Jana Gana Mana

Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India. It was originally composed as Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata in Bengali by polymath Rabindranath Tagore.[7][8][9] The first stanza of the song Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India as the National Anthem on 24 January 1950.[10][11] A formal rendition of the national anthem takes approximately 52 seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally.[12] It was first publicly sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta (now Kolkata) Session of the Indian National Congress.[13][14]

Jana Gana Mana
English: "Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"
Score of Jana Gana Mana harmonized by Herbert Murrill.jpg
Notation of Indian National Anthem approved by the Constituent Assembly of India in 1950

National anthem of  India
LyricsRabindranath Tagore[1], 1911[2][3][4][5]
MusicMargaret Cousins[6], 28 February 1919[6]
Adopted24 January 1950
Audio sample
"National Anthem" (Instrumental)
Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore, the author and composer of the national anthems of India and Bangladesh.
Rabindranath Tagore singing Jana Gana Mana

HistoryEdit

The poem was first publicly recited on the second day of the annual session of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta (now Kolkata) on 27 December 1911. Then, it was followed in January 1912 at the annual event of the Adi Brahmo Samaj,[15][16] however, it was largely unknown except to the readers of the Adi Brahmo Samaj journal, Tattwabodhini Patrika. The poem was published in January 1912, under the title Bharat Bhagya Bidhata in the Tatwabodhini Patrika, which was the official publication of the Brahmo Samaj with Tagore then the Editor.[17]

In 1912, the song was performed by Sarala Devi Chaudhurani, Tagore's niece, along with the group of school students, in front of prominent Congress members like Bishan Narayan Dhar, Indian National Congress President, and Ambika Charan Majumdar.[18]

Outside of Calcutta, the song was first sung by the bard himself at a session in Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh on 28 February 1919 when Tagore visited the college and sung the song. The song enthralled the college students while Margaret Cousins, then vice-principal of the college (also an expert in European music and wife of Irish poet James Cousins), both requested Tagore to create an English translation of the song and set down the musical notation to the national anthem, which is followed only when the song is sung in the original slow rendition style. Tagore translated the work into English while at the college on 28 February 1919, titled The Morning Song of India  – via Wikisource. The college adopted Tagore's translation of the song as their prayer song which is sung till today.[19]

Jana Gana Mana played as national anthem on 11 September 1942 in Hamburg

The song was selected as national anthem by Subhas Chandra Bose while he was in Germany. On the occasion of the founding meeting of the German-Indian Society on 11 September 1942 in the Hotel Atlantic in Hamburg, Jana Gana Mana was played for the first time by the Hamburg Radio Symphony Orchestra as the national anthem of an independent India.[20]

Before it officially became the national anthem of India in 1950, "Jana Gana Mana" was heard in the 1945 film Hamrahi.[21] It was also adopted as a school song of The Doon School, Dehradun in 1935.[22]

On the occasion of India attaining freedom, the Indian Constituent Assembly assembled for the first time as a sovereign body on 14 August 1947, midnight and the session closed with a unanimous performance of Jana Gana Mana.

The members of the Indian Delegation to the General Assembly of the United Nations held at New York in 1947 gave a recording of Jana Gana Mana as the country's national anthem. The song was played by the house orchestra in front of a gathering consisting of representatives from all over the world.

Code of conductEdit

The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been issued from time to time about the correct versions of the Anthem, the occasions on which these are to be played or sung, and about the need for paying respect to the anthem by observance of proper decorum on such occasions. The substance of these instructions has been embodied in the information sheet issued by the government of India for general information and guidance. The approximate duration of the Full Version of National Anthem of India is 52 seconds and 20 seconds for shorter version.[12]

LyricsEdit

The poem was composed in a literary register of the Bengali language called Sadhu Bhasha, which is heavily sanskritised.

