Faizabad is a city in the Ayodhya district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which forms a municipal corporation with the city of Ayodhya. It was the headquarters of Faizabad district and Faizabad division until 6 November 2018, when the Uttar Pradesh cabinet headed by chief minister Yogi Adityanath approved the renaming of Faizabad district as Ayodhya, and the shifting of the administrative headquarters of the district to Ayodhya city. Faizabad is situated on the banks of river Saryu about 130 km east of state capital Lucknow. It was the first capital of the Nawabs of Awadh and has monuments built by the Nawabs, like the Tomb of Bahu Begum, Gulab Bari.
|• Type||Municipal corporation|
|• Body||Ayodhya Municipal Corporation|
|• Total||80 km2 (30 sq mi)|
|Elevation||97 m (318 ft)|
|• Density||7,000/km2 (18,000/sq mi)|
|• Additional official||Urdu|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Sex ratio||998/1000 ♂/♀|
The earliest reference made to Ayodhya is said to be in the Ramayana, in which the city is referred to as Saket, the mythical private estate of King Dashrath father of Lord Ram but the other sources indicate that Saket, which means Heaven in Sanskrit, is the ancient name of holy city of Ayodhya not Faizabad. However, more accurately, the reference is found in Medieval and Modern history, when Nawab Saadat Ali Khan, Burhan-ul-Mulk was given the charge of the Subah of Awadh around 1722 by the Mughal Court. Nawab Sa'adat Khan made the first settlements along the banks of Ghaghra with a cantonment consisting of a fortress and mud barracks. Due to these temporary dwellings, Faizabad was first known as 'Bangla' (implied meaning- hutment).
Establishment of Princely state of AvadhEdit
Avadh, a princely state of India, was established around 1722 AD with Faizabad as its capital and Saadat Ali Khan I as its first Nawab and progenitor of Nawabs of Awadh. He laid the foundation for his own palace at Saket on the outskirt of ancient city of Ayodhya, and renamed that city to Faizabad, which became the capital of the new government. Due to his management policy state's income rose from Rs.7 to 20 million.
Faizabad further developed as a township during the reign of Safdar Jang, the second nawab of Avadh (1739–54), who made it his military headquarters while his successor Shuja-ud-daula made it full-fledged capital city.
It was developed by Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula who was the third Nawab of Awadh into a full-fledged capital city, with gardens, palaces, markets, roads and other infrastructure. He settled at Faizabad after 1764 and built a fort known as Chhota Calcutta, now in ruins. He built it on the banks of Saryu after he lost the battle of Buxar in 1764. In 1765 he built the Chowk and Tirpaulia and subsequently laid out the Anguribagh and Motibagh to the south of it, Asafbagh and Bulandbagh to the west of the city. Under Shuja-ud-Daula's reign Faizabad achieved its culmination as an important centre of trade and commerce in northern India and attracted travellers, writers, merchants, artists and courtesans from all over Europe and Asia.
During the reign of Shuja-Ud-Daula, Faizabad attained such a prosperity which it never saw again. The Nawabs graced Faizabad with several significant buildings, notable among them being the Gulab Bari, Moti Mahal and the tomb of Bahu Begum. Gulab Bari stands in a garden surrounded by a wall, approachable through two large gateways. These buildings are particularly interesting for their assimilative architectural styles. Shuja-ud-daula's wife was the well known Bahu Begum, who married the Nawab in 1743 and continued to reside in Faizabad, her residence being the Moti-Mahal. Close by at Jawaharbagh lies her Maqbara, where she was buried after her death in 1816. It is considered to be one of the finest buildings of its kind in Avadh, which was built at the cost of three lakh rupees by her chief advisor Darab Ali Khan. A fine view of the city is obtainable from top of the begum's tomb. Bahu Begum was a woman of great distinction and rank, bearing dignity. Most of the Muslim buildings of Faizabad are attributed to her. From the date of Bahu Begum's death in 1815 until the annexation of Avadh, the city of Faizabad gradually fell into decay. The glory of Faizabad finally eclipsed with the shifting of capital from Faizabad to Lucknow by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula.
Faizabad was also a centre of one of many battles of the Mutiny of 1857. A detailed history of Faizabad can be read in 'Tareekh-e-Farahbaksh', written by Munshi Mohd. Faiz Baksh, (after whom Faizabad is named) a courtier in the Shuja-ud-Daula's court. This book has been translated into English by Hamid Afaq Qureshi as 'Memoirs of Faizabad'. Faizabad also finds a prominent and detailed mention in 'Guzishta Lakhnau' written by Maulvi Abdul Halim 'Sharar'. The fourth nawab of Awadh, Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula, shifted the Capital of Avadh to Lucknow in 1775 after his terms with his mother became sour.
Connection of freedom fighters with FaizabadEdit
Ashfaqulla Khan was detained in the Faizabad jail, as a consequence of the Kakori conspiracy, and a case filed against him. His brother, Riyasat Ulla Khan employed Kripa Shankar Hajela, a senior advocate to plead his case in court, but was unsuccessful. Death sentences were awarded to four defendants (i.e. Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and Thakur Roshan Singh). The other sixteen defendants were sentenced to imprisonment from four years to life.
