List of R1a frequency by population

2009 as per Underhill et al. (2009)
R1a 
M420 
R1a1 
SRY1532.2 

  R1a1*

 R1a1a 
 M17, M198 

R1a1a *

M56
 

R1a1a1

M157
 

R1a1a2

M64.2,..
 

R1a1a3

P98
 

R1a1a4

PK5
 

R1a1a5

M434
 

R1a1a6

 M458 
 
 
M334 
 

R1a1a7a

R1a1a7*

rs34351054
 

R1a1a8

  R1a*

Haplogroup R1a is one of the major classifications (called clades) of Y-chromosome types found in human male lines. It is widespread all across Eurasia. Many sample studies therefore carry information on the incidence of R1a and/or its subclassifications, in particular the dominant branching line represented by the haplogroups R1a1 and R1a1a.

The table below collates information from a number of such sample studies, with incidence frequencies in sample data reported as percentages, along with the associated sample sizes.

DataEdit

Continental Country Population Sample R1a1 = SRY1532.2 positive, M17/M198 not tested () R1a1* = SRY1532.2 positive, M17/M198 negative () R1a1a = SRY1532.2 positive, M17/M198 positive () Source
Caucasus Russia Ossetian 134 NA 0.00 0.75 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Estonia 100 NA 0.00 35.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Romania 335 NA 0.00 17.01 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia Krk (island) 74 NA 0.00 36.49 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia Brac (island) 49 NA 0.00 24.49 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia Hvar (island) 91 NA 0.00 6.59 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia Korcula (island) 134 NA 0.00 15.67 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Croatia 108 NA 0.00 26.85 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Bosnia-Herzegovina Herzegovina 141 NA 0.00 12.06 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Kosovo Albanians 114 NA 0.00 3.51 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Serbia 113 NA 0.00 18.58 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 79 NA 0.00 13.92 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Czech Republic 53 NA 0.00 37.74 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Belarus Brest 97 NA 0.00 58.8 Underhill et al. (2014)
Europe Belarus 267 NA 0.00 54.7 Underhill et al. (2014)
Europe Belarus 50 NA 0.00 42.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Russians 40 NA 0.00 38.46 Underhill et al. (2009)
Central Asia Tajiks, Turkmens 38 NA 0.00 7.89 Underhill et al. (2009)
North Asia Russia Tuvans 104 NA 0.00 7.69 Underhill et al. (2009)
North Asia Russia Altai 58 NA 0.00 41.38 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Jammu) 61 NA 0.00 37.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Uttar Pradesh) 68 NA 0.00 39.71 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Andhra Pradesh) 19 NA 0.00 26.32 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Madhya Pradesh) 54 NA 0.00 35.19 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Khatri (Punjab/Haryana) 15 NA 0.00 67.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Bhanusali (Gujarat) 6 NA 0.00 67.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Ahir (Punjab/Haryana) 24 NA 0.00 63.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Uttar Pradesh) 171 NA 0.00 49.71 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Uttarakhand) 21 NA 0.00 47.62 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (West Bengal) 49 NA 0.00 48.98 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Balmiki (Punjab/Haryana) 24 NA 0.00 33.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Rabari (Gujarat) 34 NA 0.00 32.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Dungari Bhil (Gujarat) 50 NA 0.00 26.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Kathodi (Gujarat) 15 NA 0.00 40.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Dungari Grassia (Gujarat) 51 NA 0.00 29.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Koli (Gujarat) 24 NA 0.00 21.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Meena (Rajasthan) 56 NA 0.00 38.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Meo 16 NA 0.00 31.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Manipuri 6 NA 0.00 50.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Asur 88 NA 0.00 5.68 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Ho 45 NA 0.00 0.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Mawasi (Jharkhand) 27 NA 0.00 3.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Mawasi (Madhya Pradesh) 12 NA 0.00 8.33 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Mahali (Jharkhand) 32 NA 0.00 9.38 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Santal (Jharkhand) 20 NA 0.00 10.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Birhor (Chhattisgarh) 27 NA 0.00 3.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Birhor (Maharashtra) 35 NA 0.00 2.86 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Baiga (Madhya Pradesh) 23 NA 0.00 8.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Baiga (Odisha) 42 NA 0.00 2.38 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Kharia (Chhattisgarh) 37 NA 0.00 5.41 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Savara (Odisha) 21 NA 0.00 9.52 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Meghwal (Rajasthan) 50 NA 0.00 30.