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Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority

The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (branded as Metro; formerly branded as MTA or LACMTA) is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission. It is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency.

Metro
Lametro.svg
Metro Picture.jpg
Four Metro-operated modes of service
Overview
LocaleLos Angeles County, California
Transit typeRapid transit (subway)
Light rail
Bus
Bus rapid transit
Number of linesHeavy rail: 2
Light rail: 4
Bus rapid transit: 2
Bus: 170
Number of stationsRail: 93
Bus rapid transit: 29[1][2]
Daily ridership1,259,017 (2017 avg. weekday boardings)[3][4]
Chief executivePhillip Washington[5]
Websitewww.metro.net
Operation
Began operationFebruary 1, 1993[6]
Technical
System lengthRail: 105 miles (169 km)
Bus: 1,433 miles (2,306 km)[7]
Track gauge4 ft 8 1⁄2 in

Metro directly operates bus, light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services. It provides funding and directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County.

Contents

OverviewEdit

The agency develops and oversees transportation plans, policies, funding programs, and both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility, accessibility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is also the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT) operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH (Downtown Area Short Hop) mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods. Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles.[8]

The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² (3,711 km²) operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day.[9] Metro also operates 105 miles (169 km) of urban rail service.[7] The authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers.[7]

The authority also partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region.

Security and law enforcement services on Metro property (including buses and trains) are currently provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.

In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed.[10]

ServicesEdit

 
Metro Rail and Metro Busway system map

Metro RailEdit

Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with two subway and four light rail lines. As of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles (169 km), with 93 stations[7] and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services.[11]

   The Blue Line (opened 1990) is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Angeles and Downtown Long Beach.
   The Red Line (opened 1993) is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and North Hollywood.
   The Purple Line (opened 1996 as the Red Line) is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles. Most of its route is shared with the Red Line.
   The Green Line (opened 1995) is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk, largely in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus.
   The Gold Line (opened 2003) is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles.[12]
   The Expo Line (opened 2012) is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Angeles and Santa Monica.[13]

Metro BuswayEdit

 
A Metro Liner vehicle at the North Hollywood station on the Orange Line.

Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways. The system runs a total of 60 miles (97 km), with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016.

The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations (except the Metro Silver Line portion in Downtown Los Angeles), vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles.

   The Metro Orange Line (opened in 2005) is a bus rapid transit line running between North Hollywood and Chatsworth.
   The Metro Silver Line (began operation in 2009) is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, and Harbor Gateway, with some buses also serving San Pedro.

Metro BusEdit

Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, and the western San Gabriel Valley. Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, and the Antelope Valley.

Metro operates two types of bus services which are distinguished by the color of the buses.[14] However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route.

 
A Metro Local bus on Line 81 (Figueroa St.) with its trademark orange color

Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”. This type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines. Some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, and Transdev (formerly Veolia).

 
A Metro Rapid articulated bus on Line 720 (Wilshire Blvd. Whittier Blvd.).

Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”. This bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavily traveled arterial streets. Metro claims to reduce passenger commute times by up to 25 percent by several methods, among them the lack of a bus schedule so that drivers are not held up at certain stops[citation needed].

 
A Metro Express bus on Line 577X (San Gabriel River Frwy.) at CSULB in Long Beach
 
Metro Express Line 460 serves Knott's Berry Farm

.

Metro Express buses used to be painted in a dark blue color which the agency had formerly dubbed “Business Blue”, with routes designed as premium, minimal stop services along Los Angeles's extensive freeway network. There are 8 lines running as of 2018: 442, 460, 487, 489, 501, 534, 550, and 577.

Some Metro Local lines also use the county's freeway system along their trip. They are labeled as Express services but make more stops on their trips and are not considered to be "premium" Metro Express lines.

All Metro buses are CNG-powered, the largest such fleet in the United States.[15] The CNG fleet reduces emissions of particulates by 90 percent, carbon monoxide by 80 percent, and greenhouse gases by 20 percent compared to diesel powered buses. Alternative fuel buses have logged more than 450 million operating miles since 1993, an industry record.

TransitwaysEdit

Metro operates two transitways that carry multiple bus routes for part of their trips through Southern California. When traveling within the transitways, the buses run in express service, stopping only at stations. The transitways are meant to mimic the Metro Rail lines, because while each bus may have a different final destination passengers can board any bus and travel to any of the other stations. The two transitways are connected by a dedicated Metro Busway route, the Metro Silver Line.

Other servicesEdit

FaresEdit

All Metro passes are sold on TAP Cards, smart fare cards on which customers can load value or a pass; they are valid on all Metro buses and trains as well as most city buses.

Faregates at some Metro Rail stations and the Orange Line require a TAP card, but Metro as a whole operates on a proof-of-payment system. The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, Los Angeles Police Department, Long Beach Police Department and Metro's fare inspectors conduct random ticket inspections throughout the system. If customers are caught without a valid TAP card, they may be fined and/or subject to community service.

Fare evasion was estimated in 2007 to be at 6%, costing Metro $2.6 million annually. In response to this, the Metro board approved fare gating of all stations on the Red and Green Lines, and selected stations on the Orange, Blue, and Gold Lines, capturing 84% of passengers using the system. Adding fare gates was selected to increase fare collections, implement distance based fares on rail and transitways in the future, and reduce the potential of the system to terrorist attack.[19] Former Metrolink executive director Richard Stanger critiqued the gate installation by citing its cost and ineffectiveness, concerns ultimately dismissed by the Metro board.[20]

In 2007, with the consent decree with the Bus Riders Union (BRU) expired, Metro announced plans for a fare hike. The agency said that it needed to reduce its $US 100 million deficit, which would be done either by raising fares or reducing service. This proposal garnered strong opposition from Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, Councilman Bernard Parks, the BRU, and low-income residents.

Starting July 15, 2018, inter-agency paper transfers were discontinued on Metro buses. Instead, riders must now use a TAP card when transferring between Metro and municipal buses. (This payment method uses the Stored Value format, which first deducts the base fare, then the inter-agency's transfer amount is deducted when passengers transfer.)

RidershipEdit

 
Percentage of workers commuting to work by public transport in Los Angeles County, in 2007

The Metro Red Line has the highest ridership of all the Metro Rail Lines. The Metro Red Line's operational cost is the lowest of all of the Metro Rail lines because of its high ridership. The Metro Liner Metro Silver Line has the lowest ridership of all color-branded lines. Average daily boardings and passenger miles for all of 2017 are as follows:[3][4]

Service Weekdays Saturdays Sundays and Holidays Average Weekday Passenger Miles
Heavy Rail/Metro
    Red Line
    Purple Line
142,074 94,392 65,525 661,453
Light Rail
    Blue Line 72,139 40,016 33,552 522,100
    Expo Line 59,659 35,688 34,255 387,061
    Gold Line 52,581 32,595 25,350 435,764
    Green Line 32,563 17,128 13,561 232,122
Bus and BRT
Metro Bus 900,001 583,162 436,759 3,710,166
    Orange Line 23,760 13,768 10,551 157,181
    Silver Line 14,905 5,959 4,543 154,511
Total Bus and Rail 1,259,017 802,982 609,002 5,948,665

Cost per rideEdit

Budget (2015)[21] $5,508,000,000
Budget w/o Highway programs $5,063,000,000
Budget w/o Regional bus subsidies $3,994,000,000
LA metro Rides (2015)[22] 469,471,000
Cost per ride $14.50
Fares collected per ride $1.75

GovernanceEdit

Metro is governed by a Board of Directors whose 13 members are:

In addition, Service Councils, composed of political appointees from various regions of Los Angeles County, approve service changes and oversee bus routes within a region. There are five regions: Gateway Cities, San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, South Bay, and Westside/Central. Service councils advise on planning and implementation of service within their area; call and conduct public hearings and evaluate Metro bus programs to their area; make policy recommendations to the Metro Board; and participate in quarterly meetings with the Metro Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Deputy CEO and management staff.

Service councils were created as governance councils in 2001, in response to complaints about the effectiveness of Metro service in suburban areas. Communications between sectors and riders was poor, according to a report by the California State Auditor which was released one year into the new structure.[23] In addition, each sector had its own scheduling, operations, and maintenance divisions, causing effort duplication, organizational silos, and inefficiency.[24] Thus, in 2009, the sectors were eliminated, and transportation, maintenance, service planning, and administration were recentralized under the guidance of Metro's Chief Operations Officer. Governance councils, renamed service councils, now have more responsibility over local issues such as stop placement and service changes, while larger issues are handled by the Metro board.[25]

FundingEdit

A complex mix of federal, state, county and city tax dollars as well as bonds and fare box revenue funds Metro. The Metro budget for 2015 is $5.508 billion. Below is an example of funding sources for a Metro budget many years ago, and the example below does not include an additional sales tax revenue from Measure R that passed a few years ago. Funding sources as per earlier budget.

Resources US$ in Millions 2009[26] US$ in Millions 2015
Fare Revenue 324 351
ExpressLane Tolls + Advertising and other revenue 161 93
Prop A - 1/2 Cent Sales Tax 621 740
Prop C - 1/2 Cent Sales Tax 621 740
Measure R - 1/2 Cent Sales Tax 0 740
Transportation Development Act (TDA) 310 370
State Transit Assistance (STA) 77 105
Federal and State Grants 802 1264
Carry over and Bond proceeds 133 1105
Total Resources (US$ millions) $3,044 $5,508
 
Warner Center Orange Line Station.

FleetEdit

 
Expo Line train arriving at La Cienega/Jefferson station.

As part of Metro's ATMS project, most buses include a marquee displaying the date and time, Automatic Voice Annunciation (AVA) for audio and visual announcements for each stop, and an audio and visual Stop Requested announcement.

MV Transportation, Southland Transit, and Transdev are bus contractors; these contractors currently operate a few NABI 40-LFW (7600-7949) series, all NABI 31-LFW (3100-3149) series, and some NFI XN40 (5600-6149) & (3850-4199) series.

Metro Local buses are painted orange ("California Poppy"), Metro Rapid buses are painted red, and Metro Silver Line buses are painted silver. Metro Local buses acquired prior to the adoption of these colors in 2004 are white with a gold stripe around the bus; these buses been painted orange during their mid-life rehabilitation (except for the 5300-series New Flyer buses assigned to Metro Rapid lines, which were repainted in red livery in 2004-05). The 7000- and 7600-series buses acquired for Metro Rapid service in 2000 and 2002 are red with a white stripe along the top (7102-7112, 7617-7618, 7628, 7643, 7646 were white with a red Metro Rapid logo on all sides and some of these buses have been repainted to standard red and white and a few have been converted to Metro Local service), but some have been repainted to the current red and silver livery. Most had been repainted beginning in 2007; some have been repainted either in the updated Metro Rapid scheme or in Metro Local colors.

Metro operates the nation's largest fleet of CNG-powered buses. The CNG fleet reduces emissions of particulates by 90%, carbon monoxide by 80%, and greenhouse gases by 20% over the 500 remaining diesel powered buses in the fleet. Alternative fuel buses have logged more than 450 million operating miles since 1993, an industry record. Metro has retired all diesel buses (not including contracted buses) and became an entirely clean-air fleet in January 2011.

Beginning December 17, 2006, Metro Local Lines 233 (Van Nuys Blvd.) and 204 (Vermont Ave.) were the first Metro Local lines to use 60-foot (18 m) NABI articulated buses (9400-9494 and some 9500-9594 series). These buses are also currently in use on Metro Local Line 40 (Hawthorne Bl./Crenshaw Bl./MLK Bl./Broadway Ave.), Metro Local Line 66 (8th Street/E. Olympic Bl.) and Metro Local Line 207 (Western Ave.).

SustainabilityEdit

 
Per passenger GHG emissions of transportation options[27]

To increase sustainability in transportation services, Metro also provides bike and pedestrian improvements for the over 10.1 million residents of Los Angeles county.[28]

Metro has focused its sustainability efforts towards two primary channels:

1. Countywide Planning: Plans to optimize efficiency and usability in transportation for all of Los Angeles County.

2. Environmental Compliance and Services: A framework for environmentally friendly implementation and operation of Metro services.

These focuses have gleaned positive outcomes - in 2015, Metro displaced more greenhouse gas emissions (CO2) than it produced by 7,093 metric tons. Metro also released a study detailing the empirically founded impact of their green initiatives.[29]

Bicycle transportation planningEdit

In May 2009 Metro started to set up a Multi Mobility Working Group, which may lead to a change in TDM funding for bicycle projects as detailed in a separate entry on bicycle transportation planning in Los Angeles.

HistoryEdit

LACMTA was formed in 1993 from the merger of two previous agencies: the Southern California Rapid Transit District (SCRTD or more often, RTD) and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission (LACTC). RTD was during the 1960s to 1980s (until the LACTC was created) the "800 pound gorilla" in bus transportation in Southern California, operating most public transportation in Los Angeles, Orange, San Bernardino, and Riverside Counties, although outlying services began to be divested in the early 1980s.

