Churchill caretaker ministry

The Churchill caretaker ministry was a short-term United Kingdom (UK) government during the latter stages of the Second World War, from 23 May to 26 July 1945. The prime minister was Winston Churchill, leader of the Conservative Party. This government succeeded the national coalition which he had formed after he was first appointed prime minister on 10 May 1940. The coalition had comprised leading members of the Conservative, Labour and Liberal parties and it was terminated soon after the defeat of Nazi Germany because the parties could not agree on whether it should continue until after the defeat of Japan.

Churchill caretaker ministry
Caretaker government of the United Kingdom
May–July 1945
Churchill HU 90973.jpg
Winston Churchill on 2 August 1944
Date formed23 May 1945 (1945-05-23)
Date dissolved26 July 1945 (1945-07-26)
People and organisations
MonarchGeorge VI
Prime MinisterWinston Churchill
Prime Minister's history1940–1945
Deputy Prime Minister[note 1]
Total no. of members92 appointments
Member parties
Status in legislatureMajority (coalition)
Opposition partyLabour Party
Opposition leaderClement Attlee
History
Outgoing election1945 general election
Legislature term(s)37th UK Parliament
PredecessorChurchill war ministry
SuccessorAttlee ministry

The caretaker government continued to fight the war against Japan in the Far East but Churchill's focus was on preparation for the Potsdam Conference where he and his foreign secretary Anthony Eden would meet Joseph Stalin and Harry Truman. The main concern on the home front, however, was post-war recovery including the need for reform in key areas such as education, health, housing, industry and social welfare. Campaigning mostly on those issues, the parties canvassed for support in the forthcoming general election, the first held in the UK since 1935. The result of the general election was announced on 26 July 1945 and was a landslide victory for Labour. Churchill thereupon resigned as prime minister and was succeeded by his erstwhile coalition deputy Clement Attlee, who formed a Labour government.

BackgroundEdit

The 1935 general election had resulted in a Conservative victory with a substantial majority and Stanley Baldwin became Prime Minister.[1] In May 1937, Baldwin retired and was succeeded by Neville Chamberlain who continued Baldwin's foreign policy of appeasement in the face of German, Italian and Japanese aggression.[2] Having signed the Munich Agreement with Hitler in 1938, Chamberlain became alarmed by the dictator's continuing aggression and, in March 1939, signed the Anglo-Polish military alliance which supposedly guaranteed British support for Poland if attacked.[3] Chamberlain issued the declaration of war against Nazi Germany on 3 September 1939 and formed a war cabinet which included Winston Churchill (out of office since June 1929) as First Lord of the Admiralty.[4]

Dissatisfaction with Chamberlain's leadership became widespread in the spring of 1940 after Germany successfully invaded Norway. In response, the House of Commons held the Norway Debate from 7 to 9 May. At the end of the second day, the Labour opposition forced a division which was in effect a motion of no confidence in Chamberlain. The government's majority of 213 was reduced to 81, still a victory but in the circumstances a shattering blow for Chamberlain.[5]

Two days later on Friday, 10 May, Germany launched its invasion of the Netherlands and Belgium. Chamberlain had been contemplating resignation but then changed his mind because he felt a change of government at such a time would be inappropriate.[6] Later that day, the Labour Party decided that they could not join a national coalition under Chamberlain's leadership but agreed to do so under a different Conservative prime minister.[7] Chamberlain now resigned and advised the King to appoint Churchill as his successor. Churchill quickly created the national coalition, granting key roles to leading figures in the Labour and Liberal parties.[7] The coalition held firm despite some critical setbacks and, ultimately, in alliance with the Soviet Union and the United States, Britain was able to defeat Nazi Germany.[8]

Plans to extend the coalitionEdit

In October 1944, Churchill had addressed the House of Commons and moved to extend Parliament by a further year pending the final defeat of Nazi Germany and, if possible, Japan. There had not been a general election since 1935 and Churchill was determined to hold one as soon as hostilities ceased. While he could not accurately predict the end of the war against Japan, he was confident that Germany would be defeated by the summer of 1945 and he told the Commons that "we must look to the termination of the war against Nazism as a pointer which will fix the date of the next general election".[9]

