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Vande Mataram
English: Vande Mātaram,
বন্দে মাতরম্, वन्दे मातरम्
Vande Mataram
(Sanskrit or Hindi pronunciation) Bande Matarom
(Bengali pronunciation).
Lyrics Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Anandamath (1882)
Music Jadunath Bhattacharya
Adopted 24 January 1950
Music of India
A Lady Playing the Tanpura, ca. 1735.jpg
A Lady Playing the Tanpura, ca. 1735 (Rajasthan)
Genres
Traditional
Modern
Media and performance
Music awards
Music festivals
Music media
Nationalistic and patriotic songs
National anthem Jana Gana Mana
Regional music

Vande Mataram (IAST: Vande Mātaram, Bengali: বন্দে মাতরম্, Devanagari: वन्दे मातरम्) is a poem composed by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870s, which he included in his 1881 novel Anandamath.[1] The first two verses of the song were adopted as the national song of India in 1937.[2][3]

An Ode to Durga as the Mother goddess, it was written in Sanskrit and Bengali.[4] The title 'Vande Mataram' literally means "I praise thee, Mother" or "I bow to thee, Mother".[1][5] The "mother goddess" in later verses of the song has been interpreted as the motherland of the people - Mother Bengal and Mother India,[6][7] though the text does not mention this explicitly.[8]

It played a vital role in the Indian independence movement, first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.[3] It became a popular marching song for political activism and Indian freedom movement in 1905.[1] Spiritual Indian nationalist and philosopher Sri Aurobindo referred it as "National Anthem of Bengal".[9] The song and the novel containing it was banned by the British government, but workers and general public defied the ban, many went to colonial prisons repeatedly for singing it, and the ban was overturned by the Indians after they gained independence from the colonial rule.[10][11]

In 1950 (after India's independence), the song's first two verses of the song were declared the "national song" of the Republic of India, distinct from the national anthem of India, Jana Gana Mana. The first two verses of the song are an abstract reference to mother and motherland, they do not mention any Hindu deity by name, unlike later verses that do explicitly mention goddesses such as Durga.[12][13] There is no time limit or circumstantial specification for the rendition of this song [unlike the national anthem Jana Gana Mana that specifies 52 seconds].[14]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The root of the Sanskrit word Vande is Vand, which appears in Rigveda and other Vedic texts.[15][note 1] According to Monier Monier-Williams, depending on the context, vand means "to praise, celebrate, laud, extol, to show honour, do homage, salute respectfully", or "deferentially, venerate, worship, adore", or "to offer anything respectfully to".[15][16] The word Mātaram has Indo-European roots in mātár- (Sanskrit), méter (Greek), mâter (Latin) which mean "mother".[17][18]

LyricsEdit

The two verses of Vande Mataram adopted as the "National song" read as follows:

Bengali script[19] Bengali phonemic transcription           Devnagari script NLK transliteration[3][20]

বন্দে মাতরম্৷
সুজলাং সুফলাং
মলয়জশীতলাম্
শস্যশ্যামলাং
মাতরম্!
বন্দে মাতরম্৷.

শুভ্র-জ্যোৎস্না
পুলকিত-যামিনীম্
ফুল্লকুসুমিত
দ্রুমদলশোভিনীম্,
সুহাসিনীং
সুমধুরভাষিণীম্
সুখদাং বরদাং
মাতরম্৷৷
বন্দে মাতরম্৷

bônde matôrôm
sujôlang suphôlang
môlôyôjôshitôlam
shôsyô shyamôlang
matôrôm
bônde matôrôm

shubhrô jyotsna
pulôkitô jaminim
phullô kusumitô
drumôdôlôshobhinim
suhasining
sumôdhurôbhashinim
sukhôdang bôrôdang
matôrôm
bônde matôrôm

वन्दे मातरम्।
सुजलाम् सुफलाम्
मलयज शीतलाम्
सस्यश्यामलाम्
मातरम्।
वन्दे मातरम्।

शुभ्रज्योत्स्नाम्
पुलकितयामिनीम्
फुल्लकुसुमित
द्रुमदलशोभिनीम्
सुहासिनीम्
सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदाम् वरदाम्
मातरम्।।
वन्दे मातरम्।

vande mātaram
sujalāṃ suphalāṃ
malayajaśītalām
śasya śyāmalāṃ
mātaram
vande mātaram

śubhra jyotsnam
pulakita yāminīm
phulla kusumita
drumadalaśobhinīm
suhāsinīṃ
sumadhura bhāṣiṇīm
sukhadāṃ varadāṃ
mātaram
vande mātaram

The original lyricsEdit

Here are. the rest of the original lyrics from which the National Song of India came (continuing from the last section):[21]

Bengali script Devanagari script


বন্দে মাতরম্৷
সুজলাং সুফলাং
মলয়জশীতলাম্
শস্যশ্যামলাং
মাতরম্!