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Garo (Meghalaya) 25 NA 0.00 4.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Khasi (Meghalaya) 21 NA 0.00 4.76 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia India Lohana (Gujarat) 20 NA 0.00 60.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Middle East Iran 87 NA 0.00 10.34 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan Brahui 111 NA 0.00 35.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan Burusho 96 NA 0.00 25.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan Kashmiri 10 NA 0.00 50.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan Makrani 60 NA 0.00 25.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan Mohana 70 NA 0.00 71.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan Parsi 90 NA 0.00 8.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan Pathan 96 NA 0.00 45.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
South Asia Pakistan Sindhi 134 NA 0.00 49.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Middle East Turkey 89 NA 0.00 3.37 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Armenia 25 NA 0.00 4.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Megrels 67 NA 0.00 8.96 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Abkhazes 162 NA 0.00 9.26 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Avars 42 NA 0.00 2.38 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Chamalals 27 NA 0.00 7.41 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Bagvalals 28 NA 0.00 3.57 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Andis 49 NA 0.00 2.04 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Lezgis 31 NA 0.00 0.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Darginians 68 NA 0.00 0.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Tabasarans 43 NA 0.00 2.33 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Adyghes 160 NA 0.00 11.25 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Karachays 69 NA 0.00 27.54 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Kumyks 76 NA 0.00 13.16 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Balkars 136 NA 0.00 25.74 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Cherkessians 126 NA 0.00 12.70 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Kabardians 141 NA 0.71 13.48 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Abazas 89 NA 0.00 19.10 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Nogays 87 NA 0.00 12.64 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Karanogays 77 NA 0.00 9.09 Underhill et al. (2009)
Caucasus Russia Tats 10 NA 0.00 0.00 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Greece Crete 193 NA 0.00 8.81 Underhill et al. (2009)
Middle East Oman 121 NA 0.00 9.09 Underhill et al. (2009)
Middle East Iran 150 NA 0.67 12.67 Underhill et al. (2009)
Middle East United Arab Emirates 164 NA 0.00 7.32 Underhill et al. (2009)
Middle East Turkey 523 NA 0.00 6.88 Underhill et al. (2009)
Europe Lithuania Aukštaičiai 106 45.3 NA NA Kasperaviciūte et al. (2005)
Europe Lithuania Žemaičiai 90 44.4 NA NA Kasperaviciūte et al. (2005)
Europe Norway North 377 27.1 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway Middle 317 31.5 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway West 301 24.3 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway East 493 26.8 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway Bergen 93 28 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway Oslo 109 19.3 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Norway South 76 13.2 NA NA Dupuy et al. (2005)
Europe Spain/Portugal large survey 1140 NA 0.00 1.2 Adams et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Greeks 92 NA 0.00 16.3 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Greek Macedonian 57 NA 1.80 10.5 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Albania 55 NA 0.00 9.1 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Bosnia Serbs 81 NA 0.00 13.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Bosnia Bosniacs 84 NA 0.00 15.5 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Bosnia Croats 90 NA 0.00 12.2 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Croatia 89 NA 0.00 27.0 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Hungary 53 NA 0.00 56.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Czech Republic 75 NA 0.00 41.3 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Poland 99 NA 0.00 56.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Ukraine 92 NA 0.00 50.0 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Georgia 66 NA 0.00 10.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Russia Balkars 38 NA 0.00 13.2 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Republic of Macedonia Albanians 64 NA 0.00 1.6 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Croatia Osijek 29 NA 0.00 37.9 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Slovenia Slovenians 75 NA 0.00 38.70 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe Italy North East 67 NA 0.00 10.4 Battaglia et al. (2008)
