Khidr Bey or Khidr Beg (Turkish: Hızır Çelebi (Hızır Bey); [Note 1] Arabic: خضر بك‎), was an Ottoman Hanafi-Maturidi scholar and poet of the 9th/15th century, and the first kadi (qadi) of Istanbul. The unique source for his biography is the Arabic original of al-Shaqa'iq al-Nu'maniyya by Tash-Kopru-Zade.[1]

Khidr Beg
خضر بك
TitleKhidr Beg Çelebi
Born810 A.H. = 1407 A.D.
DiedSome reports place his death in 860 A.H. = 1456 A.D., but 863 A.H. = 1459 A.D. is more likely
EraIslamic Golden Age
Region Ottoman Empire
Main interest(s)Aqidah, Kalam (Islamic theology), Logic, Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), Arabic prosody, Literature, Tafsir
Notable work(s)Jawahir al-'Aqa'id, better known as: al-Qasida al-Nuniyya ("Ode Rhyming in the Letter Nun [N]")
Muslim leader


He was born in Sivrihisar, where his father, Jalal al-Din, was kadi — though the fact that the latter was, also. He completed his studies in Bursa under the famous scholar Molla Yegan, whose daughter he married, and is then said to have returned to Sivrihisar as a teacher. He acquired such a reputation for learning that he was appointed to the madrasa of Mehmed I in Bursa with an increase in stipend, and certain of his pupils here were subsequently to become scholars of great eminence. Next he taught at the madrasa of Bayezid I in Bursa, again with an increased stipend, and in addition was appointed kadi of İnegöl. From here he moved to the newest of the two madrasas in the Üç Şerefeli Mosque in Edirne, and thence to Yanbolu (in present-day Bulgaria) as kadi.

His three sons, Ya'kub Pasha, Mufti Ahmad Pasha and Sinan Pasha, were also notable scholars, the latter being the author of the famous Tadarru'dt.


After the conquest of Istanbul in 857/1453, he was appointed its first kadi, in which post he remained until his death in 863/1458-9. He is buried in the Zeyrek quarter of Istanbul, where he also built the mosque later attributed to a certain Hadjdji Kadin.

He was buried next to the tomb of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Eyüp Cemetery), the companion of the Prophet Muhammad who died during the First Arab Siege of Constantinople (674–678 CE).


Although Khidr Beg is reputed to have introduced the versified chronogram into Ottoman literature, very few of his Turkish poems have survived and his reputation rests on three poems in Arabic.

The first, a didactic qasida in the basit metre on the creed, is known as the Nuniyya and has been the subject of several commentaries, most notably that by his pupil al-Khayali.

Another qasida, also a Nuniyya, also called Jawahir al-'Aqa'id (Arabic: جواهر العقائد‎), dealing with the creed, but in the wafir metre, is usually known as 'Ujalat layla aw laylatayn (Arabic: عجالة ليلة أو ليلتين‎), is paid special attention in Ottoman period by writing many commentaries.

Finally, there is a Mustazad, in a Persian variety of the hazadj metre, which was greatly admired and attracted imitations for over a century. Bursall Mehmed Tahir mentions a translation into Persian of the Mafdli' which he made at the request of Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, the work in question probably being the Matali' al-Anwar, on logic, by Siraj al-Din al-Urmawi (d. 1283).

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The name Hıdırbey is originally Khidr Bey, Lord Khidr.


  1. ^ H.A.R. Gibb (1979–1980). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Publishers. pp. 4–5.

External linksEdit

Muhammad (570–632 the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607–661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618–687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610–660) taughtUmar (579–644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603–681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taughtHusayn ibn Ali (626–680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657–725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637–715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614–693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624–692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taughtAli ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taughtHisham ibn Urwah (667–772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682–720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taughtMuhammad al-Baqir (676–733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699–767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695–740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Muhammad and Ali's great great grand son, jurisprudence followed by Shia, he taughtMalik ibn Anas (711–795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taughtAl-Waqidi (748–822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729–798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)Al-Shafi‘i (767–820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn IbrahimAli ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the CompanionsIbn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Ja'far (719–775)Musa al-Kadhim (745–799)Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810–870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815–875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824–892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824–887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith bookAbu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver ShiaMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-TabariAbu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
Ibn Babawayh (923–991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver ShiaSharif Razi (930–977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver ShiaNasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver ShiaAl-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on SufismRumi (1207–1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Iran