Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (//; born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician who served as the First Minister of Scotland from 2007 to 2014. He was the leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) for over twenty years, having served for two terms, firstly from 1990 to 2000 and subsequently from 2004 to 2014. He was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Banff and Buchan between 1987 and 2010, when he stood down to focus on his other roles, and then for Gordon from 2015 to 2017, when he lost his seat to Scottish Conservative candidate Colin Clark. During the 2015–2017 parliament, he was the SNP International Affairs and Europe spokesperson in the House of Commons.
|First Minister of Scotland|
16 May 2007 – 20 November 2014
|Preceded by||Jack McConnell|
|Succeeded by||Nicola Sturgeon|
|Leader of the Scottish National Party|
3 September 2004 – 14 November 2014
|Preceded by||John Swinney|
|Succeeded by||Nicola Sturgeon|
22 September 1990 – 26 September 2000
|Preceded by||Gordon Wilson|
|Succeeded by||John Swinney|
|Depute Leader of the Scottish National Party|
26 September 1987 – 22 September 1990
|Preceded by||Margaret Ewing|
|Succeeded by||Alasdair Morgan|
|Member of Parliament|
8 May 2015 – 3 May 2017
|Preceded by||Malcolm Bruce|
|Succeeded by||Colin Clark|
|Member of the Scottish Parliament|
for Aberdeenshire East
5 May 2011 – 24 March 2016
|Preceded by||Constituency established|
|Succeeded by||Gillian Martin|
|Member of the Scottish Parliament|
3 May 2007 – 5 May 2011
|Preceded by||Nora Radcliffe|
|Succeeded by||Constituency abolished|
|Member of the Scottish Parliament|
for Banff and Buchan
6 May 1999 – 7 June 2001
|Preceded by||Constituency established|
|Succeeded by||Stewart Stevenson|
|Member of Parliament|
for Banff and Buchan
12 June 1987 – 12 April 2010
|Preceded by||Albert McQuarrie|
|Succeeded by||Eilidh Whiteford|
Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond
31 December 1954
|Political party||Scottish National Party (1973–2018)[a]|
|79 Group (1981–1982)|
Moira McGlashan (m. 1981)
|Education||Edinburgh College of Commerce|
University of St Andrews
From 1987 to 2010, Salmond served as MP for Banff and Buchan. Following the establishment of the devolved Scottish Parliament in 1999, Salmond also served as the Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for Banff and Buchan from 1999 to 2001, while continuing to serve as that constituency's MP. Salmond served as the Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for Gordon from 2007 to 2011, and for Aberdeenshire East from 2011 to 2016.
Salmond resigned as SNP leader in 2000 and did not seek re-election to the Scottish Parliament. He did however retain his Westminster seat in the 2001 general election. Salmond was once again elected SNP leader in 2004 and the following year held his Banff and Buchan seat in the 2005 general election. In 2006 he announced his intention to contest Gordon in the 2007 Scottish Parliament election. Salmond defeated the incumbent MSP and the SNP emerged as the largest single party. After the SNP secured confidence and supply support from the Scottish Green Party, Salmond was voted First Minister by the Scottish Parliament on 16 May 2007. During his first term, he headed a minority Scottish Government. At the 2011 Scottish Parliament election the SNP won with an overall majority, a feat previously thought almost impossible under the additional member system used in elections for the Scottish Parliament.
Politically, Salmond is one of the foremost proponents of Scottish independence, repeatedly calling for a referendum on the issue. Salmond has campaigned on global warming and in government has committed Scotland to legislation on emission reduction and the generation of renewable energy. The day after the 2014 independence referendum, at which a majority of Scottish voters chose to remain part of the United Kingdom, Salmond announced his intention not to stand for re-election as leader of the SNP at the SNP National Conference in November, and to resign as First Minister thereafter. He was succeeded as SNP leader by his deputy, Nicola Sturgeon, as she was the only candidate to stand for the leadership election. He submitted his resignation as First Minister on 18 November, and was succeeded by Sturgeon the following day.
In August 2018, Salmond resigned from the party after allegations of sexual misconduct. In January 2019, he was arrested and charged with 14 offences, including multiple counts of attempted rape and sexual assault.
Early life and career
Salmond was born in his parents' home at 101 Preston Road, Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland, on 31 December 1954. He is the second of four children born to Robert Fyfe Findlay Salmond (1921–2017), and Mary Stewart Salmond (née Milne; 1922–2003), both of whom were civil servants. Robert Salmond, who served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War, had originally worked as an electrician, and his family had been resident in Linlithgow since the mid-18th century. Alex Salmond's middle names come from his family's tradition of naming their children after the local Church of Scotland minister, in this case the Reverend Gilbert Elliot Anderson of St Ninian's Craigmailen Parish Church in Linlinthgow. He remains a member of the Church of Scotland.