Europe - Ashkenazi Cohen 76 NA 0.00 1.3 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe - Sephardi Cohen 69 NA 0.00 5.8 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe - Ashkenazi Levite 60 NA 0.00 51.7 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe - Sephardi Levite 31 NA 0.00 3.2 Behar et al. (2003)
Middle East Israel Ashkenazi 100 NA 0.00 4.0 Behar et al. (2003)
Middle East Israel Sephardi 63 NA 0.00 1.6 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Germany 88 NA 0.00 12.5 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Norway 83 NA 0.00 21.7 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Germany Sorbs 112 NA 0.00 63.4 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Belarus 306 NA 0.33 51.0 Behar et al. (2003)
Europe Spain Basques 42 NA NA 0.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe British Crown Channel Islands 128 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Chippenham 52 NA NA 6.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Cornwall 52 NA NA 6.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Dorchester 73 NA NA 4.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Faversham 55 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Midhurst 80 NA NA 1.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Morpeth 95 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Norfolk 121 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Penrith 90 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Southwell 70 NA NA 4.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England Uttoxeter 84 NA NA 0.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe England York 46 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Denmark/Germany Denmark/Schleswig-Holstein 190 NA NA 8.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Ireland Castlerea 43 NA NA 0.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe British Crown Isle of Man 62 NA NA 8.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Norway 201 NA NA 12.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Orkney 121 NA NA 7.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Ireland Rush, Dublin 76 NA NA 1.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Durness 51 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Oban 42 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Pitlochry 41 NA NA 0.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Stonehaven 44 NA NA 5.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Western Isles 88 NA NA 3.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Scotland Shetland 63 NA NA 6.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Wales Haverfordwest 59 NA NA 2.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Wales Llangefni 80 NA NA 1.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Europe Wales Llanidloes 57 NA NA 4.0 Capelli et al. (2003)
Middle East Turkey 523 NA NA 6.9 Cinnioğlu et al. (2004)
Europe Italy Sicily 236 NA NA 5.5 Di Gaetano et al. (2008)
Europe Greece 77 NA NA 15.6 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia India Charan (Gujarat) 42 NA NA 36.0 [1]
South Asia India Bharwad (Gujarat) 48 NA NA 17.0 [1]
South Asia India Siddi (Gujarat) 60 NA NA 5.0 [1]
South Asia India Siddi (Karnataka) 65 NA NA 3.0 [1]
South Asia India Medar (Karnataka) 56 NA NA 39.0 [1]
South Asia India Grama Vokkal 54 NA NA 25.0 [1]
South Asia India Korava 38 NA NA 24.0 [1]
South Asia India Kare Vokkal 30 NA NA 27.0 [1]
South Asia India Pardhan (Dravidian tribe) 128 NA NA 12.5 [2]
South Asia India Andh (Dravidian tribe) 54 NA NA 31.5 [2]
South Asia India Naikpod (Andhra Pradesh) 68 NA NA 19.11 [2]
South Asia India Kota 62 NA NA 22.58 [3]
South Asia India Konar 107 NA NA 14.95 [3]
South Asia India Maravar 80 NA NA 16.25 [3]
South Asia India Valayar 95 NA NA 20.0 [3]
South Asia India Tamil Jains 100 NA NA 18.0 [3]
South Asia India Ezhava 95 NA NA 24.21 [3]
South Asia India Sourashtra 40 NA NA 40.0 [3]
South Asia India Vadama Iyer 63 NA NA 47.62 [3]
South Asia Pakistan Burusho 97 NA NA 25.8 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia Pakistan Kalash 44 NA NA 18.2 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia Pakistan Pathan (Pashtun) 96 NA NA 44.8 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia Pakistan 638 NA NA 37.1 Firasat et al. (2007)
South Asia Nepal Tharu (central Terai) 57 NA 0.00 10.5 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia Nepal Tharu (central Terai) 77 NA 0.00 3.9 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia Nepal Tharu (Chitwan) 37 NA 0.00 16.2 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia Nepal Hindus (proxy for Indian ancestry) Chitwan, Nepal 26 NA 0.00 69.2 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia India Hindu (New Delhi) 49 NA 0.00 34.7 Fornarino et al. (2009)
South Asia India Andhra Pradesh tribal 29 NA 0.00 27.6 Fornarino et al. (2009)