শুভ্র-জ্যোত্স্না-পুলকিত-যামিনীম্
ফুল্লকুসুমিত-দ্রুমদলশোভিনীম্,
সুহাসিনীং সুমধুরভাষিণীম্
সুখদাং বরদাং মাতরম্৷৷

সপ্তকোটীকন্ঠ-কল-কল-নিনাদকরালে,
দ্বিসপ্তকোটীভুজৈধৃতখরকরবালে,
অবলা কেন মা এত বলে!
বহুবলধারিণীং
নমামি তরিণীং
রিপুদলবারিণীং
মাতরম্৷

তুমি বিদ্যা তুমি ধর্ম্ম
তুমি হৃদি তুমি মর্ম্ম
ত্বং হি প্রাণাঃ শরীরে৷
বাহুতে তুমি মা শক্তি,
হৃদয়ে তুমি মা ভক্তি,
তোমারই প্রতিমা গড়ি মন্দিরে মন্দিরে৷

ত্বং হি দুর্গা দশপ্রহরণধারিণী
কমলা কমল-দলবিহারিণী
বাণী বিদ্যাদায়িণী
নমামি ত্বাং
নমামি কমলাম্
অমলাং অতুলাম্,
সুজলাং সুফলাং
মাতরম্

বন্দে মাতরম্
শ্যামলাং সরলাং
সুস্মিতাং ভূষিতাম্
ধরণীং ভরণীম্
মাতরম্৷

वन्दे मातरम्
सुजलां सुफलाम्
मलयजशीतलाम्
सस्यशामलाम्
मातरम्।

शुभ्रज्योत्स्नापुलकितयामिनीम्
फुल्लकुसुमितद्रुमदलशोभिनीम्
सुहासिनीं सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदां वरदां मातरम्।। १।। वन्दे मातरम्।

सप्त[21]-कोटि-कण्ठ-कल-कल-निनाद-कराले
द्विसप्त-कोटि-भुजैर्धृत-खरकरवाले,
अबला केन मा एत बले।
बहुबलधारिणीं नमामि तारिणीं
रिपुदलवारिणीं मातरम्।। २।।
वन्दे मातरम्।

तुमि विद्या, तुमि धर्म
तुमि हृदि, तुमि मर्म
त्वम् हि प्राणा: शरीरे
बाहुते तुमि मा शक्ति,
हृदये तुमि मा भक्ति,
तोमारई प्रतिमा गडि
मन्दिरे-मन्दिरे।

त्वम् हि दुर्गा दशप्रहरणधारिणी
कमला कमलदलविहारिणी
वाणी विद्यादायिनी,
नमामि त्वाम्
नमामि कमलाम्
अमलां अतुलाम्
सुजलां सुफलाम् मातरम्।। ४।।
वन्दे मातरम्।

श्यामलाम् सरलाम्
सुस्मिताम् भूषिताम्
धरणीं भरणीं मातरम्।। ५।।
वन्दे मातरम्।।

Translation into EnglishEdit

The first translation of Bankim Chandra Chatterji's novel Anandamath, including the poem Vande Mataram, into English was by Nares Chandra Sen-Gupta, with the fifth edition published in 1906 titled "The Abbey of Bliss".[22]

Here is the translation in prose of the above two stanzas rendered by Aurobindo Ghose. This has also been adopted by the Government of India's national portal.[3] The original Vande Mataram consists of six stanzas and the translation in prose for the complete poem by Shri Aurobindo appeared in Karmayogin, 20 November 1909.[23]

Mother, I bow to thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Dark fields waving Mother of might,
Mother free.
Glory of moonlight dreams,
Over thy branches and lordly streams,
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease
Laughing low and sweet!
Mother I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low!
Mother, to thee I bow. [Verse 1]

Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands
When the swords flash out in seventy million hands
And seventy million voices roar
Thy dreadful name from shore to shore?
With many strengths who art mighty and stored,
To thee I call Mother and Lord!
Thou who savest, arise and save!
To her I cry who ever her foeman drove
Back from plain and Sea
And shook herself free. [Verse 2]

Thou art wisdom, thou art law,
Thou art heart, our soul, our breath
Thou art love divine, the awe
In our hearts that conquers death.
Thine the strength that nerves the arm,
Thine the beauty, thine the charm.
Every image made divine
In our temples is but thine. [Verse 3]

Thou art Durga, Lady and Queen,
With her hands that strike and her swords of sheen,
Thou art Lakshmi lotus-throned,
And the Muse a hundred-toned,
Pure and perfect without peer,
Mother lend thine ear,
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleems,
Dark of hue O candid-fair [Verse 4]

In thy soul, with bejeweled hair
And thy glorious smile divine,
Loveliest of all earthly lands,
Showering wealth from well-stored hands!
Mother, mother mine!
Mother sweet, I bow to thee,
Mother great and free! [Verse 5]

Apart from the above prose translation, Sri Aurobindo also translated Vande Mataram into a verse form known as Mother, I bow to thee!.[24] Sri Aurobindo commented thus on his English translation of the poem:[25]

It is difficult to translate the National Song of India into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness, simple directness and high poetic force.

Translation into other languagesEdit

Vande Mataram has inspired many Indian poets and has been translated into numerous Indian languages, such as Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Assamese, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi and others.[26][note 2]

History and significanceEdit

CompositionEdit

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay was one of the earliest graduates of the newly established Calcutta University. After his BA, he joined the British Indian government as a civil servant, becoming a District Magistrate and later a District Collector. Chattopadhyay was very interested in recent events in Indian and Bengali history, particularly the Revolt of 1857 and the previous century's Sanyasi Rebellion.[28] Around the same time, the administration was trying to promote "God Save the Queen" as the anthem for Indian subjects, which Indian nationalists disliked. It is generally believed that the concept of Vande Mataram came to Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay when he was still a government official, around 1876.[29] He wrote Vande Mataram at Chinsurah, there is a white colour house of Adhya Family near river Hooghly (near Mallik Ghat).[citation needed]

Chattopadhyay wrote the poem in a spontaneous session using words from Sanskrit and Bengali. The poem was published in Chattopadhyay's book Anandamatha (pronounced Anondomôţh in Bengali) in 1882, which is set in the events of the Sannyasi Rebellion.[28][29] Jadunath Bhattacharya was asked to set a tune for this poem just after it was written.[29]

Indian independence movementEdit

 
The flag raised by Bhikaiji Cama in 1907

"Vande Mataram" was the whole nation's thought and motto for independence [from British rule] during the Indian independence movement. Large rallies, fermenting initially in Bengal, in the major metropolis of Calcutta, would work themselves up into a patriotic fervour by shouting the slogan "Vande Mataram", or "I praise the Mother(land)!" The British, fearful of the potential danger of an incited Indian populace, banned the book and made the recital of the song a crime.[10] The British colonial government imprisoned many independence activists for disobeying the order, but workers and general public repeatedly violated the ban many times by gathering together before British officials and singing it.[10] Rabindranath Tagore sang Vande Mataram in 1896 at the Calcutta Congress Session held at Beadon Square. Dakhina Charan Sen sang it five years later in 1901 at another session of the Congress at Calcutta. Poet Sarala Devi Chaudurani sang the song in the Benares Congress Session in 1905. Lala Lajpat Rai started a journal called Vande Mataram from Lahore.[29] Hiralal Sen made India's first political film in 1905 which ended with the chant. Matangini Hazra's last words as she was shot to death by the Crown police were Vande Mataram.[30]

 
Mahatma Gandhi supported the first two verses of Vande Mataram as a national song.[2]

In 1907, Bhikaiji Cama (1861–1936) created the first version of India's national flag (the Tiranga) in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1907. It had Vande Mataram written on it in the middle band.[31]

A book titled Kranti Geetanjali published by Arya Printing Press (Lahore) and Bharatiya Press (Dehradun) in 1929 contains first two stanzas of this lyric on page 11[32] as Matra Vandana and a ghazal (Vande Mataram) composed by Bismil was also given on its back, i.e. page 12.[33] The book written by the famous martyr of Kakori Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil was proscribed by the then British government of India.