Full versionEdit

Original composition in BengaliEdit

The English version was translated by Rabindranath Tagore on 28 February 1919 at the Besant Theosophical College.[23][24]

Vocal Version
Bengali script Latin transliteration
(ISO 15919)
English Translation by Rabindranath Tagore

জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
পঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা দ্রাবিড় উৎকল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা উচ্ছলজলধিতরঙ্গ
তব শুভ নামে জাগে, তব শুভ আশিষ মাগে,
গাহে তব জয়গাথা।
জনগণমঙ্গলদায়ক জয় হে ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা!
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় জয় জয় জয় হে॥

jana-gaṇa-mana-adhināẏaka jaẏa hē bhārata-bhāgya-bidhātā[a]!
Pañjāba Sindhu Gujarāṭa Marāṭhā Drābiṛa[b] Utkala Baṅga[c]
Bindhya[d] Himācala Yamunā Gaṅgā ucchala-jaladhi-taraṅga
taba[e] śubha nāmē jāgē, taba[e] śubha āśiṣa māgē,
gāhē taba[e] jaẏagāthā.
jana-gaṇa-maṅgala-dāẏaka jaẏa hē bhārata-bhāgya-bidhātā[a]!
jaẏa hē, jaẏa hē, jaẏa hē, jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa jaẏa hē.

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, dispenser of India's destiny.

Thy name rouses the hearts of the Panjaub, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha, of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal.

It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of the Jamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.

They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.

The saving of all people waits in thy hand, thou dispenser of India's destiny.

Victory, Victory, Victory to thee, Jai hind.

Phonetic transcription of Bengali versionEdit

IPA

[dʒɔno ɡɔno mɔno od̪ʱinae̯ɔko dʒɔe̯o ɦe |]
[bʱarot̪o bʱaɡːo bid̪ʱat̪a ǁ]
[pɔndʒabo ʃind̪ʱu ɡudʒraʈo maraʈʰa |]
[d̪rabiɽo ut̪kɔlo bɔŋɡo ‖]
[bind̪ʱo ɦimatʃɔlo dʒomuna ɡɔŋɡa |]
[utʃʰːɔlo dʒɔlod̪ʱitorɔŋɡo ‖]
[t̪ɔbo ʃubʱo name dʒaɡe | t̪ɔbo ʃubʱo aʃiʃo maɡe]
[gaɦe t̪ɔbo dʒɔe̯o ɡat̪ʰa ‖]
[dʒɔno ɡɔno moŋɡɔlo d̪ae̯ɔko dʒɔe̯o ɦe |]
[bʱarot̪o bʱaɡːo bid̪ʱat̪a ‖]
[dʒɔe̯o ɦe | dʒɔe̯o ɦe | dʒɔe̯o ɦe |]
[dʒɔe̯o dʒɔe̯o dʒɔe̯o dʒɔe̯o ɦe ‖]

Official lyrics in HindiEdit

Devanagari Devanagari transliteration Latin transliteration
(ISO 15919)

जन-गण-मन अधिनायक जय हे, भारत भाग्य विधाता!
पंजाब-सिंधु-गुजरात-मराठा, द्राविड़-उत्कल-बङ्ग
विंध्य[f] हिमाचल यमुना गंगा, उच्छल जलधि तरंग
तव[g] शुभ नामे जागे, तव[g] शुभ आशिष मागे
गाहे तव[g] जय गाथा।
जन-गण-मंगलदायक जय हे, भारत भाग्य विधाता!
जय हे! जय हे! जय हे! जय जय जय जय हे![25]

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata
Panjaba-Sindhu-Gujarata-Maratha Dravida-Utkala-Banga
Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga uchchala-jaladhi-taranga
Tava Subha name jage, tava subha asisa mage,
gahe tava jaya-gatha.
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Jaya he, Jaya he, Jaya he, jaya jaya jaya jaya he.[26]

Jana-gaṇa-mana adhināyaka jaya hē Bhārata-bhāgya-vidhātā.
Pañjāba-Sindhu-Gujarāta-Marāṭhā, Drāviṛa-Utkala Baṅga
Vindhya Himācala Yamunā Gaṅgā, ucchala jaladhi taraṅga
Tava[h] Śubha nāmē jāgē, tava[i] śubha āśiṣa māgē
gāhē taba[j] jaya gāthā.
Jana gaṇa maṅgala-dāyaka jaya hē, Bhārata bhāgya vidhātā.
Jaya hē, Jaya hē, Jaya hē, jaya jaya jaya jaya hē.

