His Majesty's Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Scottish Gaelic: Morair Tagraidh, Scots: Laird Advocat), is the principal legal adviser of both the Scottish Government and the Crown in Scotland for civil and criminal matters that fall within the devolved powers of the Scottish Parliament. The Lord Advocate provides legal advice to the government on its responsibilities, policies, legislation and advising on the legal implications of any proposals brought forward by the government. The Lord Advocate is responsible for all legal advice which is given to the Scottish Government.[2]

His Majesty's Lord Advocate
Scottish Gaelic: Morair Tagraidh
Dorothy Bain KC
since 22 June 2021
Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service
TypeGreat Officer of State
Law Officer of the Crown
Member ofScottish Cabinet
Privy Council
Cabinet Sub-Committee on Legislation
Scottish Government Legal Directorate
Reports toFirst Minister
AppointerMonarch on the recommendation of the First Minister once approved by parliament
DeputySolicitor General for Scotland
Salary£134,092 per annum (2023)[1]
WebsiteLord Advocate at the Scottish Government

The Lord Advocate serves as the ministerial head of the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, and as such, is the chief public prosecutor for Scotland with all prosecutions on indictment being conducted by the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service in the Lord Advocate's name on behalf of the Monarch. The Lord Advocate serves as the head of the systems of prosecutions in Scotland and is responsible for the investigation of all sudden, suspicious, accidental and unexplained deaths which occur within Scotland.[3][4]

The officeholder is one of the Great Officers of State of Scotland. The current Lord Advocate is Dorothy Bain KC, who was nominated by First Minister Nicola Sturgeon in June 2021.[5] The Lord Advocate is appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the incumbent First Minister of Scotland, with the agreement of the Scottish Parliament.[6]

History edit

The office of Advocate to the monarch is an ancient one. The first recorded Lord Advocate was Sir John Ross of Montgreenan, who is formally mentioned in 1483.[7][8][9] At that time the post-holder was generally referred to as the "King's Advocate" and not until the year 1573 was the term "Lord Advocate" first used.[10]

From 1707 to 1998, the Lord Advocate was the chief legal adviser of the British Government and the Crown on Scottish legal matters, both civil and criminal, until the Scotland Act 1998 devolved most domestic affairs to the Scottish Parliament. His Majesty's Government is now advised on Scots law by the Advocate General for Scotland.

The Lord Advocate is not head of the Faculty of Advocates; that position is held by the Dean of the Faculty of Advocates.

Parliamentary and government role edit

Part of government edit

Until devolution in 1999, all Lords Advocate were, by convention, members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords to allow them to speak for the government. Those who were not already members of either house received a life peerage on appointment. Since devolution, the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor General for Scotland are permitted to attend and speak in the Scottish Parliament ex officio, even if they are not Members of the Scottish Parliament.[11]

From 1999 until 2007, the Lord Advocate attended the weekly Scottish Cabinet meetings. However, after the 2007 election, the new First Minister Alex Salmond decided that Lord Advocate would no longer attend the Scottish Cabinet, stating he wished to "de-politicise" the post.[12]

Post–lord advocate edit

Appointments as Senators of the College of Justice were formerly made on the nomination of the Lord Advocate. Every Lord Advocate between 1842 and 1967 was later appointed to the bench, either on demitting office or at a later date. Many lord advocates in fact nominated themselves for appointment as Lord President of the Court of Session or as Lord Justice Clerk.

Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service edit

The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service is headed by the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor General for Scotland, and is the public prosecution service in Scotland. It also carries out functions which are broadly equivalent to the coroner in common law jurisdictions. Incorporated within the Crown Office is the Legal Secretariat to the Lord Advocate.

Crown Agent edit

The Crown Agent is the principal legal adviser to the Lord Advocate on prosecution matters. He or she also acts as Chief Executive for the department and as solicitor in all legal proceedings in which the Lord Advocate appears as representing his or her own department. They issue general instructions for the guidance of Crown counsel, procurators fiscal, sheriff clerks and other public officials; transmit instructions from Crown counsel to procurators fiscal about prosecutions; and in consultation with the Clerk of Justiciary, arrange sittings of the High Court of Justiciary. At trials in the High Court in Edinburgh, they attend as instructing solicitor. They are assisted by other senior legal, managerial and administrative staff.

The Crown Agent also holds the office of King's and Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer.

Calls for reform edit

In the Greshornish House Accord of 16 September 2008, Professors Hans Köchler and Robert Black said—

It is inappropriate that the Chief Legal Adviser to the Government is also head of all criminal prosecutions. Whilst the Lord Advocate and Solicitor General continue as public prosecutors the principle of separation of powers seems compromised. The potential for a conflict of interest always exists. Resolution of these circumstances would entail an amendment of the provisions contained within the Scotland Act 1998.