Mahatama Gandhi supported adoption and the singing of the Vande Mataram song. In January 1946, in a speech in Gauhati (Assam), he urged that "Jai Hind should not replace Vande-mataram". He reminded everyone present that Vande-mataram was being sung since the inception of the Congress. He supported the "Jai Hind" greeting, but remanded that this greeting should not be to the exclusion of Vande Mataram. Gandhi was concerned that those who discarded Vande Mataram given the tradition of sacrifice behind it, one day would discard “Jai Hind” also.[34][note 3]

Adoption as "national song"Edit

Parts of the Vande Mataram was chosen as the "national song" in 1937 by the Indian National Congress as it pursued independence of India from the British colonial rule, after a committee consisting of Maulana Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subbash Bose, Acharya Deva and Rabrindanath Tagore recommended the adoption.[36] The entire song was not selected by Hindu leaders in order to respect the sentiments of non-Hindus, and the gathering agreed that anyone should be free to sing an alternate "unobjectionable song" at a national gathering if they do not want to sing Vande Mataram because they find it "objectionable" for a personal reason.[36] According to the gathered leaders, including the Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore, though the first two stanzas began with an unexceptionable evocation of the beauty of the motherland, in later stanzas there are references to the Hindu goddess Durga. The Muslim League and Muhammad Ali Jinnah opposed the song. Thereafter, with the support of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Indian National Congress decided to adopt only the first two stanzas as the national song to be sung at public gatherings, and other verses that included references to Durga and Lakshmi were expunged.[2][37]

Rajendra Prasad, who was presiding the Constituent Assembly on 24 January 1950, made the following statement which was also adopted as the final decision on the issue:

...The composition consisting of words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations as the Government may authorise as occasion arises, and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it. (Applause) I hope this will satisfy members.

Constituent Assembly of India, Vol. XII, 24-1-1950

Religious responseEdit

IslamEdit

Many Imams and Muslim organisations in India have declared fatwas against singing Vande Mataram.[38] According to Asia News, the Islamic clerics "banned their followers from committing a sacrilege against Allah, the one god", by singing a song that describes "India as a god to adore".[38]

In contrast, All India Sunni Ulema Board on 6 September 2006 issued a fatwa that the Muslims can sing the first two verses of the Vande Mataram song, but singing the entire song is against the tenets of Islam (Shirk). The Board president Moulana Mufti Syed Shah Badruddin Qadri Aljeelani said that the first two lines are okay because "if you bow at the feet of your mother with respect, it is not shirk but only respect."[39] Shia scholar and All India Muslim Personal Law Board vice-president Maulana Kalbe Sadiq stated on 5 September 2006 that scholars need to examine the term vande. He asked, "Does it mean salutation or worship?"[40]

In 2013, a Muslim leader from the Bahujan Samaj Party and the member of the Indian Parliament, Shafiqur Rahman Burq, walked out of the Lok Sabha while the first two verses of the Vande Mataram song was being played in its parliament. He stated that he prefers to be absent when the song is played because of his religious beliefs. Another Muslim leader, Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi, from the Bharatiya Janata Party questioned Burq's behavior as dishonoring the parliamentary norms of India, stating "every session of Parliament, starts with the national anthem and ends with the rendition of the national song Vande Mataram. This has been the practice since Independence". Naqvi stated that the song symbolizes the nation, those who "hate Vande Mataram not only have no right to be a part of Parliament but also have no right to live in this country."[41]

SikhismEdit

According to a statement in 2004 by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC), the Sikhs should not sing Vande Mataram.[42] In 2006, the SGPC called singing of 'Vande Mataram' against Sikh tenets.[43] and it sought the right to sing a Sikh song sarbat da bhala.[43]

ChristianityEdit

Fr. Cyprian Kullu from Jharkhand stated in an interview with AsiaNews: "The song is a part of our history and national festivity and religion should not be dragged into such mundane things. The Vande Mataram is simply a national song without any connotation that could violate the tenets of any religion."[38]