Salmond attended the local Linlithgow Academy from 1966 to 1972. He studied at Edinburgh College of Commerce from 1972 to 1973, gaining an HNC in Business Studies, and was then accepted by the University of St Andrews, where he studied Economics and Medieval History. During his time at St Andrews, Salmond lived in Andrew Melville Hall. He was elected as vice-president (education) of the Students' Representative Council in 1977 and was also nominated to join St Andrews Community Council that year. Salmond graduated with a 2:2 Joint Honours MA in Economics and Medieval History in May 1978.
In 1978, he entered the Government Economic Service as an assistant economist in the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland, part of the now defunct Scottish Office. Two years later he joined the staff of the Royal Bank of Scotland, where he worked for seven years, initially as an assistant economist. In 1982 he was appointed oil economist, and from 1984 he worked as a bank economist as well as continuing to hold the position of oil economist. While with the Royal Bank, he wrote and broadcast extensively for both domestic and international outlets. He also contributed regularly to oil and energy conferences. In 1983, Salmond created a "Royal Bank/BBC oil index" that is still used.
Early career in politics
Salmond became active in the SNP when he joined the Federation of Student Nationalists at the University of St Andrews in 1973. His conversion is generally credited to his then girlfriend, Debbie Horton, an English student from London, who was secretary of the St Andrews University Labour club. After an argument in December 1973, she told him: "If you feel like that, go and join the bloody SNP". The next day Salmond did. The following day he and a friend attended the sparsely populated AGM of the university branch of the Federation of Student Nationalists. Being the only two fully paid-up members of the SNP at the university, they were duly elected president and treasurer. Although a left-winger at the time he joined, Salmond had considerable doubts as to whether or not the Labour Government would legislate for a devolved Scottish Assembly.
Salmond started his political life as a committed left-winger inside the SNP and was a leading member of the socialist republican organisation within it, the 79 Group. He was, along with other group leaders, suspended from membership of the SNP when the 79 Group was banned within the larger party. In 1981, he married Moira French McGlashan, then a senior civil servant with the Scottish Office.
Following the SNP's National Council narrowly voting to uphold the expulsion, Salmond and the others were allowed back into the party a month later, and in 1985 he was elected as the SNP's Vice Convener for Publicity. In 1987 he stood for Parliament in Banff and Buchan and defeated the incumbent Conservative MP, Albert McQuarrie. Later that year Salmond became Senior Vice Convener (Depute Leader) of the SNP. He was at this time still viewed as being firmly on the left of the party and had become a key ally of Jim Sillars, who joined him in the House of Commons when he won a by-election for the seat of Glasgow Govan in 1988. Salmond served as a member of the House of Commons Energy Select Committee from 1987 to 1992.
First tenure as SNP leader
When Gordon Wilson stood down as SNP leader in 1990, Salmond decided to contest the leadership. His only opponent was Margaret Ewing, whom Sillars decided to support. This caused considerable consternation amongst the SNP left as the two main left leaders were opposing each other in the contest. Salmond went on to win the leadership election by 486 votes to Ewing's 146.
His first test as leader was the general election in 1992, with the SNP having high hopes of making an electoral breakthrough. Whilst considerably increasing its share of the vote, it failed to win a large number of seats. Sillars lost his, causing him to describe the Scottish people as '90-minute patriots'. This comment ended the political friendship between Salmond and Sillars, and Sillars would soon become a vocal critic of Salmond's style of leadership.
The SNP increased its number of MPs from four to six in the 1997 general election, which saw a landslide victory for the Labour Party. After election, Labour legislated for a devolved Scottish parliament in Edinburgh. Although still committed to a fully independent Scotland, Salmond signed the SNP up to supporting the campaign for devolution, and, along with Scottish Labour leader Donald Dewar and Scottish Liberal Democrat leader Jim Wallace, played an active part in securing the victory for devolution in the Scotland referendum of 1997. Many hardline fundamentalists in the SNP objected to committing the party to devolution, as it was short of full political Scottish independence.
Salmond's first spell as leader was characterised by a moderation of his earlier left-wing views and by his firmly placing the SNP into a gradualist, but still pro-independence, strategy. Salmond was one of the few politicians in the UK to oppose the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999. He was opposed to the conflict because it was not authorised by a United Nations Security Council resolution, which was a controversial subject at the time. Despite this, Salmond was heavily criticised in the media for describing Tony Blair's decision to intervene militarily as an "unpardonable folly".
