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Sovereign states and states with limited recognition fully on islands (Australia is regarded a continent), those with land borders shaded green, and those without shaded dark blue

This is a list of island countries. An island is a landmass (smaller than a continent) that is surrounded by water.[1] Many island countries are spread over an archipelago, as is the case with the Federated States of Micronesia and Indonesia (both of which consist of thousands of islands). Others consist of a single island, such as Nauru, or part of an island, such as Haiti. Although Australia is designated as a continent, it is often referred to as an island, as it has no land borders.[2] Some declared island countries are not universally recognized as politically independent, such as Northern Cyprus. Some states, such as Taiwan, officially claim to hold continental territories but are de facto limited to control over islands. Indonesia is the world's largest island country by area (1,904,569 km²), and by total number the islands (more than 18,307); it is also the world's most populous island country, with a population of 255,461,700 (the fourth-largest population in the world, after China, India, and the United States).

Contents

CurrentEdit

Sovereign states and states with limited recognitionEdit

Name Geographic configuration Geologic location Population Area (km²)[3] Population
density

(per km²)
Geographic location
  Antigua and Barbuda Two main islands Continental shelf 86,295 440 194 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Bahamas Archipelago Continental shelf 392,000 13,878 23.27 Atlantic Ocean, Bahamas
  Bahrain One main island Continental shelf 1,316,500 750 1,189.5 Persian Gulf
  Barbados One island Continental shelf 285,000 430 627 Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
  Brunei Part of a larger island Continental shelf 393,372 5,765 67.3 Maritime Southeast Asia
  Cape Verde Archipelago Oceanic 518,467 4,033 125.5 Atlantic Ocean, Africa
  Comoros Archipelago Oceanic 784,745 2,235 275 Indian Ocean, Africa
  Cook Islands[n 1] Archipelago Oceanic 10,777 236 45.7 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Cuba One main island Continental shelf 11,245,629 109,238 102.3 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  Cyprus[n 2] Part of a larger island Continental shelf 858,000 9,251 85 Mediterranean Sea
  Dominica One main island Continental shelf 71,293 754 105 Caribbean Sea, Lesser Antilles
  Dominican Republic Part of a larger island Continental shelf 10,652,000 48,442 208.2 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  East Timor Part of a larger island Continental shelf 1,212,107 14,874 76.2 Maritime Southeast Asia
  Federated States of Micronesia[n 3] Archipelago Oceanic 101,351 702 158.1 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
  Fiji Archipelago Oceanic 859,178 18,274 46.4 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
  Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique One main island, two dependencies Continental shelf 110,000 344 319.8 Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
  Haiti Part of a larger island Continental shelf 9,700,000 27,750 350 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  Iceland One main island Oceanic 316,252 103,000 3.1 Atlantic Ocean
  Indonesia Archipelago Two continental shelves 255,461,700 1,904,569 124.7 Maritime Southeast Asia
  Republic of Ireland Part of a larger island Continental shelf 4,588,252 70,273 65.3 Atlantic Ocean, British Isles
  Jamaica One main island Continental shelf 2,847,232 10,991 252 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  Japan Archipelago Continental shelf 124,800,000 377,873 337 Pacific Ocean, East Asia
  Kiribati Archipelago Oceanic 98,000 811 135 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
  Madagascar One main island Oceanic 20,653,556 587,041 35.2 Indian Ocean, Africa
  Maldives Archipelago Oceanic 329,198 298 1,105 Indian Ocean
  Malta Two main islands Continental shelf 404,500 316 1,282 Mediterranean Sea
  Marshall Islands[n 3] Archipelago Oceanic 62,000 181 342.5 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
  Mauritius Archipelago Oceanic 1,244,663 2,040 610 Indian Ocean, Africa
  Nauru One island Oceanic 13,635 21 649 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
  New Zealand Two main islands Continental shelf 4,691,194 268,680 17.4 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Niue[n 1] One Island Oceanic 1,269 260 4.9 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Northern Cyprus[n 4] Part of a larger island Continental shelf 313,626[4] 3,355 93 Mediterranean Sea
  Palau[n 3] Archipelago Oceanic 20,000 459 43.6 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
  Papua New Guinea Part of a larger island Continental shelf 6,732,000 462,840 14.5 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
  Philippines Archipelago Continental shelf 101,398,120 300,000 295 Maritime Southeast Asia
  Saint Kitts and Nevis Two main islands Continental shelf 51,300 261 164 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Saint Lucia One main island Continental shelf 173,765 616 298 Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Archipelago Continental shelf 120,000 389 307 Caribbean Sea, Windward Islands
  Samoa Archipelago Oceanic 179,000 2,831 63.2 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  São Tomé and Príncipe Two main islands Continental shelf 163,000 1,001 169.1 Atlantic Ocean, Africa
  Seychelles Archipelago Oceanic 87,500 455 192 Indian Ocean, Africa
  Singapore[5] One main island Continental shelf 5,469,700 718.3 7,615 Maritime Southeast Asia
  Solomon Islands Archipelago Oceanic 523,000 28,400 18.1 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
  Sri Lanka One main island Continental shelf 20,277,597 65,610 314 Indian Ocean
  Taiwan[n 5] One main island Continental shelf 23,550,077 36,188 633 Pacific Ocean, East Asia
  Tonga Archipelago Oceanic 104,000 748 139 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Trinidad and Tobago Two main islands Continental shelf 1,299,953 5,131 254.4 Caribbean Sea, South America
  Tuvalu Archipelago Oceanic 12,373 26 475.88 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  United Kingdom One main island; part of second island Continental shelf 65,587,300 244,820 246 Atlantic Ocean, British Isles
  Vanuatu Archipelago Oceanic 243,304 12,190 19.7 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia

Dependencies and other notable regionsEdit

Name Geographic configuration Geologic location Sovereign state Population Area (km²) Density (per km²) Geographic Location
  Akrotiri and Dhekelia Part of a larger island Continental shelf   United Kingdom 15,700 254 61.8 Mediterranean Sea
  Åland[n 6] Archipelago Continental shelf   Finland 28,355 1,580 17.9 Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia
  American Samoa[n 7] Archipelago Oceanic   United States 54,947 199 276 Pacific ocean, Polynesia
  Anguilla One main island Continental shelf   United Kingdom 15,423 91 169 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Aruba One Island Continental shelf   Netherlands 107,635 180 598 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Antilles
  Bermuda Archipelago Oceanic   United Kingdom 62,500 53.3 1,170 Atlantic Ocean, North America
  British Indian Ocean Territory Archipelago Oceanic   United Kingdom 3,000 60 0.05 Indian ocean
  British Virgin Islands Archipelago Continental shelf   United Kingdom 31,148 151 206 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Caribbean Netherlands Three main islands Continental shelf   Netherlands 21,133 127 166 Caribbean Sea
  Cayman Islands Three islands Continental shelf   United Kingdom 52,560 264 199 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  Christmas Island One main island Oceanic   Australia 1,496 135 11.1 Maritime Southeast Asia
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Two main islands Oceanic   Australia 596 14 42.6 Maritime Southeast Asia
  Curaçao One main island Continental shelf   Netherlands 145,834 444 328 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Antilles
  Easter Island One Island Oceanic   Chile 6,148 163.6 37.5 Pacific ocean, Polynesia
  Falkland Islands Two main islands Continental shelf   United Kingdom[n 8] 3,140 12,173 0.26 Atlantic Ocean, South America
  Faroe Islands Archipelago   Denmark 49,483 1,393 35.5 Atlantic Ocean
  French Polynesia Archipelago Oceanic   France 274,512 3,827 71.7 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Greenland One main island with archipelagos Continental shelf   Denmark 57,695 2,166,086 0.03 North America
  Guadeloupe One main island Continental Shelf   France 405,500 1,628 250 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Guam[n 7] One Island Oceanic   United States 159,914 544 293 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
  Guernsey[n 9][6] Three main islands Continental shelf British Crown 65,849 78 844 English Channel, Channel Islands
  Isle of Man[n 10][6] One main island Continental shelf British Crown 85,421 572 149 Irish Sea, British Isles
  Jersey[n 11][6] One main island Continental shelf British Crown 94,949 116 819 English Channel, Channel Islands
  Martinique One island Continental shelf   France 403,795 1,128 360 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Mayotte One main island   France 194,000 374 498.5 Indian Ocean, Africa
  Montserrat One main island Continental shelf   United Kingdom 5,164 102 50.6 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Navassa Island One main island Continental shelf   United States[n 12] Uninhabited 5.4 N/A Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  New Caledonia One main island Continental shelf   France 260,166 18,275 14.2 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
  Norfolk Island One main island   Australia 2,182 36 60.6 Pacific Ocean, Melanesia
  Northern Mariana Islands[n 7] Archipelago Oceanic   United States 51,395 464 111 Pacific Ocean, Micronesia
  Pitcairn Islands Archipelago Oceanic   United Kingdom 48 47 1.0 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Puerto Rico[n 7] One main island Continental shelf   United States 3,690,923 8,870 416 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  Réunion One main island   France 893,500 2,512 330 Indian Ocean, Africa
  Saint Barthélemy One main island Continental shelf   France 7,332 21 349 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Three main islands distant from each other Oceanic   United Kingdom 7,728 308 25.1 Atlantic Ocean
  Collectivity of Saint Martin Part of a larger island Continental shelf   France 30,959 54.4 569 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon Two main islands Continental shelf   France 5,831 242 24.1 North America
  Sint Maarten Part of a larger island Continental shelf   Netherlands 39,088 34 1,150 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Archipelago Continental shelf   United Kingdom[n 8] 30 3,903 0.008 Atlantic Ocean
  Svalbard[n 13] Archipelago   Norway 2,752 62,045 0.03 Arctic Ocean
  Tokelau[n 1] Archipelago Oceanic   New Zealand 1,368 12 114 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia
  Turks and Caicos Islands Archipelago Continental shelf   United Kingdom 46,335 948 48.9 Caribbean Sea, Greater Antilles
  U.S. Virgin Islands[n 7] Archipelago Continental shelf   United States 105,275 346 304 Caribbean Sea, Leeward Islands
  Wallis and Futuna Three main islands Oceanic   France 15,289 264 57.9 Pacific Ocean, Polynesia