Europe Poland 913 NA NA 57.0 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany 1215 NA NA 17.9 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Berlin 103 NA NA 22.3 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Leipzig 144 NA NA 27.1 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Magdeburg 100 NA NA 21 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Rostock 96 NA NA 31.3 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Greifswald 104 NA NA 19.2 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Hamburg 161 NA NA 16.8 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Münster 102 NA NA 7.8 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Freiburg 102 NA NA 10.8 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Cologne 96 NA NA 15.6 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Mainz 95 NA NA 8.4 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Germany Munich 95 NA NA 14.3 Kayser et al. (2005)
Europe Greece Nea Nikomedeia 57 NA 0.00 21.1 King et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Sesklo/Dimini 57 NA 0.00 10.5 King et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Lerna/Franchthi 57 NA 0.00 1.8 King et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Crete 193 NA 0.50 8.3 King et al. (2008)
Europe Greece Crete, Heraklion Prefecture 104 NA 0.00 8.7 Martinez et al. (2007)
Europe Greece Crete, Lasithi Plateau 41 NA 0.00 19.5 Martinez et al. (2007)
Europe Greece Crete, Lasithi Prefecture 23 NA 0.00 4.3 Martinez et al. (2007)
Europe Ukraine 94 NA NA 43.6 Kharkov et al. (2004)
Europe Belarus 68 NA NA 45.6 Kharkov et al. (2005)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Northern Altaians (Gorno-Altaisk) 20 NA NA 50.0 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Northern Altaians (Kurmach-Baigol) 11 NA NA 18.2 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Northern Altaians (Turochak) 19 NA NA 36.8 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Southern Altaians (Beshpel'tir) 43 NA NA 58.1 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Southern Altaians (Kulada) 46 NA NA 52.2 Kharkov et al. (2007)
North Asia Russia (Altai Republic) Southern Altaians (Kosh-Agach) 7 NA NA 28.6 Kharkov et al. (2007)
Europe England West Lancashire (2 gens) 49 NA NA 2.0 Bowden et al. (2008)
Europe England Wirral (2 gens) 100 NA NA 4.0 Bowden et al. (2008)
Europe England West Lancashire (medieval?) 42 NA NA 16.7 Bowden et al. (2008)
Europe England Wirral (medieval?) 37 NA NA 13.5 Bowden et al. (2008)
South Asia India Chenchu 41 NA NA 26.8 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India Koya 41 NA NA 2.4 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India West Bengal 31 NA NA 38.7 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India Chipavan Brahmin (Bombay) 43 NA NA 41.9 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India Gujarat 29 NA NA 24.1 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India Lambadi 35 NA NA 8.6 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia India Punjab 66 NA NA 47.0 Kivisild et al. (2003)
South Asia Sri Lanka Sinhalese 87 23.0 NA NA Kivisild (2003)a
North Asia Russia Tuvan 40 NA NA 7.5 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Tofalar 19 NA NA 5.3 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Buryat 13 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Yenisey Evenk 31 NA NA 9.7 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Okhotsk Evenk 16 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Ulchi/Nanai 53 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Upriver Negidal 10 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Downriver Negidal 7 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Ugedey 20 NA NA 5.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Nivkh 17 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Kamchatka, Koryak 27 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Kamchatka, Itel\'man 18 NA NA 22.2 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Chukotka, Chukchi 24 NA NA 4.2 Lell et al. (2002)
North Asia Russia Chukotka, Asiatic Eskimo 33 NA NA 0.0 Lell et al. (2002)
Caucasus Russia Abazinians 14 NA NA 14.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Chechenians 19 NA NA 5.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Darginians 26 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Ingushians 22 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Kabardinians 59 NA NA 2.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Lezgi (Dagestan) 25 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Ossetians (Ardon) 28 NA NA 4.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Ossetians (Digora) 31 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Russia Rutulians 24 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Georgia Abkhazians 12 NA NA 33.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Armenia Armenians 100 NA NA 6.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Azerbaijan Azerbaijanians 72 NA NA 7.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Caucasus Georgia Georgians 77 NA NA 10.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Middle East Turkey 39 NA NA 13.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Middle East Iran Isfahan 50 NA NA 18.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
Middle East Iran Tehran 80 NA NA 20.0 Nasidze et al. (2004)
South Asia Pakistan Balti 13 NA NA 46.15 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Brahui 110 NA NA 39.09 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Burusho 94 NA NA 27.67 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Kalash 44 NA NA 18.18 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Kashmiri 12 NA NA 58.33 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Baloch (Makran) 25 NA NA 28.00 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Siddi (Makran) 33 NA NA 30.30 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Parsi 90 NA NA 7.77 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Pathan 93 NA NA 45.16 Qamar et al. (2002)
South Asia Pakistan Sindhi 122 NA NA 49.18 Qamar et al. (2002)
Europe Albania Albanian 51 NA NA 9.8 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe France French Basque 22 NA NA 0.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Spain Spanish Basque 45 NA NA 0.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Italy Calabrian 37 NA NA 0.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Spain Catalan 24 NA NA 0.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Italy Central/Northern 50 NA NA 4.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Croatia Croatian 58 NA NA 29.3 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Czech Republic/Slovakia Czech/Slovak 45 NA NA 26.7 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Netherlands Dutch 27 NA NA 3.7 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Georgia Georgian 63 NA NA 7.9 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Germany German 16 NA NA 6.2 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Greece Greek 76 NA NA 11.8 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Hungary Hungarian 45 NA NA 60.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Middle East Lebanon Lebanese 31 NA NA 9.7 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Greece Greek Macedonian 20 NA NA 35.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Poland Polish 55 NA NA 56.4 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Saami 24 NA NA 8.3 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Italy Sardinian 1204 NA NA 1.3 Francalacci et al. (2013)
Europe Syria Syrian 20 NA NA 10.0 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Turkey Turkish 30 NA NA 6.6 Semino et al. (2000)
Asia Russia Udmurt 43 NA NA 37.2 Semino et al. (2000)
Europe Ukraine Ukrainian 50 NA NA 54.0 Semino et al. (2000)
South Asia Pakistan 85 NA NA 16.5 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Rajput (Rajasthan) 29 NA NA 31.3 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Pallar 29 NA NA 24.14 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia Pakistan Southern 91 NA NA 31.9 Sengupta et al. (2005)
Southeast Asia Cambodia 6 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
East Asia China 128 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
East Asia Japan 23 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
North Asia Siberia 18 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Tribe (Austro-Asiatic) 64 NA NA 0.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Tribe (Dravidian) 18 NA NA 2.8 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Tribe (Tibeto-Burman) 87 NA NA 4.6 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Tribe (Indo-European) 21 NA NA 19.1 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Iyer/Iyengar (Tamil Nadu) 59 NA NA 28.8 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Dravidian middle caste 85 NA NA 11.8 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Pallar 29 NA NA 24.1 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Indo-European Upper Caste 86 NA NA 45.4 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Indo-European Middle Caste 48 NA NA 50.4 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Indo-European low caste 50 NA NA 26.0 Sengupta et al. (2005)
South Asia India Kashmiri Gujars 49 NA 0.00 40.86 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Kashmiri Pandits 51 NA 3.92 19.61 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Gujarat) 64 NA 0.00 32.81 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Paswan 27 NA 0.00 40.74 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Bihar) 38 NA 0.00 60.53 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Himachal Pradesh Brahmin 30 NA 0.00 47.37 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Punjab Brahmin 49 NA 0.00 35.71 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (West Bengal) 30 NA 0.00 72.22 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Uttar Pradesh) 31 NA 0.00 67.74 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Kol (Uttar Pradesh) 38 NA 0.00 14.81 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Saharia 57 NA 22.8 28.07 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Madhya Pradesh) 42 NA 0.00 38.1 Sharma et al. (2009)
South Asia India Brahmin (Maharashtra) 32 NA 0.00 43.33 Sharma et al. (2009)
Europe Moldova Moldavians, Karahasan[disambiguation needed] 72 NA NA 34.7 Varzari (2006)
Europe Moldava Moldavians Sofia, Moldava 54 NA NA 20.4 Varzari (2006)
Europe Romania Dniester-Carpathian - NA NA 20.4 Varzari (2006)
Europe Ukraine Ukrainians, Rashkovo 53 NA NA 41.5 Varzari (2006)
Europe Moldava Gagauzes, Kongaz 48 NA NA 12.5 Varzari (2006)
Europe Ukraine Gagauzes, Etulia 41 NA NA 26.8 Varzari (2006)
East Asia China Dongxiang 49 NA 0? 28.0 Wang et al. (2003)