Several years as party leader earned Salmond an unusually high profile for an SNP politician in the London-based media. In 1998, Salmond won the Spectator Award for Political Strategist of the Year. Following an appearance on the entertainment programme Call My Bluff, Salmond used one of the 'bluff' cards that are used as props in the show in the run-up to the first elections to the Scottish Parliament. To counter his frustration at having to sit in silence through what he claimed was an inappropriately political speech by Tony Blair at a charity lunch, he held up the bluff card as the Prime Minister began querying Scotland's economic prospects should independence occur. Throughout his time in politics, Salmond has maintained his interest in horse racing, writing a weekly column for The Scotsman and appearing a number of times on Channel 4's The Morning Line. During the election campaign, Salmond was photographed feeding a young supporter a Solero ice cream during an event at Stirling University, creating a photograph that would become iconic.
Resignation as leader and subsequent return
Salmond was elected to the Scottish Parliament in 1999 and was one of its highest-profile members. He stood down as SNP leader in 2000, facing internal criticism after a series of high-profile fall-outs with party members, and was replaced by his preferred successor John Swinney, who defeated Alex Neil for the post. He left the Scottish Parliament in 2001 to lead the SNP group in the House of Commons.
During the prolonged parliamentary debates in the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq he voiced strong opposition to the UK's participation. In the aftermath of the war, he lent support to the attempt of Adam Price, a Plaid Cymru MP, to impeach Tony Blair over the Iraq issue. Salmond has gone further than many anti-war politicians in claiming that Blair's statements on the presence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq were consciously intended to deceive the public. He has also claimed that Blair had made a pact with George W. Bush "to go to war come what may".
After the June 2004 European Parliament elections, which were perceived as a "disaster" for the SNP, pressure mounted on Swinney to resign as leader. Swinney announced his resignation on 22 June 2004 to become Convener of the Scottish Parliament's European and External Relations Committee.
On 15 July 2004, Salmond said that he would be a candidate in the forthcoming election for the leadership of the SNP. This came as a surprise because he had previously declared that he would definitely not be a leadership candidate. In the postal ballot of all members he went on to receive over 75% of the votes cast, placing him well ahead of his nearest rival Roseanna Cunningham. As he was not an MSP at the time, his depute, Nicola Sturgeon, took over as leader of the SNP group at Holyrood. Although he was re-elected in the 2005 general election, he made clear his intention to return to the Scottish Parliament at the 2007 Scottish parliamentary election in an attempt to win power for the first time.
In that election, Salmond stood as a candidate for the Gordon constituency, which had been represented since 1999 by the Liberal Democrat Nora Radcliffe. Salmond won the seat with 41% of the vote, and a majority of 2,062, returning to the Scottish Parliament after six years' absence. In the election the SNP emerged as the largest party, winning 47 seats to Labour's 46.
First Minister of Scotland
Having won more seats than any other party in the 2007 Scottish Parliament election, the SNP initially approached the Scottish Liberal Democrats to form a coalition, but they declined to take part in negotiations. This left the SNP without any possibility to form a coalition with an overall majority. Ultimately, the Scottish Green Party agreed to vote in an SNP minority government in return for concessions on climate policy and naming a Green to chair a committee.
With the support of the Greens, Salmond was elected by the Scottish Parliament as First Minister on 16 May 2007, and was sworn in on 17 May after receiving the Royal Warrant from the Queen and taking the official oath of allegiance before judges at the Court of Session. Salmond became the first nationalist politician to hold the office of First Minister. He gave the post of Deputy First Minister to Sturgeon.
Salmond reduced the size of the Cabinet from nine members to six, and said he would seek to govern on a "policy by policy" basis. In order to concentrate on his new role as First Minister, Salmond stood down as the SNP group leader at Westminster and was replaced by Angus Robertson. The Guardian reported in November 2007 that Salmond believed Scotland would be independent within "the next decade".
In November 2007, Salmond received The Spectator's Parliamentarian of the Year award for his "brilliant campaign" and "extraordinary victory" in the Scottish Parliament elections, thereby ending eight years of Labour rule.
A newspaper investigation in 2009 revealed that Salmond had claimed as expenses from the UK parliament "up to £400 per month in food without producing receipts, even after becoming First Minister and spending little time at Westminster". In the same year, he stated that he would repay more than £700 that he had received in moving expenses when he left a London flat in 2007.
A white paper for an independence referendum, setting out four possible options ranging from no change to full independence, was published by the Scottish Government on 30 November 2009. A draft bill for public consultation was published on 25 February 2010, setting out a two-question yes/no referendum, proposing further devolution or full independence. The SNP failed to obtain support from other parties and withdrew the draft bill.
UK general election debates
Salmond said it would be "unacceptable" for the SNP to be excluded from the 2010 UK election televised debate and sought "guarantees of inclusion from the broadcasters, given their inescapable duty to ensure fairness and impartiality in election-related coverage in Scotland" in the buildup to the 2010 UK general election. The party used the Freedom of Information Act to see whether the BBC could have broken its own rules. Salmond said it was unacceptable to Scotland as well as to the SNP for the broadcasters to exclude the party that formed the Scottish Government and was leading in Westminster election polls. He emphasised that he was not trying to stop any debates from being broadcast. After having failed to change the BBC's decision to not include the SNP in the final British debate, in line with the decision by ITV and Sky News, the SNP mounted a legal challenge to the BBC at the Court of Session in Edinburgh. Despite earlier reassurances by the SNP that it was not trying to stop the broadcast, it sought an 'interim interdict' to prevent the debate being broadcast without the participation of the SNP. The Court of Session dismissed the SNP's complaint, and refused to ban the BBC from broadcasting the third debate in Scotland, on the grounds that the SNP had left the bringing of the case "far too late", had not contested the broadcasting of the first two debates by ITV and Sky Television, and that the third debate would in any case be broadcast by Sky on satellite across Britain, which a Scottish court had no power to block. The judge ordered the SNP to pay the BBC's legal expenses. The SNP's political opponents described the SNP's contesting of the case as a "stunt".
There were Scottish debates dealing with specifically devolved issues which Salmond had accepted the invitation to attend along the other parties within the Scottish Parliament on Sky TV. Salmond declined to attend those held on the BBC and ITV, and Angus Robertson agreed to take his place in the other debates.
Salmond in his 2010 New Year message highlighted the importance of sustainable development and renewable energy in Scotland and the required increase in powers of the Scottish Parliament needed to help harness Scotland's green energy potential and therefore take full advantage of the "renewable revolution".
Earlier, in December 2009, he campaigned for climate change legislation at the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen to promote Scotland's role in tackling and mitigating climate change. This included signing a Partnership Agreement with the Maldives, one of the most exposed countries to the consequences of rising sea levels.
Although energy is mostly a matter reserved to Westminster, administrative devolution of Sections 36 & 37 of the Electricity Act 1989 coupled with fully devolved planning powers enabled the Scottish Government to establish Scotland as a leader in renewable energy developments.
Before the 2011 Scottish election, the SNP again pledged to hold an independence referendum if it won another term. The Westminster Labour government had initially designed the additional member system to make it impossible for one party to win an outright majority, but the SNP won enough seats from the other parties to take 69 seats, a majority of four. At this election, Salmond was reelected for Aberdeenshire East, essentially a reconfigured version of Gordon.
The SNP's overall majority assured Salmond of another term as First Minister, and he was reelected unopposed on 18 May. It also gave Salmond the ability to call a referendum on Scottish independence. On 10 January 2012, the Scottish Government announced that they intended to hold the referendum in late 2014.
An agreement was signed on 15 October 2012 by David Cameron and Salmond which provided a legal framework for the referendum to be held, and on 21 March 2013 the SNP government announced that the referendum would be held on 18 September 2014. Scotland's Future, a white paper setting out the Scottish Government's vision for an independent Scotland, was published on 26 November 2013.
In December 2011, Salmond spent £260 on a pair of trews that he wore to a ball in China. He refunded the taxpayer more than a year later, after a newspaper had submitted a freedom of information request. The sequence in which these events occurred was acknowledged by the Scottish Government after 7 months, during which they initially maintained that they had no record of when Salmond had repaid the money. In September 2012 he stayed with his wife at a hotel in Chicago while attending a golf tournament; the £3,000 for four nights was paid for by the taxpayer and supported a VisitScotland delegation that spent £468,580 on the trip as part of preparations for hosting the same tournament two years later. Salmond responded to a freedom of information request for information on his spending six months after receiving it, and referred to it as "ridiculous frippery".
On 7 November 2012, Salmond became the longest-serving First Minister of Scotland, when he surpassed the 2,001-day term of his predecessor, Jack McConnell.
In 2012, Salmond indicated in a television interview that he had sought the advice of his law officers on whether an independent Scotland would be part of the European Union. The following year, it was revealed that the Scottish Government had spent almost £20,000 to prevent the disclosure of the content of the alleged legal advice, even though no such advice existed.
Resignation as First Minister
On 19 September 2014, following the results of the independence referendum which confirmed a majority of the Scottish people had voted against independence, Salmond announced that he would be resigning as First Minister in November 2014. On 15 October, Deputy First Minister Nicola Sturgeon was the only candidate to stand for the leadership, and formally succeeded Salmond as SNP leader following the party's national conference in Perth on 14 November. Salmond submitted his resignation as First Minister to the Scottish Parliament and to the Queen on 18 November, and the formal selection of Sturgeon as his successor by the Scottish Parliament took place the following day.
Alex Salmond has had a fractious relationship with US President Donald Trump. In 2015, the UK Supreme Court rejected Trump's bid to stop an offshore wind farm being built close to one of his two golf resorts in Scotland. Trump has twice lost bids in the Scottish courts to halt the development, leading Salmond to describe him as a "three times loser", to which Trump called Salmond a "totally irrelevant has-been". Salmond has also said that Trump's impact in Scotland – in particular Turnberry, the Ayrshire golf resort he bought in 2014 – has had a "damaging impact" on the Scottish economy. These comments came days after the chief executive of the Professional Golfer's Association said Trump's comments on the presidential campaign trail were "not a positive thing for golf".
In January 2016, Salmond prompted by broadcasting colleague Iain Dale, called Trump a "chicken" for refusing to appear on his LBC talk show, which had then been recently launched. Of Trump, he said: "The Donald tries to give this impression that he's totally off the cuff, in fact his media operation controls him and protects him from tough interviews, and when he's had tough interviews he hasn't liked it, that's been pretty obvious".
Return to Westminster (2015–17)
On 7 December 2014, Salmond announced that he would stand as the SNP candidate for the Westminster constituency of Gordon in the 2015 May election. He indicated that he did not intend to replace Angus Robertson, MP for Moray, as the SNP leader in the House of Commons. Nicola Sturgeon, his successor as SNP leader and First Minister, repeatedly reminded voters at the March 2015 SNP conference that she, not he, was party leader after he gave interviews about his possible role in a hung parliament. After he declared his candidacy, he was described as a "bogeyman" (both by Lesley Riddoch and by himself), and was reportedly "demonised" by "Conservative propaganda" portraying Labour Party leader Ed Miliband "compliantly dancing to Salmond the piper’s tune" after the election.
Salmond gained the seat of Gordon with 47.7% of the vote replacing the Liberal Democrat's Malcolm Bruce as the constituency's Westminster MP . On 13 May 2015, Salmond was appointed as the SNP's foreign affairs spokesman in the House of Commons. He tweeted the party would advocate a "pro Europe", "pro developing world" and "against military adventurism" stance.
In October 2016, Salmond said Liverpool or Manchester would be an ideal site to rebuild the Houses of Parliament, to make the economy less dependent on London. Salmond has experience of troubled political buildings, having opposed the construction of the Scottish Parliament in Holyrood, Edinburgh when cost estimates rose from £50m to £230m in 2000. The eventual cost was £414m.
In the 2017 UK General Election, Salmond suffered his first defeat as a candidate in any parliamentary election since entering Westminster in 1987, becoming the most high-profile SNP loss of the night. He lost his seat as member for Gordon to Colin Clark of the Conservatives, receiving 19,254 votes to the Conservatives 21,861. This represented a swing of 20.4% away from Salmond, larger than the 14.4% swing to him from the Liberal Democrats which saw him win the seat in the 2015 general election.
This was the first time since the 1987 General Election that Alex Salmond was not in an elected position in the British or Scottish parliaments.
After elected office
The Alex Salmond Show
On 9 November 2017, the RT channel (formerly known as Russia Today) announced he would host a show called The Alex Salmond Show on the network. Salmond's successor as Scotland's first minister and SNP leader, Nicola Sturgeon, said she would have advised against his decision to broadcast for the channel. Salmond was criticised by Scottish politicians from the other parties for a perceived lack of judgement. The first show was broadcast on 16 November 2017; the main interviewee was Carles Puigdemont, the former president of Catalonia.
Charges of sexual misconduct
In August 2018, he resigned from the SNP in the face of allegations of sexual misconduct in 2013 while he was First Minister. In a statement he said that he wanted to avoid internal division within the party and intended to apply to rejoin the SNP once he had an opportunity to clear his name.
On 30 August 2018, he launched a crowdfunding appeal to pay for the legal costs of seeking a judicial review into the fairness of the process by which the Scottish Government has handled the allegations. He closed the appeal two days later, on 1 September, after raising £100,000, double the amount he wanted to pay for his legal costs.
