayfinding maps, electronic message displays, and bench seating. Each station features unique artwork reflecting local culture and/or the function of transit in society.

Stations are unstaffed during regular hours. Call boxes are available at most stations to allow employees at the Metro Rail Operations Control Center to assist passengers with concerns.

Metro Rail uses a proof-of-payment fare system, with Metro's fare inspectors randomly inspecting trains and stations to ensure passengers have a valid fare product on their Transit Access Pass (TAP) electronic fare card. When passengers enter a station, they encounter TAP card validators which collect fares when a customer places their card on top. Additionally, fare gates (turnstiles) connected to TAP card validators at all underground stations, all elevated stations and some surface stations. Once passengers pass these validators or board a train, they have entered the "fare paid zone," where fare inspectors may check their TAP card to ensure they have a valid fare.

Underground stations are typically large in size with a mezzanine level for fare sales and collection above a platform level where passengers board trains.

Street-level stations are typically more simple with platforms designed with shade canopies, separated from nearby roads and sidewalks, where passengers can purchase fares and board a train.

Subway stations and tunnels are designed to resist ground shaking that could occur at a specific location, but there is no general magnitude of earthquake that the entire system is expected to withstand.[4] The Metro Rail system has not suffered any damage due to earthquakes since its opening in 1993.

Some suburban stations have free or paid park and ride lots available and most have bike storage available.

Rolling stockEdit

Metro Rail maintains two distinct systems of rail: a light rail system and a heavy rail system. The heavy rail and light rail systems are incompatible with each other, even though they both use 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge. Metro's heavy rail lines are powered by third rail, whereas its light rail lines are powered by overhead catenary. Also, the two separate systems have different loading gauge, and platforms are designed to match the separate car widths.

Hours of operationEdit

All Metro Rail lines run regularly between 5am and midnight, seven days a week. Limited service on particular segments is provided after midnight and before 5am. On Friday and Saturday evenings, service operates until approximately 2am. There is no rail service between 2am and 3:30am, except on special occasions such as New Year's Eve. Service operates every 5–10 minutes during the peak period, every 10–15 minutes during middays and during the day on weekends, and every 20 minutes during the evening until the close of service. Exact times vary from route to route.

Fares and fare collectionEdit

The standard Metro base fare applies for all trips. Fare collection is based on a partial proof-of-payment system. At least two fare machines are at each station. Fare inspectors, local police and deputy sheriffs police the system and cite individuals without fares. Passengers are required to purchase a TAP card to enter stations equipped with fare gates. Passengers using a TAP card can transfer between Metro routes for free within 2 hours from the first tap.

The following table shows Metro fares, effective May 15, 2018 (in US dollars):

Fare type Regular Senior (62+)
Disabled
Medicare
College
Vocational
Student K-12
Base fare $1.75 $0.35 (off-peak)
$0.75 (peak)
$1
1-Day Pass $7 $2.50
7-Day Pass $25
30-Day Pass $100 $20 $43 $24
Metro-to-Muni Transfer $0.50 $0.25

Transit Access Pass (TAP) and fare gatesEdit

Metro has implemented a system of electronic fare collection using a stored value smartcard called the Transit Access Pass (or TAP Card). This card was intended to simplify fare collection and reduce costs.[5] In 2012, paper monthly passes were phased out and replaced with the TAP Card. As of September 2013, first-time Metro riders must deposit an additional $2 (or $1 at TAP vending machines) on top of their first fare payment to obtain a reloadable TAP Card.

In addition, Metro began installing fare gates in 2008, at all heavy rail stations and select light rail stations. Implementation of both programs (the TAP Card and the fare gate program) has turned out to be expensive ($154 million in total, so far) and its initial rollout was problematic.[6]

RidershipEdit

The Metro Rail system saw a total ridership of 108,017,525 in 2018.[7]

As of the second quarter of 2018, the combined Metro Red and Purple lines averaged a weekday ridership of 135,400, making it the ninth busiest heavy rail (rapid transit) system in the United States.[8] Taking overall track length into consideration, Metro Rail's heavy rail lines transport 7,960 passengers per route mile, making this the fifth busiest system U.S. rapid transit system on a per mile basis.

Metro's light rail system is the busiest in the United States with 203,300 average weekday boardings during the second quarter of 2018.[8] At 83.6 miles (134.5 km)[9] Metro's light rail system is the second largest in the United States.

Security and safetyEdit

Half of the Metro Rail's trains and stations are patrolled by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, under a law enforcement contract. The Los Angeles Police Department, and Long Beach Police Department, also patrol stations within their respective cities, also under contract.[10] The system is also monitored by security personnel by closed-circuit television cameras in Metro Rail stations and subway cars.[11]

HistoryEdit

In the early 20th century, Southern California had an extensive privately owned rail transit network with over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of track, operated by Pacific Electric (Red Cars) and Los Angeles Railway (Yellow Cars).[12] However, from 1927 revenue shortfall caused Pacific Electric to begin replacing lightly used rail lines with buses. In 1958 the remnants of the privately owned rail and bus systems were consolidated into a government agency known as the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit Authority or MTA. By 1963 the remaining rail lines were completely removed and replaced with bus service.

In the following decades, growing traffic congestion led to increased public support for rail transit's return. Beginning in the 1970s, a variety of factors, including environmental concerns, an increasing population and the price of gasoline led to calls for mass transit other than buses. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA, now branded as Metro) began construction of the initial lines throughout the 1980s using revenues from a voter-approved increase in sales tax. The Blue Line finally opened on July 14, 1990, some 27 years after the final streetcar line closed. Since that date, the system has been developed to its current size. The following table shows this expansion's timeline:

Segment description Date opened Line(s) Endpoints # of new
stations
Length
(miles)
Blue Line Initial Segment July 14, 1990 Blue Pico to Anaheim Street 17 19.1
Blue Line Long Beach Loop September 1, 1990 Blue Anaheim Street to Pacific 4 2.2
Blue Line To Financial District February 15, 1991 Blue Pico to 7th St/Metro Center 1 0.7
Red Line MOS-1 January 30, 1993 Red, Purple[a] Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park 4[b] 4.4
Green Line August 12, 1995 Green Redondo Beach to Norwalk 13[b] 20.0
Red Line MOS-2 West July 13, 1996 Red, Purple[a] Westlake/MacArthur Park to Wilshire/Western 3 2.0
Red Line MOS-2 North June 12, 1999 Red Wilshire/Vermont to Hollywood/Vine 5 4.7
Red Line MOS-3 June 24, 2000 Red Hollywood/Vine to North Hollywood 3 6.3
Gold Line Initial Segment July 26, 2003 Gold Union Station to Sierra Madre Villa 12[b] 13.7
Gold Line Eastside Extension November 15, 2009 Gold Union Station to Atlantic 8 6.0
Expo Line Initial Segment April 28, 2012 Expo Flower/Washington to La Cienega/Jefferson[c] 8 7.6
Expo Line Culver City Extension June 20, 2012 Expo La Cienega/Jefferson to Culver City 2[d] 1.0
Gold Line Foothill Extension March 5, 2016[13] Gold Sierra Madre Villa to APU/Citrus College 6[13] 11.5[13]
Expo Line Santa Monica Extension May 20, 2016[14] Expo Culver City to Santa Monica 7[14] 6.6[14]
TOTAL 93 105.8[e]
  1. ^ a b Segment opened as part of the Red Line corridor. The Purple Line was not defined as a distinct line until 2006.
  2. ^ a b c Segment also included significant expansion of an existing station: this was not counted as a new station.
  3. ^ In terms of added trackage; Expo Line has thru service to 7th St/ Metro Center.
  4. ^ Expansion included new infill station.
  5. ^ Likely varies from the "official" Metro figure due to rounding differences.