East Asia China Salar 52 NA 0? 17.0 Wang et al. (2003)
East Asia China Bo\'an (Bonan) Mongolian descent 47 NA 0? 26.0 Wang et al. (2003)
Caucasus Armenia Ararat 44 NA 0.00 0.0 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Armenia/Georgia \"Northern Armenians\" 189 NA 0.53 4.2 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Armenia Syunik (South Armenia) 140 NA 0.00 9.3 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Azerbaijan/Armenia Karabakh 215 NA 0.00 5.6 Weale et al. (2001)
Middle East Iran Isfahan, New Julfa, (Armenian descent) 56 NA 0.00 1.8 Weale et al. (2001)
Middle East Turkey near Armenia 90 NA 1.11 3.3 Weale et al. (2001)
Middle East Turkey Istanbul University 173 NA 0.00 10.4 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Azerbaijan Baku 29 NA 0.00 10.3 Weale et al. (2001)
Middle East Syria Damascus University 44 NA 0.00 2.3 Weale et al. (2001)
Caucasus Georgia Tbilisi 68 NA 0.00 4.4 Weale et al. (2001)
Europe Greece Athens 132 NA 0.00 6.1 Weale et al. (2001)
Europe Mongolia soldiers mainly from Khalkh 402 NA 0.00 2.5 Weale et al. (2001)
Europe Hungary 215 NA 1.40 24.2 Völgyi et al. (2008)
Europe Wales North Wales 98 NA NA 1.0 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe England English Midlands 136 NA NA 4.4 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe England East Anglia 173 NA NA 4.6 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe Netherlands Friesland 94 NA NA 7.4 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe Norway 83 NA NA 21.7 Weale et al. (2002)
Europe England/Scotland/Wales? British 25 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Scotland Orkney 26 NA NA 27.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Russia Pomor 28 NA NA 36.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Russia Russian, North 49 NA NA 43.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Asia Russia Russian, Tashkent 89 NA NA 47.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Russia Kazan Tatar 38 NA NA 24.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Europe Russia Saami 23 NA NA 22.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Asia Russia Nenets 54 NA NA 11.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Middle East Lebanon 50 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Middle East Iran Tehran 24 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Middle East Iran Shiraz 12 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Middle East Iran Esfahan 16 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Georgia Svans (Svanetians) 25 NA NA 8.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Georgia Kazbegi 25 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Georgia South Ossetians 17 NA NA 6.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Azerbaijan Lezgi in Azerbaijan 12 NA NA 8.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Azerbaijan Azerbaijanians 21 NA NA 10.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Caucasus Armenia Armenians 47 NA NA 9.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Afghanistan Pashtuns 49 NA NA 51.02 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Tajiks 56 NA NA 30.36 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Hazara 60 NA NA 6.66 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Uzbeks 17 NA NA 17.64 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Balochs 13 NA NA 0.0 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Afghanistan Nuristanis 5 NA NA 60.0 Haber et al. (2012)
Central Asia Turkmenistan Turkmen 30 NA NA 7.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Kurd 17 NA NA 12.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Sinte Romani 15 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Iranian (Samarkand) 53 NA NA 11.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Tajik (Samarkand) 40 NA NA 25.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Arab Bukhara 42 NA NA 19.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Crimean Tartar 22 NA NA 32.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Karakalpak 44 NA NA 18.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Kashkadarya 19 NA NA 16.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Bukhara 58 NA NA 28.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Surkhandarya 68 NA NA 29.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Khorezm 70 NA NA 30.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Tashkent 43 NA NA 28.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek/ Fergana Valley 63 NA NA 22.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Uzbekistan Samarkand 45 NA NA 13.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Ishkashimi (near Afghanistan) 25 NA NA 68.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Bartangi 30 NA NA 40.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Shugnan 44 NA NA 23.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Yagnobi 31 NA NA 16.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Tajiks/Panjikent 22 NA NA 64.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Tajikistan Tajiks/Dushanbe 16 NA NA 19.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz 52 NA NA 63.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Kyrgyzstan Dungan (Sino-Tibetan) 40 NA NA 10.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Kazakhstan Kazakhs 54 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