On 8 January 2019, he won his inquiry case against Scottish government, noting, "while I am glad about the victory which has been achieved today, I am sad that it was necessary to take this action." The Scottish government admitted it breached its own guidelines by appointing an investigating officer who had "prior involvement" in the case. Salmond also asked permanent secretary to the Scottish Government, Leslie Evans, to consider her position. Ms Evans stated that the complaints the government had received in January 2018 had not been withdrawn, so the option of re-investigating them remained on the table, once the police probe into the allegations had run its course.
On 24 January 2019, Salmond was arrested by police and charged with 14 offences, including two counts of attempted rape, nine of sexual assault, two of indecent assault, and one of breach of the peace. In a statement outside Edinburgh Sheriff Court, he denied any criminality. A trial date is yet to be announced.
Salmond married Moira McGlashan in 1981. Moira was a senior civil servant 17 years his senior, and became his boss when he joined the Scottish Office in the 1970s. They have no children. They closely protect their private lives and live in a converted mill in Strichen, Aberdeenshire.
Salmond's main interests outside of work and politics are golf, horse racing, football, and reading. He succeeded Robin Cook as a racing tipster for Glasgow's Herald newspaper. He supports the Scotland national football team and Heart of Midlothian FC, and sometimes attends matches. He takes an interest in Scottish cultural life, as well as watching Star Trek and listening to country and western music.
Alex Salmond has been awarded several honorary degrees in recognition of his political career. These include a doctorate from the University of St Andrews on 30 November 2007 and a Doctor of the University (D.Univ.) from the University of Glasgow on 20 April 2015.
- "Alex Salmond". Desert Island Discs. 21 January 2011. BBC Radio 4. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Campsie, Alison (9 June 2017). "Alex Salmond loses his Gordon seat to Conservatives". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Scheuermann, Christoph. "King Alex: The Man Behind Scotland's Independence Movement". Der Spiegel. Hamburg. Archived from the original on 19 September 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Salmond to quit as First Minister". BBC News Scotland. 19 September 2014. Archived from the original on 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Alex Salmond to stand down as First Minister". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014.
- Kennedy, Doug (18 November 2014). "Alex Salmond's last day as first minister". BBC News Scotland. Archived from the original on 22 November 2014.
- "Alex Salmond resigns from SNP after sexual misconduct claims". The Guardian. 29 August 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- "Alex Salmond charged with attempted rape". 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Black, Andrew (11 January 2012). "A profile of SNP leader Alex Salmond". BBC News Scotland. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- Torrance, David (2010). Salmond: Against The Odds. Birlinn. p. 12.
- Mullin, John (10 August 2008). "Alex Salmond: The new king of Scotland". The Independent. Archived from the original on 4 April 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- "Alex Salmond's father at HMS Queen Elizabeth carrier ceremony". BBC News. 4 July 2014. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- Torrance, Salmond: Against The Odds, p. 12
- St Ninian's Craigmailen Parish Council (PDF). 1975. p. 17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- "General Assembly of the Church of Scotland". The Scottish Government. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Allardyce, Jason (26 July 2009). "Salmond: 'Faith is my driving force'". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- Torrance, Salmond: Against The Odds, p. 23
- "First Minister Alex Salmond". The Scottish Government. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- Torrance, Salmond: Against The Odds, p. 29
- "Alex Salmond MP/MSP". Scottish National Party. Archived from the original on 16 October 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- Moira Salmond: A reluctant First Wife Archived 28 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, The Telegraph, 11 May 2007
- Deacon, Russell; Sandry, Alan (2007). Devolution in the United Kingdom. Edinburgh University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7486-2416-4. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016.
- SNP News Release 30/03/99 12:06 Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Nato bombing 'unpardonable folly'". BBC News. 29 March 1999. Archived from the original on 2 February 2003.
- "Salmond calls Blair's bluff". BBC News. 1 May 1999. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007.
- Ross, Jamie. "My Desperate Search To Find The Woman Who Alex Salmond Fed A Solero To In 1999". Buzzfeed. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- Sanderson, Daniel (5 May 2015). "Mission accomplished: we've tracked down Salmond's Solero girl...in Australia". The Herald. Glasgow. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- Ross, Jamie (20 June 2015). "Alex Salmond Is Walking Around Westminster Like He Owns The Place". Buzzfeed. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Scramble to lead SNP as Salmond quits". The Daily Telegraph. 18 July 2000. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- Salmond back with threat to impeach PM Archived 21 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Independent, 25 September 2004.