FutureEdit

 
A TAP validator at a Metro station

Metro has expanded its Metro Rapid bus system with a goal of 28 lines since 2008.[30] A Special Master ruling in December 2005 requires Metro to increase service on all Rapid bus routes to every 10 minutes during the peak period and every 20 minutes during the mid-day and evening. Service would be required to operate between 5 a.m. and 9 a.m. on all Rapid routes. Metro has chosen not to appeal the ruling and began implementation on all Rapid routes in June 2006.

In addition, the agency is embarking on a massive bus restructuring effort entitled Metro Connections. The project is designed to convert the current grid-based bus system, implemented in 1980, to a hub and spoke system focused on activity centers.[31] The system is to be phased in the next four years, and will include new express routes and reconfigured local service. Suburban service and low ridership shuttles will be considered for operation by municipal agencies, restructuring, or cancellation.

The Universal Fare system called 'TAP' which stands for Transit Access Pass was introduced to the public in early 2010. The TAP smart card uses near-field communication allowing bus and rail passengers to physically tap their cards on the farebox or fare-gate for faster boarding.

In 2015, Metro studied renaming its rail and bus rapid transit lines using a letter-based scheme.[32]

Crenshaw/LAX LineEdit

The Crenshaw/LAX Line is being built from Aviation/LAX station on the Green Line to Expo/Crenshaw station on the Expo Line, passing through Inglewood and Crenshaw, Los Angeles. It will connect with a people mover to serve Los Angeles International Airport. A further possible phase will extend the line to Hollywood to connect with the Red Line.

Gold Line Foothill ExtensionEdit

Metro is planning an extension of the Gold Line into the San Gabriel Valley to the San Bernardino County border city of Montclair. The first phase of this extension, to Azusa, opened on March 5, 2016. Funding for the second phase is not yet available.

Regional ConnectorEdit

The Regional Connector is a tunnel under Downtown Los Angeles, joining the Gold Line at Little Tokyo Station (1st Street and Central Avenue) to the Blue and Expo Lines at 7th Street/Metro Center. This will lead to the creation of two lines, one between Long Beach and Azusa, and the other between East Los Angeles and Santa Monica.

Purple Line ExtensionEdit

Phase 1 of the Purple Line Extension will add three new subway stations at Wilshire/La Brea, Wilshire/Fairfax, and Wilshire/La Cienega. Further phases will extend the line to Century City and Westwood. Construction of the second section will start in 2018.[33]

West Santa Ana Transit CorridorEdit

The West Santa Ana Branch via Stanton and Garden Grove to Santa Ana is an additional corridor identified for possible future expansion of rail or busway service. The current proposal is a light rail line with a new route from Union Station to the Green Line, then the West Santa Ana Branch right-of-way to Artesia.[34][35]

The Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) is collaborating with the cities of Santa Ana and Garden Grove on the OC Streetcar on the southerly portion of the West Santa Ana Branch.[36]

Fresh AirEdit

Metro aims to have a fully electric bus system by 2030, along with a full switch to electric operations for the Orange and Silver lines by 2020 and shortly after, respectively. [37]

Measure MEdit

Measure M, passed on November 2016, extends and increases the Measure R thirty-year half-cent sales tax to a permanent one-cent sales tax. This tax is expected to fund $120 billion in highway and transit projects over forty years.[38] The tax is also expected to support over 778,000 jobs in the Los Angeles area and $79.3 billion in economic output.[39]

Projects to be funded by Measure M include:[38][40]

GeneralEdit

Metro has a project list including all current projects being pursued in Los Angeles County, as well as an interactive map.