Central Asia Kazakhstan Uighur 41 NA NA 22.0 Wells et al. (2001)
South Asia India Saurashtra 46 NA NA 39.0 Wells et al. (2001)
South Asia India Kallar 84 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
South Asia India Konar 129 NA NA 13.0 Wells et al. (2001)
North Asia Russia Tuvinian 42 NA NA 14.0 Wells et al. (2001)
North Asia Mongolia 24 NA NA 4.0 Wells et al. (2001)
East Asia Korea 45 NA NA 0.0 Wells et al. (2001)
East Asia China Liqian from Yongchang 87 NA NA 1.1 Zhou et al. (2007)
East Asia China Yugur from Su\'nan 52 NA NA 1.9 Zhou et al. (2007)
East Asia China Tibetan from Guide, Qinghai 39 NA NA 2.6 Zhou et al. (2007)
East Asia China Uygurs from Urumqi 49 NA NA NA Zhou et al. (2007)
Europe Italy Sardinia 10 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe England Cornwall 51 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Spain Basque 26 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Portugal Northern 328 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
North Africa Algeria 27 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
North Africa 129 0.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
North Africa Tunisia Jerbian Arabs 46 NA 4.3 4.3 Ennafaa et al. (2011)
Europe Finland 57 10.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Bulgaria 24 12.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Netherlands 84 13.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Germany Bavarian 80 15.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Sweden Gotlander 64 16.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Yugoslavian 100 16.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Russia Chuvash 17 18.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Sweden Northern 48 19.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Romania 45 20.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Iceland 28 21.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Saami 48 21.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Hungary 36 22.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Estonia 207 27.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Russia Mari 48 29.0 (Tambets disagrees) NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Ukraine Ukraine 27 30.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Germany 30 30.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Norway 52 31.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Lithuania 38 34.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Slovenia 70 37.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Czech Republic 53 38.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Belarus 41 39.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Latvia 34 41.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Asia Russia 122 47.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Slovakia 70 47.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Poland 112 54.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Ireland 57 1.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Ossetia 47 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Cyprus 45 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Italy 99 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Spain 126 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Portugal Southern 57 2.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Belgium 92 4.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Middle East Turkey 167 5.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe France 40 5.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Georgia 64 6.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Armenia 89 6.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Denmark 56 7.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Scotland Western 120 7.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Scotland 43 7.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Greece 36 8.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe England East Anglia 172 9.0 NA NA Rosser et al. (2000)
Europe Iceland 181 23.8 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Norway 112 17.9 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Sweden 110 17.3 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Denmark 12 16.7 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Ireland 222 0.5 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Scotland 61 6.6 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Britain 32 9.4 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Germany 32 9.4 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Greece 42 4.8 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Italy 332 2.7 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Asia Russia 30 43.3 NA NA Helgason et al. (2000)
Europe Bulgaria Bulgarian 808 17.5 NA NA Karachanak et al. (2013)
