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The Pontianak Sultanate (Malay: كسلطانن ڤونتيناك, Kesultanan Pontianak) was an Islamic Malay state that existed on the western coast of the island of Borneo from the late 18th century until its disestablishment in 1950. The Sultanate was located at the mouth of the Kapuas river in what is today the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, and the Sultan's residential palace was situated in what later grew to become the modern-day Indonesian city of Pontianak.
|Status||Part of the Dutch East Indies (from 1779)|
|Government||Islamic Absolute Monarchy|
• 2017 - present
|Syarif Mahmud Alkadrie|
|23 October 1771|
|1 September 1778|
• Integration with Indonesia
|17 August 1950|
The Pontianak Sultanate was founded in 1771 by explorers from Hadhramaut led by al-Sayyid Syarif Abdurrahman al-Kadrie, descendant of Imam Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq. He had two political marriages in Kalimantan, first with the daughter of Panembahan Mempawah and then with the daughter of the Sultan of Banjar.
The Pontianak Sultanate had friendly relations with the Lanfang Republic.
Pontianak Sultan Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie was executed by the Japanese in the Pontianak incident along with all the other Malay Sultans of Kalimantan. Two of his sons were also beheaded by the Japanese.
The last Sultan was Syarif Hamid Alkadrie, had earlier been interned by the occupying Japanese forces. He supported Federal state of RIS, with his design of Garuda Pancasila adopted as National emblem of Indonesia. He was deposed when he was involved in a coup d'état attempt of APRA lead by Raymond Westerling.
List of Sultans of PontianakEdit
|Sultan of Pontianak|
|First monarch||Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie|
|Last monarch||Syarif Mahmud Alkadrie|
|Formation||23 October 1771|
|1||Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie||1771–1808|
|2||Syarif Kasim Alkadrie||1808–1819|
|3||Syarif Osman Alkadrie||1819–1855|
|4||Syarif Hamid I Alkadrie||1855–1872|
|5||Syarif Yusuf Alkadrie||1872–1895|
|6||Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie||1895–1944|
|7||Syarif Hamid II Alkadrie
(Sultan Hamid II)
|8||Syarif Abubakar Alkadrie||2004–2017 |
|9||Syarif Mahmud Alkadrie||2017–present|
- "Aku Menulis Maka Aku Ada - Menengok Sisa Kejayaan Keraton Kadriah". ahmadiftahsidik.page.tl.
- Setiawan, Oleh Andri (22 June 2020). "Sultan Hamid II dan Polemik Gelar Pahlawan Nasional". Historia - Majalah Sejarah Populer Pertama di Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- "Syarif Mahmud Alkadrie Jadi Sultan Pontianak". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). 17 April 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
- "Di Balik Istana-Istana yang Dihidupkan Kembali". Indonesia.co.id (in Indonesian). 1 August 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
- Henri Chambert-Loir (June 1994). "Some aspects of Islamic justice in the Sultanate of Pontianak c. 1880". Indonesia and the Malay World. 22 (63): 129–143. doi:10.1080/03062849408729814.
- Mary Somers Heidhues (1998). "The first two Sultans of Pontianak". Archipel. 56: 273–294. doi:10.3406/arch.1998.3491.