In early April 1945, with victory then imminent in the European theatre of operations, Churchill met his deputy prime minister Clement Attlee, who was the leader of the Labour party, to discuss the future of the coalition. Attlee was due to depart for America on 17 April to attend the San Francisco Conference on creation of the United Nations. Travelling with him were ministers Anthony Eden, Florence Horsbrugh and Ellen Wilkinson. They would be out of the country until 16 May and Churchill assured Attlee that Parliament would not be dissolved in their absence. After VE Day on 8 May, Churchill changed his mind about an early election and decided to propose continuation of the coalition until after the defeat of Japan.[10]

In the meantime, however, Labour's Herbert Morrison, home secretary in the coalition, had published a declaration called Let Us Face The Future which was effectively a party manifesto for the election. Several leading Conservatives made speeches in response. The electioneering may have been premature and it subsided after the death of Hitler on 30 April but quickly regathered pace after VE Day.[11] On 11 May, Churchill met Morrison and Ernest Bevin, the coalition's minister of labour, telling them that he wished to maintain the coalition until Japan had been defeated. Their view, confirmed by Labour's National Executive Committee (NEC), was that the general election should be held in October regardless of the situation in the Far East.[12] Churchill was receiving calls from his own party to announce a June election – leading Conservatives like Lord Beaverbrook and Brendan Bracken wanted to cash in on Churchill's personal popularity as "the man who won the war".[9]

Attlee and Eden returned from America on 16 May and Attlee met Churchill that evening. While Attlee himself favoured continuation until the defeat of Japan, he was aware that the majority of Labour Party members thought differently.[12] Churchill sought a compromise and wrote a letter to the NEC which was amended by Bevin to include a pledge on social reform, but it was not enough. On Sunday, 20 May, the NEC voted for an October election and their resolution was backed overwhelmingly by the conference delegates next day.[13] Attlee phoned Churchill with the news and an element of discord arose between the two which was fuelled by Beaverbrook in his newspapers.[14]

At noon on Wednesday, 23 May, Churchill tendered his resignation to King George VI. He insisted on returning to Downing Street to keep up the pretence that the King had a free choice as to whom to invite to form the next government. He was summoned back to Buckingham Palace at four o'clock and the King asked him to form a new administration pending the outcome of the general election. Churchill accepted.[15] It was agreed that Parliament would be dissolved on 15 June and the election would be held on 5 July. With many service personnel out of the country, it was decided that votes would not be counted until 26 July, allowing time to collect the service votes.[14]

Formation of the caretaker governmentEdit

The new government was known officially as the National Government and unofficially as the Caretaker Ministry. The official title implied a continuation of the Conservative-dominated coalition of the 1930s, especially as it was composed mostly of Conservatives, supplemented by the small National Liberal party and some other individuals like Sir John Anderson who had been associated with that government.[16] Speaking at his Woodford constituency on 25 May, Churchill commented on the nickname: "They call us 'the Caretakers'; we condone the title, because it means that we shall take every good care of everything that affects the welfare of Britain and all classes in Britain".[16]

The Labour and Liberal parties formed the Opposition, except that one Liberal member, Gwilym Lloyd George, accepted Churchill's invitation to continue as Minister of Fuel and Power, the office he had held since 3 June 1942. While Churchill was obliged to replace all the other Labour and Liberal ministers in the coalition, he made no significant changes to the structure of the government. There were just two new posts: a Parliamentary secretary (Peter Thorneycroft) was appointed to the Ministry of War Transport and there was an additional Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign AffairsLord Lovat was appointed to share the role with future prime minister Lord Dunglass.[17]

Pending the general election, Parliament sat on only fourteen days from 29 May to 15 June during the caretaker administration, but there was some controversy on Thursday, 7 June, the same day that King George VI visited the recently liberated Channel Islands,[18] when Churchill refused a demand from the House of Commons to reveal all that was discussed at the Yalta Conference, but said that there were no secret agreements.[19]

International eventsEdit

Continuing the war against JapanEdit

The war against Japan continued for the duration of the caretaker ministry and ended on 15 August, three weeks after Churchill's resignation.[20] Even before the defeat of Germany, Churchill had told the Americans that he wanted the Royal Navy to play a prominent role in the defeat of Japan and the liberation of Britain's Asian colonies, especially Singapore. The Americans were unenthusiastic, suspecting that Churchill's intentions were primarily imperialist. Neither Franklin Roosevelt nor Harry Truman had any intention of helping to sustain the British Empire.[21]

In their successful campaigns of 1944 and the early months of 1945, the British Army and its allies had mostly cleared Burma of Japanese forces by May 1945. Rangoon had fallen to the Allies on 2 May following the Battle of Elephant Point. Soon afterwards, the Japanese requested a cease-fire which enabled British and Commonwealth forces to land unopposed in parts of western Malaya. They also temporarily occupied Thailand. Mopping up operations continued in parts of Burma through the rest of May.[22] While Churchill hoped for a triumphant re-entry to Singapore,[21] its recovery was logistically difficult and it remained under Japanese control until 12 September when it was finally recovered, peacefully, by British forces in Operation Tiderace.[23]

Potsdam ConferenceEdit

 
Churchill at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945, with Stalin (second left) and Truman (centre). Admiral Leahy is fourth left.

Churchill was Great Britain's representative at the post-war Potsdam Conference when it opened on 17 July. It was a "Big Three" event with Joseph Stalin representing the Soviet Union and President Harry Truman the United States. Churchill was accompanied at the sessions not only by Eden as Foreign Secretary but also by Attlee, pending the result of the general election held on 5 July. They attended nine sessions in nine days before returning to England for their election counts. After the landslide Labour victory, Attlee returned to Potsdam with Ernest Bevin as the new Foreign Secretary and there were a further five days of discussion.[24] Potsdam went badly for Churchill and Eden later described his performance as "appalling", saying that he was unprepared and verbose. Churchill upset the Chinese, exasperated the Americans and was easily led by Stalin, whom he was supposed to be resisting.[25]

Levant CrisisEdit

Earlier, on 31 May, Churchill and Eden had intervened in the so-called Levant Crisis which had been initiated by French General Charles de Gaulle. Acting as head of the French Provisional Government, de Gaulle had ordered French forces to establish an air base in Syria and a naval base in Lebanon. The action provoked a nationalist outbreak in both countries and France responded with an armed retaliation, leading to many civilian deaths. With the situation escalating out of control, Churchill gave de Gaulle an ultimatum to desist. This was ignored and British forces from neighbouring Transjordan were mobilised to restore order. The French, heavily outnumbered, had no option but to return to their bases. A diplomatic row broke out and Churchill reportedly told a colleague that de Gaulle was "a great danger to peace and for Great Britain".[26]

General election and resignation of ChurchillEdit

Having formed his new government, Churchill was formally reappointed prime minister on 28 May, and Parliament was dissolved only eighteen days later, on 15 June.[14]

Churchill mishandled the election campaign by resorting to party politics and trying to denigrate Labour.[27] On 4 June, he committed a serious political gaffe by saying in a radio broadcast that a Labour government would require "some form of Gestapo" to enforce its agenda.[28][29] It backfired badly and Attlee made political capital by saying in his reply broadcast next day: "The voice we heard last night was that of Mr Churchill, but the mind was that of Lord Beaverbrook". Roy Jenkins says that this broadcast was "the making of Attlee".[30]

The real reasons for Churchill's defeat lay in widespread dissatisfaction with the Conservative-dominated government of the 1930s. Churchill personally had a very high approval rating in opinion polls and was expected to win the election.[29] Labour ran a very effective campaign which focused on the real issues facing the British people in peacetime – the 1930s had been an era of poverty and mass unemployment, so Labour promised a new social order that would ensure better housing, free medical services and employment for all.[29] These issues were foremost in the minds of the voters and Labour was trusted to resolve them.[29]

Polling day was on 5 July and, after a delay caused by the need to collect the votes of those serving overseas, the results – a landslide victory for the Labour Party – were declared on 26 July.[14] Churchill had intended to remain in office until defeated in a Vote of No Confidence by the House of Commons, but instead was persuaded to resign that evening and was succeeded as prime minister by Attlee.[31][32]

CabinetEdit

This table lists those ministers who held Cabinet membership in the caretaker ministry. Many retained roles they held in the war ministry and these are marked in situ with the date of their original appointment. For new appointments, their predecessor's name is given.

Ministers who held Cabinet membership, 23 May – 26 July 1945[17]
Portfolio Minister Party Notes and citations
Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury Winston Churchill Conservative in situ – appointed 10 May 1940; Churchill was also the Minister of Defence
Lord President of the Council Lord Woolton National succeeded Clement Attlee; Woolton was previously Minister of Reconstruction
Lord Privy Seal Lord Beaverbrook Conservative in situ – appointed 24 September 1943
Leader of the House of Lords Viscount Cranborne Conservative in situ – appointed 21 February 1942; Cranborne was also Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs
Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir John Anderson National in situ – appointed 24 September 1943
Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden Conservative in situ – appointed 22 December 1940
Home Secretary Donald Somervell Conservative succeeded Herbert Morrison; Somervell was previously Attorney General
First Lord of the Admiralty Brendan Bracken Conservative succeeded A. V. Alexander; Bracken was previously Minister of Information
Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Robert Hudson Conservative in situ – appointed 14 May 1940
Secretary of State for Air Harold Macmillan Conservative succeeded Sir Archibald Sinclair; Macmillan was previously Minister-Resident in North-west Africa
Secretary of State for the Colonies Oliver Stanley Conservative in situ – appointed 22 November 1942
Minister of Defence Winston Churchill Conservative in situ – appointed 10 May 1940 in addition to becoming Prime Minister
Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs Viscount Cranborne Conservative in situ – appointed 24 September 1943; Cranborne was also Leader of the House of Lords
Minister of Education Richard Law Conservative succeeded Rab Butler; Law was previously Minister of State for Foreign Affairs
Secretary of State for India and Burma Leo Amery Conservative in situ – appointed 13 May 1940
Minister of Labour and National Service Rab Butler Conservative succeeded Ernest Bevin; Butler was previously Minister of Education
Minister of Production Oliver Lyttelton Conservative in situ – appointed 12 March 1942; Lyttelton was also President of the Board of Trade
Secretary of State for Scotland Earl of Rosebery National succeeded Tom Johnston; Rosebery was previously a Regional Commissioner for Civil Defence in Scotland
President of the Board of Trade Oliver Lyttelton Conservative succeeded Hugh Dalton; Lyttelton was also Minister of Production
Secretary of State for War Sir P. J. Grigg Conservative in situ – appointed 22 February 1942

Ministers outside the CabinetEdit

This table lists those ministers who held non-Cabinet roles in the caretaker ministry. Some retained roles they held in the war ministry and these are marked in situ with the date of their original appointment. For new appointments, their predecessor's name is given.