2006 controversyEdit

On 22 August 2006, there was a row in the Lok Sabha of the Indian Parliament over whether singing of Vande Mataram in schools should be made mandatory. The ruling United Progressive Alliance (UPA) coalition and Opposition members debated the Government's stance that singing the national song Vande Mataram on 7 September 2006, to mark the 125th year celebration of its creation should be voluntary. This led to the House's being adjourned twice. Human Resources Development Minister Arjun Singh noted that it was not binding on citizens to sing the song. Arjun Singh had earlier asked all state governments to ensure that the first two stanzas of the song were sung in all schools on that day. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Deputy Leader V. K. Malhotra wanted the Government to clarify whether singing the national song on 7 September in schools was mandatory or not. On 28 August, targeting the BJP, Congress spokesman Abhishek Singhvi said that in 1998 when Atal Bihari Vajpayee of the BJP was the Prime Minister, the BJP supported a similar circular issued by the Uttar Pradesh government to make the recitation compulsory. But Vajpayee had then clarified that it was not necessary to make it compulsory.[44]

On 7 September 2006, the nation celebrated the national song. Television channels showed school children singing the song at the notified time.[45] Some Muslim groups had discouraged parents from sending their wards to school because of the issue, after the BJP had repeatedly insisted that the national song must be sung. However, many Muslims did participate in the celebrations.[45] Kerala school was forced to drop Vande Mataram on 15 August 2014 as it would hurt religious sentiments.[46]