Former nationsEdit

Former colonies, possessions, protectorates and territoriesEdit

Island countries with man-made fixed links to continentsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c The Cook Islands and Niue are in free association with New Zealand. See Niue Constitution Act. Tokelau is a territory of New Zealand.
  2. ^ The northern part of the island of Cyprus is the de facto independent state of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized only by Turkey. In the south of the island are the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, controlled by the United Kingdom.
  3. ^ a b c The Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and Palau are in free association with the United States, under the Compact of Free Association.
  4. ^ In 1983, Northern Cyprus declared independence from Cyprus. Northern Cyprus' sovereignty has been recognized by one United Nations member state (Turkey). It is not a member of the United Nations. Most states recognize Cyprus' claim to sovereignty over Northern Cyprus.
  5. ^ Taiwan (official name "Republic of China") (ROC) only controls the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu etc. since the Chinese Civil War, but has not renounced its claims on areas currently under the control of People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Tuva (a Russian republic) etc. If those territories were taken into account, the Republic of China would not be a borderless country, nor a country centered with a major island. The area under ROC control is also claimed by the People's Republic of China. See Political status of Taiwan and One-China policy.
  6. ^ Shares the small island of Märket with Sweden; however, the property including the lighthouse is owned by the Finnish rather than Åland government.
  7. ^ a b c d e An insular area of the US. See Territories of the United States.
  8. ^ a b The Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, are also claimed by Argentina.
  9. ^ The Bailiwick of Guernsey is a peculiar of the British Crown and not part of the United Kingdom; foreign relations and defence are provided by the UK.
  10. ^ The Isle of Man is a peculiar of the British Crown and not part of the United Kingdomn; foreign relations and defence are provided by the UK.
  11. ^ The Bailiwick of Jersey is a peculiar of the British Crown and not part of the United Kingdom; foreign relations and defence are provided by the UK.
  12. ^ Navassa Island is also claimed by Haiti.
  13. ^ Administered by Norway under the Svalbard Treaty.
  14. ^ Under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State included all of the island of Ireland but Northern Ireland exercised its option to leave the Irish Free State and rejoin the United Kingdom on 8 December 1922. Therefore, from 6 December 1922 to 8 December 1922, the Irish Free State was a borderless island country.
  15. ^ The Crown Colony of Hong Kong covered only Hong Kong Island from 1841 to 1860. Kowloon, south of Boundary Street on the continent, was added in 1860, and extended to include the New Territories in 1898.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Definition of island". Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Löffler, Ernst; A.J. Rose, Anneliese Löffler & Denis Warner (1983). Australia:Portrait of a Continent. Richmond, Victoria: Hutchinson Group. p. 17. ISBN 0-09-130460-1.
  3. ^ "Island Countries Of The World". WorldAtlas.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-07. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  4. ^ TRNC SPO, Economic and Social Indicators 2014, pages=2–3
  5. ^ Statistics Singapore - Latest Data - Population & Land Area
  6. ^ a b c "Channel Islands". Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)

External linksEdit