FutureEdit

 
Service patterns planned upon completion of the Regional Connector, with lettered lines

Metro has worked to plan and prioritize project funding and implementation. Metro's 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) was developed to provide a long-term vision of transportation system development for the next 30 years.[15] Metro is currently attempting to update the LRTP 2009 plan citing new housing trends and fiscal changes. Metro plans to release the updated LRTP in early 2020.[16]

Beginning in 2014, Metro saw its ridership numbers begin to decline. Many explanations exist for the decline, including safety concerns, an increase in ride-hailing service usage, and low-income people moving out of L.A. because of the increase in rents.[17]

The fiscal changes are the passage of Measure R, a countywide incrememental sales tax increase passed by voters in 2008, provides funding for many of the highest priority projects in the LRTP.[18] On November 6, 2012, Metro attempted to pass Measure J,[19] but failed as it did not reach the two-thirds majority needed to pass.[20][21]

In November 2016 election, Metro decided to place another sales tax on the ballot. The voters then approved Measure M, a half-cent permanent sales tax increase, to fund many local projects, including Metro Rail expansion.[22]

In 2018, Metro approved renaming its rail lines using a letter-based scheme, similar to those in New York City and Chicago.[23][24] Metro recommends the opening of the refurbished Blue Line (A Line) in 2019 as a starting point to rename the lines,[25] and then continuing with the opening of the Crenshaw/LAX line, finishing in time for the opening of the Regional Connector in 2022.[26]

Current and priority projectsEdit

The following rail projects have been given high priority by Metro. They all appear in the 2009 LRTP constrained plan,[15] and all have funding earmarked from Measure R.[18][27] With the passage of Measure M in 2016, Metro released an updated Long Range Transportation plan in February 2017, and will release a full report early 2020,[15] along with its Twenty-eight by '28 initiative.[28]