Performances and interpretationsEdit

The poem has been set to a large number of tunes. The oldest surviving audio recordings date to 1907, and there have been more than a hundred different versions recorded throughout the 20th century. Many of these versions have employed traditional South Asian classical ragas. Versions of the song have been visualised on celluloid in a number of films, including Leader, Amar Asha, and Anand Math. It is widely believed that the tune set for All India Radio station version was composed by Ravi Shankar.[29] In 1997, as part of the 50th anniversary celebrations of the Independence of India, a musical album composed by A. R. Rahman, titled Vande Mataram, was released. The version of the song played in it has become its popular interpretation in recent years. In 2002, BBC World Service conducted an international poll to choose ten most famous songs of all time. Around 7000 songs were selected from all over the world. Vande Mataram, from the movie Anand Math, was ranked second.[47] All India Radio's version, as well as A.R. Rahman's version, are in Desh raga.[48]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ See, for example, Rigveda 1.27.1; Sanskrit: अश्वं न त्वा वारवन्तं वन्दध्या अग्निं नमोभिः । सम्राजन्तमध्वराणाम् ॥१॥ Wikisource
  2. ^ The Assamese version, re-translated into English, reads:[27]
    "O my own land,
    O my dear land,
    O my dear land,
    A land bedecked with gentle streams,
    A land that adorned with heavenly beauty,
    It is such a motherland." – Lakshminath Bezbarua, Translated into English by A Mazumdar
  3. ^ This view of Gandhi was not isolated. In another interview, he said, "a song that carried such glorious associations of sacrifice as “Vandemataram” could never be given up. It would be like discarding one’s mother. But they could certainly add a new song or songs like the one mentioned to their repertoire of national songs after due thought and discrimination."[35]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Diana L. Eck (2012). India: A Sacred Geography. New York: Random House (Harmony Books). pp. 95–97. ISBN 978-0-385-53190-0. 
  2. ^ a b c The National Flag, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Volume 76, June 27 1939, pages 68-70 with footnote 1 on page 69
  3. ^ a b c d "National Song of India". Government of India. Retrieved 29 April 2008. 
  4. ^ Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Vande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin. pp. 1–8, 73–76, 90–99. ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3. 
  5. ^ Ghose, Aurbindo. "National Song". Know India. Government of India. Retrieved 12 November 2016. 
  6. ^ Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Vande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin. pp. 68–77, 26–29. ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3. 
  7. ^ Sumathi Ramaswamy (2009). The Goddess and the Nation: Mapping Mother India. Duke University Press. pp. 106–108. ISBN 0-8223-9153-8. 
  8. ^ Sugata Bose; Ayesha Jalal (1998). Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy. Psychology Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-0-415-16952-3. 
  9. ^ Sri Aurobindo commented on his English translation of the poem with "It is difficult to translate the National Anthem of Bengal into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness, simple directness and high poetic force." cited after Bhabatosh Chatterjee (ed.), Bankim Chandra Chatterjee: Essays in Perspective, Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, 1994, p. 601.
  10. ^ a b c Bankimcandra Chatterji (2005). Anandamath, or The Sacred Brotherhood. Oxford University Press. pp. 71–78. ISBN 978-0-19-803971-6. 
  11. ^ Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 18–22, 30–31. ISBN 978-81-8324-159-5. 
  12. ^ Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Vande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin Books. pp. 34–37, 81. ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3. 
  13. ^ Sumathi Ramaswamy (2009). The Goddess and the Nation: Mapping Mother India. Duke University Press. pp. 125–142. ISBN 0-8223-9153-8. 
  14. ^ "No rules on singing, playing of 'Vande Mataram': Government - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-02-12. 
  15. ^ a b Monier Monier-Williams, English Sanskrit Dictionary with Etymology, Oxford University Press, page 919
  16. ^ Bankimcandra Chatterji (2005). Anandamath, or The Sacred Brotherhood. Oxford University Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-19-534633-6. 
  17. ^ Edward Bispham (2010). Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome. Edinburgh University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-7486-2714-1. 
  18. ^ J. P. Mallory; Douglas Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 385–386. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5. 
  19. ^ Vande Mataram in Bengali script
  20. ^ Vande Mataram in Romanized Sanskrit
  21. ^ a b Wikisource:Vande Mataram
  22. ^ Bankimcandra Chatterji (August 23, 2005). Anandamath, or The Sacred Brotherhood. Oxford University Press. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-0-19-534633-6. 
  23. ^ Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-81-8324-159-5. 
  24. ^ Sri Aurobindo's VERSE translation of Vande Mataram
  25. ^ Bhabatosh Chatterjee (ed.), Bankim Chandra Chatterjee: Essays in Perspective, Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, 1994, p. 601.
  26. ^ Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 23–34. ISBN 978-81-8324-159-5. 
  27. ^ Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-81-8324-159-5. 
  28. ^ a b Julius, Lipner (2005). Anandamath. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 27–59. ISBN 978-0-19-517858-6. 
  29. ^ a b c d e Suresh Chandvankar, Vande Mataram (2003) at Musical Traditions (mustrad.org.uk)
  30. ^ Chakrabarty, Bidyut (1997). Local Politics and Indian Nationalism: Midnapur (1919–1944). New Delhi: Manohar. p. 167. 
  31. ^ p2
  32. ^ Kranti Geetanjali (Poems of Pt. Ram Prasad 'Bismil'), ISBN 81-7783-128-3.
  33. ^ *Kranti Geetanjali ISBN 81-7783-128-3.
  34. ^ Speech at Prayer Meeting (Gauhati, Assam), The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, January 10 1946, page 212
  35. ^ Discussion with Political Workers, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, 1945, page 89
  36. ^ a b A. G. Noorani (1973), Vande Mataram: A Historical Lesson, EPW, Vol. 8, No. 23 (Jun. 9, 1973), pages 1039-1043
  37. ^ Marie Cruz Gabriel (1996). A Silence in the City and Other Stories. Orient Blackswan. pp. 238–240. ISBN 978-81-250-0828-6. 
  38. ^ a b c Prakash Dubey, INDIA India: fatwa against national song celebrating motherland - Asia News, 09/08/2006
  39. ^ Basith, Md A (7 September 2006). "Now, a fatwa to sing Vande Mataram". The Times of India. 
  40. ^ Muslims will sing, but omit Vande
  41. ^ Can’t be part of Vande Mataram: BSP MP Barq, The Times of India (May 10, 2013)
  42. ^ "Sikhs will not sing Vande Mataram". Rediff.com. 31 December 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  43. ^ a b "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Delhi and neighbourhood". The Tribune. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  44. ^ "BJP vs Congress: It's Vande vs Kandahar". Asian Age. 28 August 2006. 
  45. ^ a b "Indians celebrate national song". BBC News. 7 September 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2010. 
  46. ^ "Kerala: School forced to drop 'Vande Mataram' from Independence day eve fete". 
  47. ^ The Worlds Top Ten — BBC World Service
  48. ^ Des: Tunes from the Countryside
  • Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Vande Mataram: The Biography of a Song, Penguin Books, 2003, ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3.

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