Phonetic transcriptionEdit

IPA

[dʒənə gəɳə mənə əd̪ʱinɑːjəkə dʒəjə ɦeː]
[bʱɑːɾət̪ə bʱɑːgjə ʋɪdʱɑːt̪ɑː ǁ]
[pəɲdʒɑːbə sɪnd̪ʱʊ gʊdʒəɾɑːt̪ə məɾɑːʈʰɑː |]
[d̪ɾɑːʋɪɽə ʊt̪kələ bəŋgə]
[ʋɪnd̪ʱjə ɦɪmɑːtʃələ jəmʊnɑː gəŋgɑː |]
[ʊtːʃʰələ dʒələd̪ʱi t̪əɾəŋgə]
[t̪əbə[k] ʃʊbʱə nɑːmeː dʒɑːgeː | t̪əbə[k] ʃʊbʱə ɑːʃɪʂə mɑːgeː]
[gɑːɦeː t̪əbə[k] dʒəjə gɑːt̪ʰɑː ‖]
[dʒənə gəɳə məŋgələ d̪ɑːjəkə dʒəjə ɦeː |]
[bʱɑːɾət̪ə bʱɑːgjə ʋɪd̪ʱɑːt̪ɑː ‖]
[dʒəjə ɦeː | dʒəjə ɦeː | dʒəjə ɦeː |]
[dʒəjə dʒəjə dʒəjə dʒəjə ɦeː ‖]

The raga used in the AnthemEdit

The Indian National Anthem Jana gana mana is sung in the raga Alhaiya Bilawal.[27] In the national anthem, the tivra Madhyama svara is employed. Some argue that considering the raag used in National Anthem in raag Bilawal and it being a raag composed of shuddh swar; presents this anomaly. This line of thought presents the composition of the National Anthem in raga Gaud Sarang which employs has the tivra Madhyama svara.[28] However one must also note that it is quite common for compositions in a raag to employ vivadi swara. Alhaiya Bilawal is sung with tivra Madhyama and it is quite often called raag bilawal.

Abridged versionEdit

A short version consisting of the first and last lines of the National Anthem is also played on certain occasions. It reads as follows[29]

Devanagari script[30] Official romanisation[31]
(bold indicates long vowels)
Latin transliteration
(ISO 15919)

जन-गण-मन अधिनायक जय हे
भारत भाग्य विधाता ।
जय हे, जय हे, जय हे, जय जय जय जय हे ।

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he
Bharata-bhagya vidhata.
Jaya he, Jaya he, Jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya jaya he.

Jana-gaṇa-mana adhināyaka jaya hē Bhārata-bhāgya-vidhātā.
Jaya hē, Jaya hē, Jaya hē, jaya jaya jaya jaya hē.