- "Salmond launches leadership bid". BBC News. 15 July 2004. Archived from the original on 17 July 2004.
- "Salmond named as new SNP leader". BBC News. 3 September 2004.
- "Salmond to contest Holyrood seat". BBC News. 16 January 2006. Archived from the original on 26 January 2006.
- "Lib Dems rule out SNP coalition". BBC News. 7 May 2007. Archived from the original on 23 September 2007.
- "SNP and Greens sign working deal". BBC News. 11 May 2007. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007.
- "Salmond elected as first minister". BBC News. 16 May 2007. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009.
- "MSPs approve new Scottish cabinet". BBC News. 17 May 2007. Archived from the original on 27 May 2007.
- Scotland Act 1998, section 45(7)
- "ORDERS APPROVED AT THE PRIVY COUNCIL HELD BY THE QUEEN AT BUCKINGHAM PALACE". London: Privy Council Office. 13 June 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
Order appointing Alex Salmond, MP, MSP as a Member of Her Majesty’s Most Honourable Privy Council.
- Robertson elected SNP's Westminster leader Archived 1 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 23 May 2007.
- Carrell, Severin (17 November 2007). "Scotland in 2017 – independent and flush with oil, says Salmond". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
Alex Salmond has predicted that Scotland will win independence from the UK within the next decade ... "It would be much easier if we had the full powers of an independent country," he said. "Therefore I was anticipating being in that position by 2017."
- "Salmond 'is top parliamentarian'". BBC News. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- Johnson, Simon (7 October 2013). "Alex Salmond's Secrecy Battle over £250 Tartan Trews". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014.
- "Salmond to Repay £700 in Expenses". BBC News. 13 October 2009.
- "Salmond in SNP debate inclusion call". BBC News. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Legal threats to election debate". BBC News. 22 December 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "'Too late' Alex Salmond loses battle with the BBC over debate". The Scotsman. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Salmond happy with Sky TV debate". The Herald. Glasgow. 9 April 2010. Archived from the original on 27 November 2013.
- "Scotland's top politicians outline aims for 2010". BBC News. 31 December 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "We can help climate fight: Salmond". Press Association. 14 December 2009.
- "Alex Salmond: Our small country can play a big role in climate change fight". The Scotsman. Johnston Press. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Stuart, Gavin (14 April 2011). "SNP launch 'Re-elect' manifesto with independence referendum vow". STV. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Carrell, Severin (6 May 2011). "Stunning SNP election victory throws spotlight on Scottish independence". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Holyrood Roundup, Election of First Minister from Scottish Parliament's YouTube, 18 May 2011
- "Salmond calls for independence referendum in 2014". BBC News. 10 January 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Black, Andrew (15 October 2012). "Scottish independence: Cameron and Salmond strike referendum deal". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Carrell, Severin (21 March 2013). "Alex Salmond announces Scottish independence referendum date". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- "Sturgeon says Scotland's Future now 'drives the debate'". Democracy Live. BBC. 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Dinwoodie, Robbie (27 November 2013). "Salmond gets ball rolling as opponents put the boot in". The Herald. Glasgow: Newsquest. Archived from the original on 1 December 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Johnson, Simon; Riley-Smith, Ben (10 April 2014) "Revealed: The Five-Star Suite Alex Salmond Enjoyed at the Taxpayers' Expense" Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Telegraph.
- "Alex Salmond-Led Ryder Cup Trip 'Cost £470,000'". BBC News Scotland. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015.
- Johnson, Simon (7 November 2012). "Alex Salmond celebrates being longest-serving First Minister". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Johnson, Simon (9 October 2013). "Alex Salmond Spent £20,000 Keeping Secret Non-Existent EU Legal Advice". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014.
- Carrell, Severin (25 April 2014). "Alex Salmond ties to Murdoch revealed". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Riley-Smith, Ben (30 April 2014). "Alex Salmond: Rupert Murdoch is a 'remarkable man'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Cusick, James (8 September 2014). "Scottish independence: Rupert Murdoch could play kingmaker with Scottish Sun leaning Yes". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "SNP leadership elections close". SNP. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "SNP conference: Nicola Sturgeon appointed party leader". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014.
- "The transition from Alex Salmond to Nicola Sturgeon". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014.