As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Faizabad in 2011 is 167,544; of which male and female are 87,279 and 80,265 respectively. The sex ratio of Faizabad city is 920 per 1000 males. In education section, total literates in Faizabad city are 130,700 of which 70,243 are males while 60,457 are females. Average literacy rate of Faizabad city is 86.52 percent of which male and female literacy was 89.34 and 83.45 percent. Total children (0–6) in Faizabad city are 16,479 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There were 8,658 boys while 7,821 are girls. Child sex ratio of girls is 903 per 1000 boys.
Summer (March to July) temperatures can range from 35 to 45 degrees Celsius. Winters (November to February) temperatures can range from 6 to 25 degrees Celsius. Rains during monsoon season (July to September).
|Climate data for Faizabad (1971–2000, extremes 1959–2003)|
|Record high °C (°F)||28.5
|Average high °C (°F)||22.6
|Average low °C (°F)||7.4
|Record low °C (°F)||0.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||17.5
|Average rainy days||1.4||1.5||0.8||0.7||1.4||5.5||12.3||12.4||8.1||2.2||0.2||0.7||47.3|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||64||59||45||39||42||56||75||79||77||73||69||67||62|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
Faizabad is situated on National Highway 28 and has connectivity with Kanpur (213 km), Lucknow (127 km), Varanasi (202 km), Allahabad (161 km) and Gorakhpur (165 km). The state government's Road Transport Service runs regular and frequent buses to and from these cities. NH27 connects Lucknow to Barauni via Faizabad and Gorakhpur whilst NH330 connects Faizabad to Allahabad via Sultanpur. Nawab Yusuf Road connects Faizabad to Varanasi via Jaunpur, NH330A connects Faizabad to Raibareli via Kumarganj, Faizabad and Jagdishpur and NH 330 connects Faizabad to Bharich via Gonda , NH 330C is Connected by Azamgarh to Faizabad via Ambedkar Nagar and Balrampur is connected by Faizabad Via NH334 and Utraula and Mankapur connects Faizabad by SH14 .
Faizabad Superfast Express is a train which runs weekly connecting Faizabad Junction railway station to Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai. Its one of the two trains which runs between Faizabad to Mumbai the other one is Saket Express which runs twice a week. It is numbered as 22103/22104. Rameswaram - Faizabad Shraddha Sethu Express is a weekly Superfast Express connecting Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu and Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh. It takes nearly 3 days to reach the destination and one of the longest running train in India. A few mail express trains also connect Faizabad to Kolkata, New Delhi and Mumbai. Faizabad Delhi express runs daily from Faizabad to Delhi and Delhi to Faizabad. New railway line proposed from Lalganj to Faizabad via Raibareli Akberganj.
Acharya Narendra Dev Nagar station: It is another option to reach faizabad. This small station lies in the heart of the city "near to chowk".
Faizabad has an old airport and flying school at naka along national highway (NH28). The airport has been neglected since a long time due to the lack of leadership and support. Recently, efforts are there to convert this airport into full-fledged domestic airport by Union government. Former union aviation minister Ajit Singh is constantly demanding this airport to be handed over to Airports Authority of India so that the airport could be developed further and scheduled domestic flights could be operable from this airport. But the lack of will and interest by state government is hindering and delaying the development of this airport. The city road and condition is not good.
Places of interestEdit
Gulab Bari: Literally meaning 'Garden of Roses', the tomb of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula (third Nawab of Awadh), this place has a good collection of roses of various varieties set by the sides of water fountains. Gulab Bari also houses a maqbara (Mausoleum) of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula in the campus.
Bahu Begum ka Maqbara: (The Mausoleum of the Queen Bride) the memorial built for queen of Nawab Shujah-ud-Daulah, Unmatuzzohra Bano Begum. Its one of the tallest buildings in Faizabad and is an example of non-mughal Muslim architecture. The monument is a victim of neglect and is crumbling.
Military Temple: (The Dogra Regimental Centre/ Corps of Military Police CMP Temple) Located in cantonment area.
Guptar Ghat: the Ghat (Jetty) where Lord Rama is believed to have taken 'jal samadhi' (leaving the earth for 'Baikuntha', the divine abode of Lord Vishnu, by drowning himself). It has picturesque view of the saryu river and its green banks and has several ancient temples.
Company Gardens : Adjoining Guptar Ghat, on the banks of River Saryu, is Company Gardens, a botanical garden built during British Rule. it has a well maintained, sprawling garden set amidst lush greenery, far away from the hustle and bustle of the town. It also has an orchard spread over acres. Plants and Trees can also be bought here. The remains of the fort built by Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula after the battle of Buxar is also within walking distance.
Ghanta Ghar: The heart of Faizabad city, houses a clock tower (Ghanta means 'clock' in Hindi and Ghar is the Hindi word for 'house') in the middle of the city center. All distances within the city are measured from this location. The place is also known as Chowk, which houses the main vegetable and spice market in the town.
Shringi Rishi Ashram: 35 km from Faizabad in Goshainganj is ashram of Sage (Rishi in Sanskrit/Hindi) Shringi. Shringi Rishi performed 'Putrakameshti Yajya' for King Dashrath of Ayodhya, after that Lord Rama and his three brothers were born. There is an ashram of Shringi Rishi situated at Sherwaghat near Mehbubganj 11 km from Goshainganj on the banks of Sarayu river at Sherwa Ghat. Legend has it that Shringi Rishi cursed King Parikshit for his sinful conduct against rishi Lomash. The boons and curse uttered by him were proved to be absolutely true. Rishi Shringi was a distinguished expert of the super science of mantras. A temple of Shringi Rishi, is also located at Sherwaghat, and a fair is held every year in May in his honour. A cave is also located in district Faizabad near Mehbubganj Near Goshainganj where he is supposed to have stayed. It is a long cave where he is supposed to do 'yagna' (Ritual) and is worth seeing. A place called Dilasigang. This is amazing place as located on Ghaghra bank River.
Maharshi Balmiki Ashram Babuapur : This place in Faizabad is named on the great saint #Maharishi #Balmilki who wrote Ramayan in Sanskrit language in the time of Lord Rama. It is located 28 km from Faizabad city in Babuapur village directly connected with dilasiganj.
Faizabad Chowk: Next to Ghanta Ghar, is the central market of Faizabad town. One can find vegetables, fruits and spices, jewellery shops, clothing and other retail.
Rekabgunj: About a kilometer away from Chowk (towards Lucknow) lies the Rekabgunj market which has a multitude of pharmacies. The market also has some seed shops which cater to the farmers of the adjoining regions. Many Restaurants and Hotels are there when going towards Lucknow. This is one of the Tourist's spot.
Bajaja: (now known as Subhas Nagar)A place adjacent to Chowk towards Sultanpur Road holds a market for Clothes and garments. In Urdu Bajaja means cloth market. This area also holds major banks viz Union Bank of India, SBI and Allahabad Bank. Abha hotel in the centre of bajaja and in the main city.
Fatehganj: This is a market mainly for wholesale grocery and other house hold items. This area is on the same road on which Bajaja falls. Hotel Krishna Palace is adjacent to the fountain near Faizabad jail. This is the place which is near to Bus Station as well as Railway Station. This is one of the Tourist's spot.
Bhim Rao Ambedkar International Sports Stadium Loc: is an international standard sports complex being built on NH 96 (Faizabad To Sultanpur Road). The new sports complex would have astro turf, synthetic track, olympic size swimming pool, cricket field, hostels and other required facilities. It is the part of multi crore Rs. project for sports complex by state government. The Lokayukta office has received a complaint from one Bhanu Pratap Singh of Faizabad who has accused the minister of corruption in the construction of Faizabd international stadium. According to the complainant, the sports minister had a nexus with former sports director Hari Om and former project manager R.D. Prasad and had deliberately delayed the construction of the ₹ 86 crore Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar stadium, paving the way for an escalation of costs to ₹ 1.50 billion.
The Town of Fyzabad in Trinidad and Tobago is named after Faizabad, where many Indian settlers came from in the 19th and 20th centuries, including other districts in Uttar Pradesh. There are towns with same name in Afghanistan (Fayzabad, Badakhshan) and Tajikistan (Faizobod) as well.
- Begum Akhtar or Akhtari Bai Faizabadi, singer
- Mir Anees, Urdu poet
- Pooja Batra, actress
- Brij Narayan Chakbast, nineteenth-century Urdu poet who is credited with the first translation of the Ramayana into Urdu
- Abhishek Chaubey, Bollywood film director
- Kathleen Crofton, an English dancer, was born is Faizabad
- Narendra Deva, political theorist
- Barry Hay, pop singer born in Faizabad
- Indu Jain, owner of Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd, Times of India Group, Forbes India's top 20 richest person
- Vinay Katiyar, politician
- Tariq Umar Khan, production designer, art director and film director in Bollywood
- Akhil Kumar, Indian boxer and Olympian
- Francis Quinton, an English cricketer, was born Faizabad.
- Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda, born in Faizabad.
- Anushka Sharma, Bollywood actress
- Lallu Singh, politician, won the 2014 and 2019 elections for the Faizabad (Lok Sabha constituency)
- Ravindranath Tewari, former minister
- Nivedita Tiwari, actress
- Brij Bhushan Mani Tripathi, Indian Politician
- Mitrasen Yadav, politician
- "50th Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
- PTI (6 November 2018). "UP cabinet approves renaming of Faizabad as Ayodhya". India Today. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- "About District | District Ayodhya - Government of Uttar Pradesh". District Ayodhya - Government of Uttar Pradesh.
- "Welcome to Faizabad History". official website of Faizabad district. Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "History of Faizabad". myuttarpradesh.co.in/. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Station: Faizabad Climatological Table 1971–2000" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1971–2000. India Meteorological Department. October 2011. pp. 265–266. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M214. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- "Sports minister faces lokayukta probe in U.P." Asian Age. Lucknow. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012.
- "Ayodhya Prasad Pal comes under Lokayukta scanner for corruption charges". 30 October 2011.
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