GalleryEdit

ControversiesEdit

In Kerala, students belonging to the Jehovah's Witnesses religious denomination were expelled by school authorities for their refusal to sing the national anthem on religious grounds, although they stood up when the anthem was sung.[32] The Kerala High Court concluded that there was nothing in it which could offend anyone's religious susceptibilities, and upheld their expulsion. On 11 August 1986,[33] the Supreme Court reversed the High Court and ruled that the High Court had misdirected itself because the question is not whether a particular religious belief or practice appeals to our reason or sentiment but whether the belief is genuinely and conscientiously held as part of the profession or practice of a religion. "Our personal views and reactions are irrelevant." The Supreme Court affirmed the principle that it is not for a secular judge to sit in judgment on the correctness of a religious belief.[34]

The Supreme Court observed in its ruling that:[35]

"There is no provision of law which obliges anyone to sing the National Anthem nor is it disrespectful to the National Anthem if a person who stands up respectfully when the National Anthem is sung does not join the singing. Proper respect is shown to the National Anthem by standing up when the National Anthem is sung. It will not be right to say that disrespect is shown by not joining in the singing. Standing up respectfully when the National Anthem is sung but not singing oneself clearly does not either prevent the singing of the National Anthem or cause disturbance to an assembly engaged in such singing so as to constitute the offence mentioned in s. 3 of the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act."

In some states, it is mandatory that the anthem be played before films played at cinemas. On 30 November 2016, to instill "committed patriotism and nationalism", the Supreme Court ordered that all cinemas nationwide must play the national anthem, accompanied by an image of the flag of India, before all films. Patrons were expected to stand in respect of the anthem, and doors to a cinema hall were expected to be locked during the anthem to minimize disruption.[36] The order was controversial, as it was argued that patrons who chose not to participate would be targeted and singled out, as was the case in an incident publicized in 2015 which purported to show a group of patrons (alleged by the YouTube uploader to be Muslims) being heckled by others. On 10 February 2017, two Kashmiris (which included an employee of the state government) were arrested under the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act for not standing during the anthem at a cinema, in the first such arrest of its kind made by a state government. Other incidents of violent outbreaks associated with the policy were also reported.[37][38][39]

A cinema club in Kerala (whose film festival was required to comply with the order, leading to several arrests) challenged the order as an infringement of their fundamental rights, arguing that cinemas were "singularly unsuited for the gravitas and sobriety that must accompany the playing of the national anthem", and that the films screened would often "be at odds with sentiments of national respect".[40] In October 2017, Justice Dhananjaya Y. Chandrachud questioned the intent of the order, arguing that citizens "don't have to wear patriotism on our sleeve", and it should not be assumed that people who do not stand for the anthem were any less patriotic than those who did. In January 2018, the order was lifted, pending further government discussion.[41][42][43]

In October 2019, a video of a Bengaluru couple being bullied for not standing up during the national anthem in a movie hall went viral. They were questioned "Are you Pakistani?". There was a debate on the issue; some lawyers recalled Article-21, some people called it a way to gain media attention and some recommended to attend the movie after the national anthem is played to avoid any problems. But after the debate, Supreme Court had reversed its earlier order making it mandatory for cinema halls to play the National Anthem.[44]

Historical significanceEdit

The composition was first sung during a convention of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta on 27 December 1911.[45] It was sung on the second day of the convention. The event was reported as such in the British Indian press:

"The Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him specially to welcome the Emperor." (Statesman, 28 December 1911)
"The proceedings began with the singing by Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor." (Englishman, 28 December 1911)
"When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27 December 1911, a Bengali song in welcome of the Emperor was sung. A resolution welcoming the Emperor and Empress was also adopted unanimously." (Indian, 29 December 1911)

Many historians aver that the newspaper reports cited above were misguided. The confusion arose in the Indian press since a different song, "Badshah Humara" written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary,[46] was sung on the same occasion in praise of the George VI. The nationalist press in India stated this difference of events clearly:

"The proceedings of the Congress party session started with a prayer in Bengali to praise God (song of benediction). This was followed by a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V. Then another song was sung welcoming King George V." (Amrita Bazar Patrika, 28 December 1911)
"The annual session of Congress began by singing a song composed by the great Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore. Then a resolution expressing loyalty to King George V was passed. A song paying a heartfelt homage to King George V was then sung by a group of boys and girls." (The Bengalee, 28 December 1911)

Even the report of the annual session of the Indian National Congress of December 1911 stated this difference:

"On the first day of 28th annual session of the Congress, proceedings started after singing Vande Mataram. On the second day the work began after singing a patriotic song by Babu Rabindranath Tagore. Messages from well-wishers were then read and a resolution was passed expressing loyalty to King George V. Afterwards the song composed for welcoming King George V and Queen Mary was sung."