- Sherlock, Ruth (16 December 2015). "Donald Trump calls Alex Salmond "totally irrelevant has-been"". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- "Alex Salmond and Donald Trump in war of words". BBC News. 16 December 2015. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- "Alex Salmond: Donald Trump is too chicken to debate". The National. Glasgow. 21 January 2016. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- "Ex-SNP leader Alex Salmond announces he is to stand for UK Parliament". BBC News. 7 December 2014. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
Mr Salmond said he had no ambition to lead the SNP group at Westminster
- Settle, Michael (31 March 2015). "Salmond gives personal assurance he will not seek SNP's Westminster leadership". The Herald. Glasgow. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
Alex Salmond has given his colleague Angus Robertson his personal assurance that he will not seek to replace him as leader of the Westminster group of MPs after the General Election, The Herald has been told.
- Johnson, Simon (28 March 2015). "Nicola Sturgeon: I will lead Labour talks while Alex Salmond does 'day-to-day' work". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
Nicola Sturgeon has attempted to slap down Alex Salmond on the first day of the SNP conference by insisting she will decide the party’s strategy if there is a hung parliament after the general election while he does the "day-to-day" work in the Commons. For the fourth day running, Ms Sturgeon was forced to repeatedly assert that she and not Alex Salmond is in charge of the SNP and the party’s post-election demands after he gave a series of interviews portraying himself as kingmaker in a hung parliament.
- Riddoch, Lesley (26 March 2015). "Bogeyman Alex Salmond makes hot non-news". The National. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
Dastardly, sinister, power-crazed and despotic – some of the more printable southern reactions to "news" that Alex Salmond will bring down a Tory minority government at the first opportunity. ... Well if a bogeyman sells papers or enlivens the General Election in England – any excuse will be used to build up his potency. And there is no doubt the former SNP leader is that bogeyman. Just look at this week’s headlines.
- Martin, Iain (4 February 2015). "Scotland's power in a future of instability". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
So, why is Mr Salmond the one grinning almost five months later? The answer is that the self-proclaimed "bogeyman of the British establishment" thinks that the nationalists are about to destroy Labour in Scotland and, by holding the balance of power at Westminster in the event of a hung parliament, broker Scottish independence or something very close to it.
- Cowley, Jason (24 March 2015). "Alex Salmond: I would bring down any Tory minority government". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
In an exclusive interview with NS editor Jason Cowley, the former First Minister says that the Scottish National Party would vote down a Tory government at the first opportunity. ... Kingmaker – or man who would be king? ... Big Alex is unconcerned by the Conservatives’ demonisation of him in a series of propaganda posters and, most recently, in an animated cartoon in which Ed Miliband is portrayed compliantly dancing to Salmond the piper’s tune. "You should never put your opponent – any opponent – on one of your posters," Salmond replies when I ask about the posters. "What government puts the leader of the opposition outside Downing Street? As leader of the opposition you should be unbelievably pleased. It’s the concession of the election.
- "Election 2015: Alex Salmond hails roar of 'Scottish lion'". BBC News. 8 May 2015. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015.
- "Alex Salmond appointed SNP's foreign affairs spokesman". BBC News. 13 May 2015. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
Former SNP leader Alex Salmond has been appointed his party's foreign affairs spokesman in the House of Commons.
- [dead link]
- "Nicola Sturgeon questions Alex Salmond's choice of Russian TV channel". BBC News. 10 November 2017. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Johnson, Simon (16 November 2017). "Alex Salmond in 'fake news' row after first talk show on Kremlin-funded TV channel". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- "Ex-SNP leader Alex Salmond resigns from party". BBC News Online. 29 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "Sturgeon's 'huge sadness' as Salmond resigns". BBC News Online. 30 August 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- "Salmond crowdfunder closed after passing £100,000 mark". BBC News. BBC. 1 September 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- "Alex Salmond wins sexual harassment inquiry case against Scottish government". BBC News. 8 January 2019.
- "Former Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond arrested". BBC News. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "Alex Salmond: Former SNP leader arrested and charged". Sky News. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Cramb, Auslan (10 May 2007). "Moira Salmond: A reluctant First Wife". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- Salmond, Alex (5 January 1997). "5 days in the life of: Alex Salmond – Opinion". The Independent. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- "First Minister Alex Salmond hails all Edinburgh cup final classic". STV. 15 May 2012. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- "In conversation with... Alex Salmond". Total Politics. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "First Minister returns to first University". News.st-andrews.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- "University of Glasgow awards Honorary Degree to Alex Salmond MSP". Gla.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- David Torrance, Salmond: Against The Odds, Birlinn, 2010
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alex Salmond.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alex Salmond|
- Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) (Scottish.parliament.uk)
- First Minister (Scotland.gov.uk)
- Official biography (www.snp.org)
- Guardian profile, Electoral history and profile (guardian.co.uk)
- Voting Record — Alex Salmond MP, Banff & Buchan (10525) (The Public Whip)