Concept name Description Construction Operational Status
Crenshaw/LAX Line Constructs a new light rail route starting at an underground station at the current Crenshaw/Expo station on the Expo Line at Crenshaw Blvd and running south to connect to the Green Line near the current Aviation/LAX station. 2014–20 Mid 2020 Under construction [29]
Regional Connector Creates a new light rail tunnel through Downtown Los Angeles linking the Blue, Gold and Expo Lines. 2015–22 Mid 2022 Under construction [30][31][32]
Purple Line Extension Phase one extending the Purple Line west along Wilshire Blvd to La Cienega, phase two extending a further three miles to Century City Station thru Beverly Hills. Phase three will consist of two further stations -- at Westwood near UCLA, and at the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center. All currently under construction with plans to finish all three phases in time for the 2028 Summer Olympics, which the city will host. UCLA will be site of the Olympic Village. 2015–26 2023 (Phase 1) / 2025 (Phase 2) / 2026 (Phase 3) Under construction [33][34][35][36]
Airport Metro Connector Will connect LAX terminals and a new rental car facility to the Metro Rail system through the construction an automated people mover system and an infill light rail station, Aviation/96th Street station, which will be served by the Crenshaw/LAX and Green Lines. Built in cooperation with Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA). 2018–23 2023 Under construction [37][38][39]
Gold Line Foothill Extension Phase 2B Further extends the Gold Line eastward 11.5 miles to Montclair from APU/Citrus College station in Azusa. 2018–26 2026 Pre-construction [40][41][42]
East San Fernando Valley Transit Corridor Light rail line connecting the east San Fernando Valley to the Orange Line, largely along Van Nuys Blvd and San Fernando Road. The Sepulveda Pass Transit Corridor is immediately to the south of Van Nuys Blvd corridor; if a rail alternative is selected for both corridors, they may eventually be merged into one route. 2021 2027 Final EIR in progress [43][44]
Gold Line Eastside Transit Corridor Phase 2 Extends the Gold Line from its current East LA terminus eastward. Two routes – either along Washington Boulevard to Whittier or along SR-60 to South El Monte – are under consideration. Metro directors have expressed interest in building both routes if funding becomes available. 2025 2035 Three LPA's optioned / Draft EIR published. [45]
South Bay Green Line Extension Extends the Green Line from its current terminus in Redondo Beach towards Torrance and South Bay cities. If accelerated and funds are available, by 2028. 2026 By 2033[46] Two LPA's optioned / Draft EIR in progress [47]
West Santa Ana Branch Transit Corridor Creates a new light route connecting downtown LA to Artesia and the Gateway Cities, much of it along the West Santa Ana Branch, a disused Pacific Electric right-of-way. The downtown terminus is still undetermined; possibilities include the Arts District, and Union Station. 2022 2028[48] Two LPA's optioned/ Draft EIR in progress [49][50][51]
Sepulveda Pass Transit Corridor Phase 1 and 2 Planning underway on a rail connection between the Orange Line and the East San Fernando Valley Transit Corridor (see above) in the Valley to the Purple and Expo Lines on the Westside. Modes under consideration including a standalone heavy rail subway; or a monorail, which unlike the other modes could traverse the Sepulveda Pass without tunneling. Existing local funding sources will provide approximately $5.7 billion for the project for a scheduled opening in the early 2030s; additional funds, including from public-private partnerships, are being sought to complete the line before the 2028 Summer Olympics. 2028 2039 Four LPA's analysis in progress / Draft EIR in progress [52][53]
Crenshaw Northern Extension Rail Project Create a new light rail or subway line connecting the Metro Red Line's Hollywood/Highland station south to the Metro Purple Line, and the Crenshaw Line's Expo/Crenshaw Station via Santa Monica Boulevard in West Hollywood. Possible north/south routes including Fairfax, La Brea, La Cienega Boulevard and San Vicente Boulevard. An extension north of the Crenshaw Line is included as a Tier 1 Strategic Unfunded Plan project in the 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan. The city council approved in May 2018, to expedite its own environmental study to speed up the approval process with Metro. Metro's 2018 budget included $500,000 to begin the draft environmental studies for the extension project. Local residents created the West Hollywood Advocates for Metro Rail to advocate a new LRT or HRT. West Hollywood has publicly stated they prefer all routes be underground thru Santa Monica boulevard. 2041 2047 Five LPA's analysis in progress / Draft EIR in progress [54][55][56][57]
North Hollywood-Pasadena Transit Line Create a new East/West Bus Rapid Transit route connecting Metro's Memorial Park station in San Gabriel Valley to the North Hollywood station in Los Angeles' San Fernando Valley along State Route 134 with possible stops in Eagle Rock, Glendale and Burbank. Metro currently has Measure M and SB-1 state funds to create the line. Projected is set to cost under $267 million to construct. The BRT is expected to begin construction by 2020 and open by 2024 with approximately 13 stations. Part of the Twenty-eight by '28 initiative. BRT 2020; LRT Unknown BRT 2023; LRT Unknown Three BRT LPA's analysis in progress / Draft EIR in progress [54][58][59]
North Valley Transit Line Create a new East/West Bus Rapid Transit route connecting Metro's Chatsworth's Metrolink Station to the North Hollywood station in Los Angeles' San Fernando Valley along Nordhoff Street and Roscoe Boulevard primarily. Once the BRT Line reaches Laurel Canyon Boulevard or Lankershim Boulevard in Sun Valley district in LA, it would proceed south to North Hollywood with possible stations at Strathern Avenue, Saticoy Street, Sherman Way, Vanowen Street, Victory Boulevard, Oxnard Street, and Burbank Boulevard. Metro currently has Measure M funds for project. Project is set to cost under $267 million to construct. The BRT is expected to begin construction by 2021 and open by 2024. Part of the Twenty-eight by '28 initiative. LRT funds are not currently available. BRT 2021 ; LRT Unknown BRT 2024; LRT Unknown Various BRT LPA's analysis in progress / Pending Draft EIR for BRT [60]
Vermont Transit Corridor Create a new north/south subway route down Vermont Avenue extending the Red Line at the Wilshire/Vermont Station south, to the Metro Expo Line and Green Line. Included as a Tier 2 Strategic Unfunded Plan project in 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan; a Bus rapid transit line has been funded in the near term by Measure M, but studies will be conducted for possible heavy rail transit, as the Vermont corridor is Metro's second busiest public transportation corridor. BRT 2024; HRT Unknown BRT 2028; HRT 2060 LPA's analysis funded / Pending Draft EIR for BRT [54][61][62]
Orange Line LRT Conversion Converting the current Orange Line Bus Rapid Transit route into LRT. Made possible after the 2014 repeal of state legislation prohibiting LRT along the Orange Line right of way, which had been enacted due to neighborhood opposition in the 1990s. Bridges along the busway are designed to LRT standards, but the project would require substantial service disruption as the roadway is replaced by rails and catenary wire installed. Some Valley politicians and pressure groups have endorsed the proposal; critics have suggested funding would be better spent on adding new lines along other corridors in the Valley. Long terms plans include complete conversion in phases with full replacement by 2057. Metro commenced BRT upgrades in 2018 by adding more grade crossing gates, two new over cross bridges at Van Nuys Blvd and Sepulveda Blvd, reducing travel time by 20%. 2051 2057 No current funds available for LRT until 2051 [63][64][65]
Lincoln Blvd BRT/LRT Line Extend the Green Line from LAX northwest to Venice and Santa Monica Beach and possibly connect with the Expo Lines western terminus. The Green Line was originally engineered to maintain compatibility with this extension. Included in City of Los Angeles Westside Mobility Plan, and as a Tier 2 Strategic Unfunded Plan project in 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan. BRT 2043; LRT Unknown BRT 2047; LRT Unknown No LPA or EIR conducted [54][66]
Arts District Station Extend the Purple and Red Lines from their eastern terminus at Union Station, south along the river to the Arts District, and possibly across the river along Whittier Blvd. to the Eastside. Not included in 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan. However, Metro is studying the possibility of adding one or two stops along the river in the Arts District as part of a project to improve and expand the rail yard already in the area to accommodate increased headways once the Purple Line extension west is completed. Draft Environmetal study funds were appropriated in the 2018 Metro budget. Draft EIR in progress. Metro advocates no Measure M or R funds are available for construction. Unknown Unknown LPA Draft Environmental Study funded [67][68][69]