Photo galleryEdit

In popular cultureEdit

The Metro rail and bus fleet often make appearances in films and television shows produced in the Los Angeles area, including 2012, Crash,[41] Volcano, Superbad, Collateral, The 40-Year-Old Virgin,[42], Battle: Los Angeles[43], and Captain Marvel. One of the earliest appearances was in the 1994 movie Speed with Keanu Reaves and Sandra Bullock, in which the Metro plays a key part in the plot.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "https://d1akjheu06qp1r.cloudfront.net/riding_metro/bus_overview/images/901.pdf" (PDF). External link in |title= (help)
  2. ^ "https://d1akjheu06qp1r.cloudfront.net/riding_metro/bus_overview/images/910.pdf" (PDF). External link in |title= (help)
  3. ^ a b "Ridership Statistics". www.metro.net. Retrieved 2017-10-21.
  4. ^ a b Dickens, Matthew. "Public Transportation Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2017" (PDF). APTA. American Public Transportation Association. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  5. ^ "Phillip Washington, Denver transit chief, to become Metro's new CEO". KPCC. March 12, 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  6. ^ [California Public Utilities Code, Section 130051.10] Retrieved 1/26/2018
  7. ^ a b c d "Facts At A Glance". Metro. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  8. ^ "Help & Contacts." Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
  9. ^ APTA Ridership Reports Statistics - United States Transit Agency Totals Index Archived 2006-03-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved April 4, 2006
  10. ^ LA County’s Metro Cited as Nation’s 2006 Outstanding Public Transportation System. Retrieved June 8, 2006
  11. ^ Scauzillo, Steve (13 December 2018). "Because they're out of colors, LA Metro will rename all its train lines and rapid busways with letters in 2019". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  12. ^ Scauzillo, Steve (February 26, 2016). "When is the grand opening of the Gold Line Foothill Extension?". San Gabriel Valley Tribune.
  13. ^ Nelson, Laura J. (February 25, 2016). "Metro Expo Line to begin service to Santa Monica on May 20". Los Angeles Times.
  14. ^ "Bold New Look Proposed For Metro Buses, Trains, 'M' Logo". Los Angeles County Metro. 19 June 2003. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  15. ^ "Metro Gets Grant For Purchase of More Clean-Air Buses". Los Angeles County Metro. 26 April 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-07.
  16. ^ "Introducing Metro Bike Share". Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  17. ^ "Metro Bike Share: About". Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  18. ^ Scauzillo, Steve (September 21, 2018). "Lessons from a failed bike-share program in Pasadena". Pasadena Star News. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  19. ^ https://www.metro.net/board/Items/2007/11_November/20071115EMACItem27_Handout.pdf
  20. ^ https://www.metro.net/board/Items/2008/02_February/20080228RBMItem36.pdf
  21. ^ "LA metro 2015 funding sources" (PDF).
  22. ^ "Ridership Statistics". www.metro.net. Retrieved 2016-04-17.
  23. ^ "Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority: It Is Too Early to Predict Service Sector Success, but Opportunities for Improved Analysis and Communication Exist." page 41, California State Auditor, December 2003. Retrieved May 1, 2006.
  24. ^ https://www.metro.net/board/Items/2009/11_November/20091118OPItem48.pdf
  25. ^ "Metro in Transition". Streetsblog Los Angeles. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
  26. ^ "Metro Adopts Fiscal Year 2011-12 Budget". www.metro.net. Retrieved 2016-04-17.
  27. ^ "Looking for a Way to Fight Climate Change?".
  28. ^ "Metro Sustainability".
  29. ^ "Looking for a way to fight climate change? Try taking transit, walking or biking". metro.net. 1 June 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  30. ^ Overview of Transportation Topics. Realtor.org. Retrieved April 4, 2006.
  31. ^ https://www.metro.net/board/Items/2006/01_January/20060103OtherSectorWES_Item4.pdf
  32. ^ Loos, Chris (April 2, 2015). "Metro Proposes Simplified Naming Convention for Rail Lines". Urbanize.LA. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  33. ^ "The long-awaited Metro Purple Line Subway Extension is now under construction".
  34. ^ Sharp, Steven (September 15, 2015). "Metro Exploring New Options for West Santa Ana Branch". Urbanize.LA. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  35. ^ Nelson, Laura J. (May 23, 2018). "Metro narrows the options for a light-rail line from downtown L.A. to Artesia". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  36. ^ Escobar, Allyson (2017-06-11). "Orange County's first modern streetcar plans to be the future of transit on track". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2017-08-06.
  37. ^ "Fresh Air".
  38. ^ a b "Measure M: Metro's Plan to Transform Transportation in LA". The Plan. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
  39. ^ "Fresh Air".
  40. ^ "Measure M project descriptions". The Source. 2016-11-09. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
  41. ^ "New Flyer C 40 LF in "Crash"".
  42. ^ "Neoplan AN 440 Transliner in "The 40 Year Old Virgin"".
  43. ^ "NABI 416 in "Battle: Los Angeles"".

External linksEdit