Government ministers who held offices without Cabinet membership, 23 May – 26 July 1945[17]
Portfolio Minister Party Notes and citations
Lord Chancellor Viscount Simon Liberal National in situ – appointed 10 May 1940
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Sir Arthur Salter Independent succeeded Ernest Brown; Salter was previously Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Shipping
Minister of Aircraft Production Ernest Brown Liberal National succeeded Sir Stafford Cripps; Brown was previously Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Minister of Civil Aviation Viscount Swinton Conservative in situ – appointed 8 October 1944
Minister of Food John Llewellin Conservative in situ – appointed 11 November 1943
Minister of Fuel and Power Gwilym Lloyd George Liberal in situ – appointed 3 June 1942
Minister of Health Henry Willink Conservative in situ – appointed 11 November 1943
Minister of Information Geoffrey Lloyd Conservative succeeded Brendan Bracken; Lloyd was previously Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Fuel and Power
Minister of National Insurance Leslie Hore-Belisha National succeeded Sir William Jowitt; Hore-Belisha had been a backbench MP since 1940 when he resigned as Secretary of State for War
Minister for Pensions Sir Walter Womersley Conservative in situ – appointed 7 June 1939 by Neville Chamberlain; Womersley was the only minister to hold the same office throughout the war until the 1945 general election
Minister of Supply Sir Andrew Duncan National in situ – appointed 4 February 1942
Minister of Town and Country Planning William Morrison Conservative in situ – appointed 30 December 1942
Minister of War Transport Lord Leathers Conservative in situ – appointed 1 May 1941
Minister of Works Duncan Sandys Conservative in situ – appointed 21 November 1944
Attorney General Sir David Maxwell Fyfe Conservative succeeded Sir Donald Somervell; Fyfe was previously Solicitor General
Solicitor General Sir Walter Monckton National succeeded Sir David Maxwell Fyfe; a qualified legal advisor, Monckton was new to political office
Solicitor General for Scotland Sir David King Murray Conservative in situ – appointed 5 June 1941
Lord Advocate James Reid Conservative in situ – appointed 5 June 1941
Paymaster General Lord Cherwell Conservative in situ – appointed 30 December 1942
Postmaster-General Harry Crookshank Conservative in situ – appointed 7 February 1943
Assistant Postmaster-General William Anstruther-Gray Conservative succeeded Robert Grimston; an MP since 1931, Anstruther-Gray served in the Coldstream Guards from 1939 to May 1945
Minister-Resident for the Middle East Sir Edward Grigg National in situ – appointed 21 November 1944; this ministry was terminated by the Attlee government
Minister-Resident for West Africa Harold Balfour Conservative in situ – appointed 21 November 1944; this ministry was terminated by the Attlee government
Financial Secretary to the Admiralty James Thomas Conservative in situ – appointed 25 September 1943
Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty Sir Victor Warrender, Bt Conservative in situ – appointed 17 May 1940
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Donald Scott Conservative succeeded Tom Williams; Scott was previously a backbench MP; position held jointly with the Duke of Norfolk
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Duke of Norfolk Conservative in situ – appointed 8 February 1941; position held jointly with Donald Scott
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Aircraft Production Alan Lennox-Boyd Conservative in situ – appointed 11 November 1943
Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade Charles Waterhouse Conservative in situ – appointed 8 February 1941
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Civil Aviation Robert Perkins Conservative in situ – appointed 22 March 1945
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Education Thelma Cazalet-Keir Conservative succeeded James Chuter Ede; Cazalet-Keir was previously a backbench MP
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Food Florence Horsbrugh Conservative succeeded William Mabane; Horsbrugh was previously Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Fuel and Power Sir Austin Hudson, Bt Conservative succeeded Tom Smith; Hudson was previously a backbench MP
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health Hamilton Kerr Conservative succeeded Florence Horsbrugh; Kerr was previously a backbench MP who served in the Royal Air Force from 1939 to May 1945
Parliamentary Secretary for India and Burma Earl of Scarbrough Conservative succeeded the Earl of Listowel; Scarbrough was a former MP who served in the Army during World War II
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Labour Malcolm McCorquodale Conservative in situ – appointed 4 February 1942
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of National Insurance Charles Peat Conservative in situ – appointed 22 March 1945
Secretary for Overseas Trade Spencer Summers Conservative succeeded Harcourt Johnstone; Summers was previously the Director-General of Regional Organisation at the Ministry of Supply
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Pensions William Sidney Conservative succeeded Wilfred Paling; Sidney was previously an army officer who first entered Parliament in October 1944
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Production John Maclay Liberal National succeeded George Garro-Jones; Maclay was previously head of the British Merchant Shipping Mission to Washington, DC
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Supply Robert Grimston Conservative succeeded James de Rothschild; Grimston was previously Assistant Postmaster-General
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Town and Country Planning Ronald Tree Conservative succeeded Arthur Jenkins; Tree was previously a backbench MP
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of War Transport Peter Thorneycroft Conservative no immediate predecessor; Thorneycroft was previously a backbench MP who served in the Royal Artillery through the war
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Works Reginald Manningham-Buller Conservative succeeded George Hicks; Manningham-Buller was previously a backbench MP, having been first elected in 1943
Financial Secretary to the Treasury Osbert Peake Conservative in situ – appointed 29 October 1944
Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury James Stuart Conservative in situ – appointed 14 January 1941
Lord of the Treasury Alec Beechman Liberal National in situ – appointed 28 September 1943
Lord of the Treasury Patrick Buchan-Hepburn Conservative in situ – appointed 6 December 1944
Lord of the Treasury Robert Cary Conservative succeeded William John; Cary was previously the Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for India and Burma
Lord of the Treasury Cedric Drewe Conservative in situ – appointed 7 July 1944
Lord of the Treasury Charles Mott-Radclyffe Conservative succeeded Leslie Pym; Mott-Radclyffe was previously a backbench MP, first elected in 1942
Financial Secretary to the War Office Maurice Petherick Conservative succeeded Arthur Henderson; Petherick was previously a backbench MP
Minister of State for Foreign Affairs William Mabane Liberal National succeeded Richard Law; Mabane was previously Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Food
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Lord Dunglass Conservative succeeded George Hall; Dunglass was previously a backbench MP having earlier been Parliamentary Private Secretary to Neville Chamberlain
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Lord Lovat Conservative newly created as a joint role; Lovat served as a Commandos officer during the war
Under-Secretary of State for Air Quintin Hogg Conservative in situ – appointed 12 April 1945
Under-Secretary of State for Air Earl Beatty Conservative succeeded Hugh Seely; Beatty was an army officer through the war
Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs Paul Emrys-Evans Conservative in situ – appointed 4 March 1942
Under-Secretary of State for Scotland Allan Chapman Conservative in situ – appointed 4 March 1942
Under-Secretary of State for Scotland Thomas Galbraith Conservative succeeded Joseph Westwood; Galbraith was previously a backbench MP and was in the Scottish Naval Command during the war
Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies Duke of Devonshire Conservative in situ – appointed 1 January 1943
Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department Earl of Munster Conservative in situ – appointed 31 October 1944
Under-Secretary of State for War Sir Henry Page Croft Conservative in situ – appointed 17 May 1940
Civil Lord of the Admiralty Richard Pilkington Conservative in situ – appointed 4 March 1942
Comptroller of the Household Leslie Pym Conservative succeeded George Mathers; Pym was previously a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury
Treasurer of the Household Sir James Edmondson Conservative in situ – appointed 12 March 1942
Vice-Chamberlain of the Household Arthur Young Conservative in situ – appointed 13 July 1944
Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms Earl Fortescue Conservative in situ – appointed 22 March 1945
Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard Lord Templemore Conservative in situ – appointed 31 May 1940
Lord in Waiting Lord Alness Liberal National in situ – appointed 4 June 1940
Lord in Waiting Marquess of Normanby Conservative in situ – appointed 22 March 1945
Lord in Waiting 10th Duke of Northumberland Conservative succeeded Viscount Clifden; Northumberland was a Royal Artillery officer during the war

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Anthony Eden did not acquire the title of Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the caretaker ministry. He did however serve as Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 485–486.
  2. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 514–515.
  3. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 543.
  4. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 551–552.
  5. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 576–582.
  6. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 583.
  7. ^ a b Jenkins 2001, p. 586.
  8. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 585.
  9. ^ a b Hermiston 2016, p. 356.
  10. ^ Hermiston 2016, pp. 356–357.
  11. ^ Hermiston 2016, p. 357.
  12. ^ a b Hermiston 2016, p. 358.
  13. ^ Hermiston 2016, p. 359.
  14. ^ a b c d Hermiston 2016, p. 360.
  15. ^ Roberts 2018, p. 879.
  16. ^ a b Hermiston 2016, p. 364.
  17. ^ a b c Butler & Butler 1994, pp. 17–20.
  18. ^ Mercer, Derrick, ed. (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. p. 626. ISBN 978-05-82039-19-3.
  19. ^ Leonard, Thomas M. (1977). Day By Day: The Forties. New York: Facts On File, Inc. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-87196-375-8.
  20. ^ "Text of Hirohito's Radio Rescript". New York City: The New York Times. 15 August 1945. p. 3. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  21. ^ a b Jenkins 2001, p. 756.
  22. ^ Tugwell, Maurice (1971). Airborne To Battle – A History Of Airborne Warfare 1918–1971. London: William Kimber & Co. Ltd. p. 285. ISBN 978-07-18302-62-7.
  23. ^ Park, Keith (August 1946). "Air Operations in South East Asia 3rd May 1945 to 12th September 1945" (PDF). London: War Office. published in "No. 39202". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 April 1951. pp. 2127–2172.
  24. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 795–796.
  25. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 796.
  26. ^ Fenby, Jonathan (2011). The General: Charles de Gaulle and the France he saved. London: Simon & Schuster. pp. 42–47. ISBN 978-18-47394-10-1.
  27. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 791–795.
  28. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 792.
  29. ^ a b c d Addison, Paul (17 February 2011). "Why Churchill Lost in 1945". BBC History. BBC. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  30. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 793.
  31. ^ Hermiston 2016, pp. 366–367.
  32. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 798–799.

BibliographyEdit

  • Butler, David; Butler, Gareth (1994). British Political Facts 1900–1994 (7 ed.). Basingstoke and London: The Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-03-12121-47-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hermiston, Roger (2016). All Behind You, Winston – Churchill's Great Coalition, 1940–45. London: Aurum Press. ISBN 978-17-81316-64-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Jenkins, Roy (2001). Churchill. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-03-30488-05-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Roberts, Andrew (2018). Churchill: Walking with Destiny. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-02-41205-63-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Preceded by
Churchill war ministry
Government of the United Kingdom
1945
Succeeded by
First Attlee ministry