The judges of Scotland's highest court came to share this view. In a submission to the commission set up to consider how the devolution settlement between Scotland and the United Kingdom could be improved, the judges recommended that the Lord Advocate should cease to be the head of the public prosecution system and should act only as the Scottish Government's chief legal adviser. They noted various ways in which the Lord Advocate's roles had caused problems for the judicial system, including the ability "to challenge... virtually any act of a prosecutor has led to a plethora of disputed issues, with consequential delays to the holding of trials and to the hearing and completion of appeals against conviction." The judges proposed three alternative solutions: stripping the Lord Advocate of responsibility for prosecutions, exempting the Lord Advocate from compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights, or changing the law on criminal appeals. While not specifically favouring any of the three, they noted that the third proposal was radical enough to "generate considerable controversy".[13]

List of lords advocate edit

Sir James Stewart, Lord Advocate 1692–1707, the last Lord Advocate of the Kingdom of Scotland prior to the Acts of Union

Pre-Union edit

Post-Union edit

Post-Devolution edit

Lord Advocate Term Nominated by Solicitor General
  Andrew Hardie 1997–2000 Donald Dewar Colin Boyd
  Colin Boyd 2000–2006 Neil Davidson
Elish Angiolini
  Elish Angiolini 2006–2011 Jack McConnell John Beckett
Frank Muholland
  Frank Muholland 2011–2016 Alex Salmond Lesley Thomson
  James Wolffe 2016–2021 Nicola Sturgeon Alison Di Rollo
  Dorothy Bain 2021–present Ruth Charteris

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "MSP salaries". parliament.scot. The Scottish Parliament. 5 April 2023.
  2. ^ "Lord Advocate: role and functions". Gov.scot. Scottish Government. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  3. ^ "Our role in investigating deaths". COPFS. Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  4. ^ "Dorothy Bain QC nominated Scotland's new Lord Advocate". Press & Journal. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  5. ^ "Dorothy Bain QC named as Scotland's new lord advocate". BBC News. 16 June 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  6. ^ "Lord Advocate: role and functions". Scottish Government. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  7. ^ Fifth Report of Session 2006-07: Constitutional Role of the Attorney General (PDF). House of Common Constitutional Affairs Committee. 19 July 2007. p. 145. Retrieved 31 January 2024.
  8. ^ "Lords Hansard: 4 Nov 2013: Column 93".
  9. ^ Sinclair, Gwen (2 December 2022). "Chapter 8 Part Two: The Last Stewart Kings at Dundonald Castle". Dundonald Castle and Visitor Centre. Archived from the original on 4 December 2022.
  10. ^ "Borthwick".
  11. ^ Scotland Act 1998, s 27.
  12. ^ "Lord Advocate excluded from new Cabinet". The Scotsman. 23 May 2007. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007.
  13. ^ Judiciary in the Court of Session Archived 23 December 2012 at archive.today (Just over half way down the list headed "Miscellaneous Submissions").
  14. ^ "Historical Background to the development of the office of Lord Advocate". Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
  15. ^ In the National Records of Scotland (GD243/23/2) is a charter dated 23 September 1508 wherein Jonet Elphinstoun is mentioned as "relict of the deceased Master Richard Lausoun of Hieriggis."
  16. ^ "No. 27864". The London Gazette. 15 December 1905. p. 9008.
  17. ^ "No. 12118". The Edinburgh Gazette. 19 February 1909. p. 173.
  18. ^ "No. 12613". The Edinburgh Gazette. 4 November 1913. p. 1143.
  19. ^ "No. 13026". The Edinburgh Gazette. 15 December 1916. p. 2348.
  20. ^ "No. 13583". The Edinburgh Gazette. 2 April 1920. p. 1008.
  21. ^ "No. 13794". The Edinburgh Gazette. 10 March 1922. p. 456.
  22. ^ "No. 13863". The Edinburgh Gazette. 3 November 1922. p. 1718.
  23. ^ "No. 13996". The Edinburgh Gazette. 12 February 1924. p. 225.
  24. ^ "No. 14076". The Edinburgh Gazette. 18 November 1924. p. 1439.
  25. ^ "No. 33492". The London Gazette. 7 May 1929. p. 3007.
  26. ^ "No. 14558". The Edinburgh Gazette. 21 June 1929. p. 650.
  27. ^ "No. 15005". The Edinburgh Gazette. 3 October 1933. p. 809.
  28. ^ "No. 34147". The London Gazette. 2 April 1935. p. 2231.
  29. ^ "No. 15222". The Edinburgh Gazette. 1 November 1935. p. 913.
  30. ^ "No. 15820". The Edinburgh Gazette. 13 June 1941. p. 305.
  31. ^ "No. 16257". The Edinburgh Gazette. 21 August 1945. p. 285.
  32. ^ "No. 16481". The Edinburgh Gazette. 14 October 1947. p. 427.
  33. ^ "No. 16906". The Edinburgh Gazette. 9 November 1951. p. 565.
  34. ^ "No. 17250". The Edinburgh Gazette. 11 January 1955. p. 13.
  35. ^ "No. 17812". The Edinburgh Gazette. 12 April 1960. p. 221.
  36. ^ "No. 18079". The Edinburgh Gazette. 19 October 1962. p. 637.

Sources edit

The career path of recent Scottish law officers, Scots Law Times, 14 July 2006

External links edit