Other expansion conceptsEdit

The following proposed line/system expansions do not have funding or high priority in Metro's long-range plans. Some are listed as "strategic unfunded" in the last Long Range Transportation Plan, indicating some possibility they could be constructed should additional funding materialize. Others have been the subject of Metro Board discussion, with the possibility of future feasibility studies. (More information on each project can be found in the references.)

Note a major update of Metro plans is underway, with a view to seeking additional funding via a ballot measure and updating the Long Range Transportation Plan. The results of early planning studies as a part of that process are expected to be made public in approximately February 2015, and may result in the addition of new proposed projects, changes to concepts listed below, and the removal of concepts whose popularity has declined since 2009.

Concept Name Description Source
Burbank-Glendale Line Would connect Downtown Los Angeles to Glendale and Burbank. Studied in the 1990s, and included as a Tier 1 Strategic Unfunded Plan project in 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan.[54]
Red Line To Burbank Airport Extend the Metro Red Line 3.2 miles (5.1 km) from its northwestern terminus to Burbank Airport. Included as a Tier 2 Strategic Unfunded Plan project in 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan.[54]
Green Line To Norwalk Metrolink Extend the Green Line east to Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs station (Metrolink). Included as a Tier 1 Strategic Unfunded Plan project in 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan.[54] [70]
"Silver Line" (former name) New light-rail line planned to connect El Monte to Hollywood, via Valley Blvd corridor and Santa Monica Boulevard. Included as a Tier 2 Strategic Unfunded Plan project in 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan.[54] Silver Line website (archived),[71] The Transit Coalition website.[72]
Yellow Line (Downtown to West Hollywood to Century City) Union Station to West Hollywood via Sunset Boulevard in Silver lake to Santa Monica Boulevard west merging with the Pink Line until diverting west to connect with the under construction Purple Line Century City Station. Listed as one of several Tier 2 Strategic Unfunded Plan project in the 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan.[54]
Harbor Line Light rail line to connect harbor area (San Pedro) to Metro Blue Line or Green Line. Floated in LA City Council motions and Metro Harbor Subdivision studies. A further southward extension to the Green Line is included as a Tier 1 Strategic Unfunded Plan project in the 2009 Long Range Transportation Plan. Other plans could lead to the Silver Line being converted to rail.[54] Citizens for a Harbor Line (blog)[73]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Chiland, Elijah (December 7, 2018). "Bye 'Blue' Line, Metro will rename rail lines using letters". Curbed LA. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Facts At A Glance". Metro. November 18, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Regional Connector Transit Corridor Project Contract No. E0119 – Operations and Maintenance Plan (Final)" (PDF). 2.1 Metro Light Rail Overview. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority. September 10, 2013. p. 2–1. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  4. ^ Hymon, Steve (August 10, 2012). "Designing a subway to withstand an earthquake". The Source. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  5. ^ "Fares". Metro. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
  6. ^ "MTA's $46M system of locking turnstiles sits unused, waiting for fare cards to be adopted - LA Daily News". Dailynews.com. August 21, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
  7. ^ "Interactive Estimated Ridership Stats". Metro. Los Angeles Country Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Public Transportation Ridership Report Second Quarter 2018" (pdf). American Public Transportation Association (APTA). August 24, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2019 – via http://www.apta.com/resources/statistics/Pages/ridershipreport.aspx.
  9. ^ "Metro – Facts at a Glance". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro). June 24, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  10. ^ "LAPD Officers to Patrol Metro Buses, Trains in the City of Los Angeles". lamayor.org. February 23, 2017.
  11. ^ "Riders with Other Forms of Transport Switching to Metro". www.metro.net. September 13, 2006. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
  12. ^ Taplin, Michael (1991). "City of the Automobile: Los Angeles looks to Light Rail London". Light Rail Review 2. Platform 5 Publishing/Light Rail Transit Association. pp. 27–30. ISBN 1-872524-23-0.
  13. ^ a b c Nelson, Laura (March 5, 2016). "San Gabriel commuters cheer as Gold Line rail extension officially opens". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  14. ^ a b c Hymon, Steve (February 25, 2016). "17 things to know about Expo 2 opening on May 20". The Source. Metro. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
  15. ^ a b c "Long Range Transportation Plan". Metro. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  16. ^ http://media.metro.net/projects_studies/images/lrtp_overview.pdf
  17. ^ Chiland, Elijah (May 22, 2019). "Is Metro ridership down because low-income passengers are leaving LA?". Curbed LA. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  18. ^ a b "Measure R". Metro. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
  19. ^ "Measure J". Metro. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  20. ^ "Measure J Fails". County of Los Angeles Registrar-Recorder. Archived from the original on January 14, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  21. ^ "Transit Backers Seek to Change State Law". Los Angeles Times. December 4, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  22. ^ Nelson, Laura J. (June 23, 2016). "Metro puts half-cent sales tax increase for transportation projects on November ballot". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
  23. ^ Steve Hymon (April 7, 2015). "PowerPoint: Metro staffs proposal to rename rail and BRT lines". The Source. Metro.
  24. ^ "LA Metro Could Switch Rail Line Names From Colors To Letters". Curbed Los Angeles. Curbed Staff. April 3, 2015.
  25. ^ https://lbpost.com/longbeachize/updated-road-closures-metro-blue-line/
  26. ^ https://boardagendas.metro.net/board-report/2018-0684/
  27. ^ "Transit Program - Project Management - Project Budget and Schedule Status" (pdf). Metro. June 19, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
  28. ^ https://www.metro.net/projects/lrtp/
  29. ^ "Crenshaw/LAX Transit Corridor". Metro. March 4, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  30. ^ "Regional Connector Transit Corridor". Metro. May 20, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
  31. ^ Steve Hymon (September 30, 2014). "Ground is broken for Regional Connector project to link Blue, Expo and Gold Lines". The Source. Metro. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  32. ^ https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-downtown-subway-delayed-again-20190512-story.html
  33. ^ "Purple Line Extension (project website)". Metro. February 11, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  34. ^ "Summer 2013 - General Fact Sheet - Purple Line Extension" (pdf). Metro. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
  35. ^ Notice to proceed issued for section 2 of the Purple Line Extension, the source.metro.net, 2017/04/27.
  36. ^ Dave Sotero (November 10, 2014). "Long wait over: groundbreaking held for Wilshire Boulevard subway extension". The Source. Metro. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  37. ^ "Airport Metro Connector". Metro. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  38. ^ "City Council approves long-awaited people mover to LAX". Los Angeles Times. April 11, 2018. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  39. ^ http://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/fluor-announces-financial-close-on-los-angeles-international-airport-automated-people-mover-1026847083
  40. ^ https://archpaper.com/2017/06/la-gold-line-extension/
  41. ^ https://www.dailybulletin.com/2018/04/26/theres-now-enough-money-to-build-the-gold-line-through-to-montclair/
  42. ^ https://la.curbed.com/2017/6/23/15858170/metro-gold-line-extension-claremont-montclair
  43. ^ "East San Fernando Valley Transit Corridor". Metro. July 8, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
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External linksEdit