Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind or Jamiat Ulama-I-Hind (transl. "Council of Indian Muslim Theologians")[1] is one of the leading organizations of Islamic scholars belonging to the Deobandi school of thought in India.[1][2] It was founded in 1919 by a group of Deobandi scholars. Mufti Kifayatullah Dehlavi was elected the first president of the organization,[3][4] and Mohammad Sajjad as its secretary.[5]

Jamiat-Ulema-e-Hind
جمعیت علمائے ہند
Jamiat-ulama-i-hind.png
Formation19 November 1919 (100 years ago) (1919-11-19)
Legal statusReligious organisation
PurposeInitially to carry on non-violent freedom struggle against the British rule in India, currently development of Indian Muslim community
Headquarters1, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi
Location
  • ITO
Region served
India
Membership
Over 12 Million, and millions of followers.
Official languages
Urdu and English
Leader (Amir in Urdu language)
Mahmood Madani (M group)
Arshad Madani (A group)
WebsiteOfficial website of M group
Official website of A group

The Jamiat was an active participant in the Khilafat Movement in collaboration with the Indian National Congress. It also opposed the partition of India, taking the position of composite nationalism: that Muslims and non-Muslims form one nation.[6] As a result, this organisation had a small break-away faction known as the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, which decided to support the Pakistan movement.[4]

After the death of its former president Asad Madni, Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind split in to two factions. The first faction is headed by Arshad Madani and is known as A group or Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind (A). The other faction is headed by Qari Usman Mansoorpuri, but is known as Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind (M), as Mahmood Madani being its general secretary.[7]

HistoryEdit

Inception and foundersEdit

The founders of the Jamiat in 1919 were the scholars Sheikh ul Hind Maulana Mehmood Hasan, Maulana Syed Husain Ahmad Madani, Maulana Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, Mufti Kifayatullah Dehlavi, Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi, Maulana Ahmed Ali Lahori, Maulana Bashir Ahmad Bhatta, Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Abdul Haq Akorwi, Maulana Abdul Haleem Siddiqui, Maulana Noor u Din Bihari and Maulana Abdul Bari Firangi Mahali.[8]

Independence movementEdit

During the British Raj, the Deobandi and Deoband-based organization was against the British rule in India and for a united India, opposing the formation of a separate homeland for Indian Muslims. The Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind was a member of the All India Azad Muslim Conference, which contained several Islamic organisations standing for a united India.[9][4]

Partition of IndiaEdit

Maulana Syed Husain Ahmad Madani, the principal of the Darul Uloom Deoband (1927–1957) and the leading Deobandi scholar, held that Muslims were unquestionably part of a united India and that Hindu-Muslim unity was necessary for the country's freedom. He worked closely with the Indian National Congress until the Partition of India was carried out.[10] A faction under Shabbir Ahmad Usmani supporting the creation of Pakistan parted ways in 1945 to support the All Indian Muslim League. This faction came to be known as the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, and is currently a political party in Pakistan.[11]

Scholar Ishtiaq Ahmed states that, in return for their support, the Jamiat obtained a pledge from the Indian leadership that the state would not interfere with the Muslim Personal Law in India. So far, the Indian state has kept its word.[12]

Recent developmentsEdit

The Jamiat has an organisational network which is spread all over India. It also has an Urdu daily Al-Jamiyat. The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. The thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India, since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India represents this contract. This is known in Urdu as a mu'ahadah. Accordingly, as the Muslim community's elected representatives supported and swore allegiance to this mu'ahadah, so it is the responsibility of Indian Muslims to support the Indian Constitution. This mu'ahadah is similar to a previous similar contract signed between the Muslims and the Jews in Medina.[13][14] In 2009, Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind said that Hindus should not be called kafirs (infidels), even though the term only means a "Non-Muslim," because its use may hurt someone.[15]

After the death of its former President Asad Madni, Jamiat-Ulema-e-Hind split into two factions, one being presided by Arshad Madani and the other by Qari Usman Mansoorpuri.

CriticismEdit

In November 2009 the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind passed a resolution describing Vande Mataram as an anti-Islamic song and received opposition from Muslim Rashtriya Manch national convener, Mohammed Afzal stating "Our Muslim brothers should not follow the fatwa as Vande Mataram is the national song of the country and every Indian citizen should respect and recite it."[16]

A century of existenceEdit

In 2019, Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind will be observing its 100th anniversary since it was founded back in 1919.[4]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Khan, Feisal (2015). Islamic Banking in Pakistan: Shariah-Compliant Finance and the Quest to make Pakistan more Islamic. Routledge. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-317-36652-2.
  2. ^ Moj, The Deoband Madrassah Movement 2015, pp. 8–10.
  3. ^ History of Jamiat Ulama
  4. ^ a b c d Vikas Pathak (23 June 2018). "Century not out, Jamiat still bats for an India with a composite culture". The Hindu (newspaper). Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  5. ^ Alam, Jawaid (1 January 2004). Government and Politics in Colonial Bihar, 1921-1937. Mittal Publications. p. 225. ISBN 978-81-7099-979-9. Sajad, Maulana Muhammad (1884-1940); pan-Islamist alim from Panasha, a village in Nalanda district: educated at Bihar Sharif, Deoband, and Allahabad; started career as a teacher of theology and taught at Bihar Sharif, Gaya and Allahabad; founded Anjuman-Ulama-i-Bihar, 1917; one of the founders of Jamiyat al-Ulama-i-Hind and became its Secretary; founder-Secretary, Imarat-i-Sharia Bihar and Orissa; took prominent part in the Khilafat and Non-cooperation movements, 1920-22; worked for Hindu-Muslim unity; actively participated in the hartals to boycott the Simon Commission; took active part in the Civil Disobedience movement, 1930 and was imprisoned; established Anwarul Ulum Madrass at Gaya.
  6. ^ Na, Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im; Naʻīm, ʻAbd Allāh Aḥmad (2009). Islam and the Secular State. Harvard University Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-674-03376-4. The Jamiya-i-ulama-Hind founded in 1919, strongly opposed partition in the 1940s and was committed to composite nationalism.
  7. ^ https://m.etvbharat.com/urdu/national/state/delhi/100-years-of-jamiat-ulema-hind-completed/na20191206181034458
  8. ^ "Why did the Pak Maulana visit Deoband?". Rediff India Abroad. 18 July 2003. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  9. ^ Qasmi, Ali Usman; Robb, Megan Eaton (2017). Muslims against the Muslim League: Critiques of the Idea of Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781108621236.
  10. ^ McDermott, Rachel Fell; Gordon, Leonard A.; T. Embree, Ainslie; Pritchett, Frances W.; Dalton, Dennis (2013). Sources of Indian Tradition Modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (Third edition. ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. p. 457. ISBN 9780231510929.
  11. ^ [https://web.archive.org/web/20171226203010/http://www.islamopediaonline.org/country-profile/pakistan/islam-and-politics/jamiat-ulema-e-islam-jui Archived 26 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) at Islamopedia Online]
  12. ^ Ishtiaq Ahmed, The Pathology of Partition The Friday Times (newspaper), Published 6 November 2015, Retrieved 22 August 2019
  13. ^ Islam in Modern History. By Wilfred Cantwell Smith, Pg 285.
  14. ^ Alistair Scrutton (10 November 2008). "India, Muslims and a new anti-terrorism fatwa". Reuters website. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  15. ^ "Hindus can't be dubbed 'kafir', says Jamiat". The Times of India (newspaper). 24 February 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  16. ^ "Muslim organisation slams Vande Mataram fatwa". The Indian Express. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2014.

BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit