Churchill caretaker ministry
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In 1945, the Churchill caretaker ministry was a short-term United Kingdom (UK) government during the latter stages of the Second World War from 23 May to 26 July. The Prime Minister was Winston Churchill, leader of the Conservative Party. The caretaker ministry succeeded the national coalition which Churchill had formed after he was first appointed Prime Minister on 10 May 1940. On 23 May 1945, the Labour and Liberal members of the coalition resigned in order to prepare for the forthcoming general election, the first held in the UK since 1935. The result of the general election was a landslide Labour victory and, on 26 July 1945, Clement Attlee replaced Churchill as Prime Minister and formed a Labour government.
|Churchill caretaker ministry|
|Caretaker government of the United Kingdom|
|Date formed||23 May 1945|
|Date dissolved||26 July 1945|
|People and organisations|
|Prime Minister||Winston Churchill|
|Prime Minister's history||1940–1945|
|Deputy Prime Minister||[note 1]|
|Total no. of ministers||92 appointments|
|Status in legislature||Majority (coalition)|
|Opposition party||Labour Party|
|Opposition leader||Clement Attlee|
|Outgoing election||1945 general election|
|Legislature term(s)||37th UK Parliament|
|Predecessor||Churchill war ministry|
Formation of the caretaker governmentEdit
After the defeat of Italy and Germany, in the Second World War, Winston Churchill (leader of the Conservative Party) proposed to Clement Attlee (leader of the Labour Party) and Sir Archibald Sinclair (leader of the Liberal Party) that the war-time coalition should continue until victory over Japan.
At first it seemed agreement would be reached, but at the Labour Party Conference in 1945 opinion was hostile to a continuation of the coalition. Attlee wrote to Churchill to confirm that his party wanted an election in October, and would leave the coalition then.
Churchill (under pressure from his party to hold a quick election to exploit his standing as the man who had won the war) then resigned as Prime Minister while the Labour conference was still in session. This brought the war-time coalition government to an end on 23 May 1945. King George VI the same day invited Churchill to form a government pending the general election.
The government was known officially as the "National Government", implying it to be a continuation of the Conservative-dominated coalition of the 1930s, and was formed from members of the Conservative Party and the groups and politicians who had been associated with that government. It was unofficially known as "the caretaker ministry."
The Liberal Party were determined to fight the general election as an independent party so they did not join the caretaker government. However one Liberal Member of Parliament, Gwilym Lloyd George, accepted an invitation to join the ministry.
Speaking at his constituency of Woodford on 25 May, Churchill commented of the name by which the ministry had become known: "They call us 'the Caretakers'; we condone the title, because it means that we shall take every good care of everything that affects the welfare of Britain and all classes in Britain".
General election and resignation of ChurchillEdit
Parliament was dissolved on 15 June 1945. Polling day was on 5 July 1945 and, after a delay caused by the need to collect the votes of those serving overseas, the results were declared on 26 July 1945. Churchill, having been defeated in the election, resigned that day and was replaced as Prime Minister by Clement Attlee.
First Lord of the Treasury
Minister of Defence
|Lord President of the Council||The Lord Woolton||1945|
|Lord Privy Seal||The Lord Beaverbrook||1943–1945|
|Chancellor of the Exchequer||Sir John Anderson||1943–1945|
|Foreign Secretary||Anthony Eden||1940–1945|
|Home Secretary||Donald Somervell||1945|
|First Lord of the Admiralty||Brendan Bracken||1945|
|Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food||Robert Hudson||1940–1945|
|Secretary of State for Air||Harold Macmillan||1945|
|Secretary of State for the Colonies||Oliver Stanley||1942–1945|
|Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs||Viscount Cranborne||1943–1945|
|Minister of Education||Richard Law||1945|
|Secretary of State for India and Burma||Leo Amery||1940–1945|
|Minister of Labour and National Service||Rab Butler||1945|
|Minister of Production||Oliver Lyttelton||1942–1945|
|President of the Board of Trade||1945|
|Secretary of State for Scotland||The Earl of Rosebery||1945|
|Secretary of State for War||Sir P. J. Grigg||1942–1945|
List of MinistersEdit
Members of the Cabinet are in bold face.
- Hermiston 2016, p. 364
- J C Sainty 'Assistant Whips 1922–1964' in Parliamentary History Vol 4 (1985) pp. 201–04
- History of the Liberal Party 1895–1970, by Roy Douglas (Sidgwick & Jackson 1971)
- Who's Who of British members of parliament: Volume III 1919–1945, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees (The Harvester Press 1979)
- Attlee, by Kenneth Harris (Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1982)
- All Behind You, Winston: Churchill's Great Coalition 1940–45, by Roger Hermiston (Aurum 2016) ISBN 978-1781313312
- Twentieth Century British Political Facts 1900–2000, D. Butler and G. Butler (Macmillan Press 2000)
Churchill war ministry
| Government of the United Kingdom
First Attlee ministry