Europe Croatia Mainland 108 34.3 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Bosnia-Herzogivina Bosnians 69 24.6 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Bosnia-Herzogivina Herzogivinians 141 12.1 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Serbia Serbians 113 15.9 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Kosova Albanians 114 4.4 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Republic of Macedonia Macedonians 79 15.2 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Republic of Macedonia Romani 57 1.8 NA NA Pericic et al. (2005)
Europe Croatia Mainland 109 33.9 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Croatia Krk 74 28.0 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Croatia Brač 49 13.0 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Croatia Hvar 91 8.0 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Croatia Korčula 134 27.0 NA NA Barać et al. (2003)
Europe Russia North 380 34.20 NA NA Balanovsky et al. (2008)
Europe Russia Central 364 46.50 NA NA Balanovsky et al. (2008)
Europe Russia South 484 55.40 NA NA Balanovsky et al. (2008)
Europe Portugal 553 1.27 NA NA Gonçalves et al. (2005)
Europe Sweden Swedes 141 18.4 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Estonia Estonians 209 33.5 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Latvia Latvians 86 38.4 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Mari 111 47.7 (Rosser disagrees) NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Mordvin 83 26.5 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Komi 94 33 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Udmurt 87 10.3 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Chuvash 79 31.6 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Volga Tatars 126 34.1 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe France French 61 0 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Hungary Hungarians 113 20.4 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Russia Russians 61 42.6 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Khant 47 4.3 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Nganasan 38 0 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Nenets 148 0 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Selkup 131 19.1 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Ket 48 0 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Dolgan 67 16.4 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Yakut 155 1.9 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Buryat 81 1.2 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Evenk 96 1 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Evens 31 6.5 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
North Asia Russia Altaians 98 46.9 NA NA Tambets et al. (2004)
Europe Norway Norwegians 72 23.6 NA NA Passarino et al. (2002)
Europe Denmark Danes 194 16.5 NA NA Sanchez et al. (2003)
Middle East Turkey Kurds Zazaki speakers 27 NA NA 25.9 Nasidze et al. (2005)
Middle East Turkey Kurds Kurmanji speakers 87 NA NA 12.7 Nasidze et al. (2005)
Middle East Iraq Kurds 95 NA NA 11.6 Brinkmann et al. (1999)
Caucasus Georgia Kurds 25 NA NA 0.0 Nasidze et al. (2005)
Middle East Jordan Amman 101 NA NA 2.0 Flores et al. (2005)
Middle East Jordan Dead Sea 45 NA NA 0.0 Flores et al. (2005)
Middle East Iraq Baghdad, different ethnic groups 139 NA NA 6.5 Al Zahery et al. (2003)
Europe Russia Arkhangelsk 28 NA 0.00 17.9 Mirabal et al. (2009)
North Asia Russia Khanty 27 NA 0.00 14.8 Mirabal et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Izhenski Komi 54 NA 0.00 29.6 Mirabal et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Priluzki Komi 49 NA 0.00 32.7 Mirabal et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Kursk region Russian 40 NA 0.00 52.5 Mirabal et al. (2009)
Europe Russia Tver region Russian 38 NA 0.00 57.9 Mirabal et al. (2009)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Shah, Anish M.; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S.; Bhaskar, L.V.K.S.; Reddy, Alla G.; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B.; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy (July 2011). "Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 89 (1): 154–161. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.030. PMC 3135801. PMID 21741027.
  2. ^ a b c Thanseem, Ismail; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Singh, Vijay; Bhaskar, Lakkakula VKS; Reddy, B Mohan; Reddy, Alla G; Singh, Lalji (2006). "Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: Inference from y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA". BMC Genetics. 7 (1): 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-42. PMC 1569435. PMID 16893451.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h ArunKumar, GaneshPrasad; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Kavitha, Valampuri John; Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R. Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G.; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Genographic Consortium (28 November 2012). "Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e50269. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...750269A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050269. PMC 3508930. PMID 23209694.

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