On 10 November 1937, Tagore wrote a letter to Pulin Bihari Sen about the controversy. That letter in Bengali can be found in Tagore's biography Rabindrajibani, volume II page 339 by Prabhatkumar Mukherjee.

"A certain high official in His Majesty's service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Bidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense."[47][48]

Again in his letter of 19 March 1939 Tagore writes:[49]

"I should only insult myself if I cared to answer those who consider me capable of such unbounded stupidity as to sing in praise of George the Fourth or George the Fifth as the Eternal Charioteer leading the pilgrims on their journey through countless ages of the timeless history of mankind." (Purvasa, Phalgun, 1354, p. 738.)

These clarifications by Tagore regarding the controversy occurred only after the death of King George V in 1936. Earlier, in 1915, after Tagore was awarded the Nobel Literature Prize, George V had conferred a knighthood on him, which he renounced in 1919 in protest over the Jallianwala Bagh massacre; writing a letter addressed to viceroy of India Lord Chelmsford: "The time has come when badges of honour make our shame glaring in their incongruous context of humiliation, and I for my part wish to stand, shorn of all special distinctions, by the side of my country men."[50][51]

Regional aspectsEdit

Another controversy is that only those provinces that were under direct British rule, i.e. Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, Maratha, Dravida (South India), Utkal and Bengal, were mentioned. None of the princely statesKashmir, Rajasthan, Hyderabad, Mysore or the states in Northeast India, which are now integral parts of India were mentioned. But opponents of this proposition claim that Tagore mentioned only the border states of India to include complete India. Whether the princely states would form a part of an independent Indian republic was a matter of debate even till Indian independence.

In 2005, there were calls to delete the word "Sindh" and substitute it with the word Kashmir. The argument was that Sindh was no longer a part of India, having become part of Pakistan as a result of the Partition of 1947. Opponents of this proposal hold that the word "Sindh" refers to the Indus and to Sindhi culture, and that Sindhi people are an integral part of India's cultural fabric. The Supreme Court of India declined to change the national anthem and the wording remains unchanged.

On 17 December 2013, MLA of Assam, Phani Bhushan Choudhury cited article of The Times of India published on 26 January 1950, stating that originally the word 'Kamarup' was included in the song, but was later changed to 'Sindhu' and claimed that Kamarup should be re-included.[52] To this, the then minister Rockybul Hussain replied that the state government would initiate steps in this regard after response from the newspaper.[52] The debate was further joined by the then minister Ardhendu Dey, mentioning 'Sanchayita' (edited by Tagore himself) etc. where he said Kamrup was not mentioned.[52]

In 2017 the state government of Jharkhand under the Bharatiya Janata Party proposed making the singing of the national anthem compulsory in Madrasas. This was met with opposition from a section of Muslim cleric on the grounds that it violated the basic principles of the Islamic centers of learning.[53]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Home | Know India: National Portal of India". knowindia.india.gov.in. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  2. ^ Rabindranath Tagore (2004). The English Writings of Rabindranath Tagore: Poems. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-81-260-1295-4. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  3. ^ Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe. The Pearson CSAT Manual 2011. Pearson Education India. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-81-317-5830-4. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  4. ^ Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (24 May 2017). Rabindranath Tagore: An Interpretation. Random House Publishers India Pvt. Limited. pp. 326–. ISBN 978-81-8475-539-8. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  5. ^ "BBC News - Does India's national anthem extol the British?". BBC News. 9 July 2015. Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  6. ^ a b Rangarajan, A. d. (27 February 2021). "When 'Jana Gana Mana' got its tune". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 16 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  7. ^ "National anthem of India: a brief on 'Jana Gana Mana'". www.news18.com. 14 August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Quote: "Though written in Bengali, the language used was sadhu Bengali or tatsama Bengali which is heavily influenced by Sanskrit. Many of the words exist with the same meaning in different Indian languages and thus, all Indian people understand the words and meaning of the national anthem"
  8. ^ "National Symbol: National Anthem". National Portal of India. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  9. ^ "National anthem of India: a brief on 'Jana Gana Mana'". News18 India. 14 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  10. ^ Britannica, Editors of Encyclopedia (2008), Britannica Encyclopedia of India (Set of 5 Volumes), Encyclopedia Britannica India, p. 167, ISBN 978-81-8131-008-8, archived from the original on 19 March 2017, retrieved 14 April 2017CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Quote: "Adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the national anthem of India on January 24, 1950, the song Jana-gana-mana, in its Hindi version of the first stanza, was originally composed in Bengali by poet Rabindranath Tagore"
  11. ^ http://mha.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mha/files/pdf/NationalAnthem(E).pdf Archived 18 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine Quote: "The composition consisting of the words and music of the first stanza of the late poet Rabindra Nath Tagore’s song known as “Jana Gana Mana” is the National Anthem of India"
  12. ^ a b "National Anthem- National Identity Elements of India - Know India: National Portal of India". knowindia.gov.in (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  13. ^ Chowdhury, Arunangsu Roy. "100 years since 'Jana Gana Mana' was born". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  14. ^ "India and national symbols: www.india.gov.in". Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  15. ^ "Untitled Document". Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  16. ^ Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi (2011). Rabindranath Tagore: an interpretation. New Delhi: Viking, Penguin Books India. p. 206. ISBN 978-0670084555. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017. Incidentally a myth regarding this song needs to be refuted and laid to rest. It is on record that the song was written on 11 December 1911. On 12 December 1911, the Delhi Durbar met to honour King Emperor George V. Obviously, a poem written on 11 December could not be intended for an event the following day. The song was first sung at the twenty-seventh session of the Indian National Congress, Calcutta on 28 December 1911 as the opening song at the beginning of the day's proceedings. Thereafter, it was also sung at the foundation day anniversary of Adi Brahma Samaj in February 1912 and included in their collection of psalms, Brahma Sangit.
  17. ^ "National Identity". Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  18. ^ "10 things to know about Indian national Anthem". Archived from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  19. ^ "BBC.com". BBC News. 9 July 2015. Archived from the original on 18 September 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  20. ^ Sugata Bose (14 August 2017). "The History of Patriotism: When Mahatma Gandhi refused to stand up in respect for the national song". Quartz India. Archived from the original on 16 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  21. ^ Chandra, Balakrishnan, Pali, Vijay kumar. "100 Years Of Bollywood-Humrahi (1945)". indiavideo.org. Invis Multimedia Pvt. Ltd. Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  22. ^ Srivastava, Sanjay (2005). Constructing Post-Colonial India. London: Routledge. p. 91. ISBN 9781134683581. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2020. Since its inception, the School adopted strictly non-denominational prayers and hymns and does not serve beef and pork. In fact the School adopted 'Jana Gana Mana' as its School song in 1935 well before it became National Anthem in 1947.
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NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Sanskrit ransliteration "Bhārata-bhāgya-vidhātā"
  2. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "Drāviṛa"
  3. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "Vaṅga"
  4. ^ Sanskrit transliteration "Vindhya"
  5. ^ a b c Sanskrit transliteration "tava"
  6. ^ विन्ध्य is also used
  7. ^ a b c तव is also used
  8. ^ "taba" is also used
  9. ^ "taba" is also used
  10. ^ "tava" is also used
  11. ^ a b c t̪əʋə is also used

Rad Thakur Thakur movie

External linksEdit