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The bogeyman (//; also spelled or known as bogyman, bogy, bogey, and, in North American English, also boogeyman) is a mythical creature used by adults to frighten children into good behaviour. Bogeymen have no specific appearance and conceptions vary drastically by household and culture, but they are most commonly depicted as masculine or androgynous monsters that punish children for misbehaviour. The bogeyman and conceptually similar monsters can be found in many cultures around the world. Bogeymen may target a specific act or general misbehaviour, depending on the purpose of invoking the figure, often on the basis of a warning from an authority figure to a child. The term is sometimes used as a non-specific personification of, or metonym for, terror, and sometimes the Devil.
The word bogeyman, used to describe a monster in English, comes from Middle English bugge or bogge, which means 'frightening spectre'. Bogeyman itself is known from the 15th century, though bogeyman stories are almost certainly much older. It may derive from Middle English bogge or bugge, meaning a 'terror' or 'scarecrow'. It relates to bugbear (from bug, meaning 'goblin' or 'scarecrow') and bear (an imaginary demon in the form of a bear that ate small children.) It was also used to mean a general object of dread. The word bugaboo, with a similar pair of meanings, may have arisen as an alteration of bugbear.
The word has equivalents in many Indo-European languages as bogle (Scots), púca, pooka or pookha (Irish), pwca, bwga or bwgan (Welsh), bucca (Cornish), buse or busemann (Norwegian), puki (Old Norse), bøhmand or bussemand (Danish), bûzeman (Western Frisian), boeman (Dutch), boeboelaas (Surinamese Dutch), Butzemann (German), bòcan, *bogu (Slavonic), buka, Babay/Babayka, búka (Russian), bauk (Serbian), bubulis (Latvian), baubas (Lithuanian), bobo (Polish), bubák (Czech), bubák (Slovak), bebok (Silesian), papão (Portuguese), bampoúlas (Greek), bua (Georgian), babau (Italian), babáj (Ukrainian), baubau (Romanian), papu (Catalan), and mumus (Hungarian).
Physical description and personality Edit
Descriptions of the bogeyman vary across cultures, yet there are often commonalities between them. These may include having claws/talons, or sharp teeth. The nature of the creature also varies from culture to culture, although most examples are said to be a kind of spirit, with demons, witches, and other legendary creatures being less common variants. Some are described as having certain animal features such as horns, hooves, and buglike appearances.[unreliable source?]
The personality traits of bogeymen most easily divide the species into three categories: the kind that punishes misbehaving children, the kind that is more prone to violence, and the kind that protects the innocent. They all operate in the same way, in that they all exist to teach young children lessons. The large majority of bogeymen just function to frighten children with potential punishments, and not actually to inflict much damage. The more vicious bogeyman is said to steal the children at night, and even to eat them, or to commit some other violence. The last category is the bogeyman who protects people and only punishes those guilty, regardless of age.[unreliable source?]
Other putative origins Edit
Because of the myth’s worldwide prevalence, it is difficult to find the original source of the legends. The Bogeyman was first referenced for the hobgoblins described in the 16th century England. Many believed that they were made to torment humans, and while some only played simple pranks, others were more foul in nature.[unreliable source?]
Cultural variants Edit
Bogeymen, or bogeyman-like beings are common to the folklore of many cultures, with numerous variations and equivalents.
Sack Man Edit
A variant called the Sack Man exists in many Latin American cultures, such as those of Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Paraguay, Brazil, as well as in both Portugal and Spain. He is variously referred to as el Hombre del costal, el hombre de la bolsa, el hombre del saco, or in Portuguese, o homem do saco, all of these names meaning "the sack man" or "the bag man". Another Spanish language variation is el roba-chicos, meaning "child-stealer". Similar legends are present in Eastern Europe (e.g. Bulgarian Torbalan, "sack man"), as well as in Haiti and some countries in Asia.[failed verification]
El Coco Edit
In Spain, parents will sing lullabies or tell rhymes to children, warning them that if they do not sleep, El Coco will come to get them. The rhyme originated in the 17th century and has evolved over the years, but still retains its original meaning. Coconuts (Spanish: coco) received that name because the hairy, brown "face" created by the coconut shell's three indentations reminded the Portuguese sailors of "Coco".
Latin America also has El Coco, although its folklore is usually quite different, commonly mixed with native beliefs, and, because of cultural contacts, sometimes more related to the boogeyman of the United States. However, the term El Coco is also used in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries, such as Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Peru, Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, and Venezuela, although there it is more usually called El Cuco, as in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Chile, Uruguay, Panama and Argentina. Among Mexican-Americans, El Cucuy is portrayed as an evil monster that hides under children's beds at night and kidnaps or eats the child that does not obey his/her parents or go to sleep when it is time to do so. However, the Spanish American bogeyman does not resemble the shapeless or hairy monster of Spain: social sciences professor Manuel Medrano says popular legend describes el cucuy as a small humanoid with glowing red eyes that hides in closets or under the bed. "Some lore has him as a kid who was the victim of violence... and now he's alive, but he's not," Medrano said, citing Xavier Garza's 2004 book Creepy Creatures and other Cucuys."
A Cuca Edit
In Brazilian folklore, a similar character called Cuca is depicted as a female humanoid alligator, or an old lady with a sack. There is a famous lullaby sung by many parents to their children that says that the Cuca will come to get them and make a soup or soap out of them if they do not sleep, just as in Spain. The Cuca is also a character of Monteiro Lobato's Sítio do Picapau Amarelo ("Yellow Woodpecker's Farm"), a series of short novels written for children which contain a large number of famous characters from Brazilian folklore.
In the countries of central and Eastern Mediterranean, children who misbehave are threatened with a creature known as "babau" (or "baubau", "baobao", "bavbav", or بعبع "Bu'Bu'" or similar). In Italy, the Babau is also called l'uomo nero or "black man". In Italy, he is portrayed as a tall man wearing a heavy black coat, with a black hood or hat which hides his face. Sometimes, parents will knock loudly under the table, pretending that someone is knocking at the door, and say something like: "Here comes l'uomo nero! He must know that there's a child here who doesn't want to drink his soup!". It is also featured in a widespread nursery rhyme in Italy: "Ninna nanna, ninna oh, questo bimbo a chi lo do? Lo darò all' uomo nero, che lo tiene un anno intero." (English: "Lullaby Lulla Oh, who do I give this child to? I will give him to the Boogeyman, who's going to keep him for a whole year") L'uomo nero is not supposed to eat or harm children, but instead takes them away to a mysterious and frightening place.[unreliable source?]
German folklore has dozens of different figures that correspond to the Bogeyman. These have various appearances (such as of a gnome, man, animal, monster, ghost or devil). They are sometimes said to appear at very specific places (such as in forests, at water bodies, cliffs, cornfields or vineyards). These figures are called by many different names which are often only regionally known. One of these, possibly etymologically related to the Bogeyman, is the Butzemann, which can be of gnome-like or other demonic or ghostly appearance.[unreliable source?] Other examples include the Buhmann (who is mostly proverbial) and der schwarze Mann ("The Black Man"),[verification needed] an inhuman creature which hides in the dark corners under the bed or in the closet and carries children away. The figure is part of the children's game Wer hat Angst vorm schwarzen Mann? ("Who is afraid of the bogeyman?").
Other examples Edit
- Afghanistan – The Madar-i-Al is a nocturnal hag that slaughters infants in their cribs and is invoked to frighten children into obedience. Burning wild rue seeds and fumigating the area around the baby is believed to offer protection against her.
- Albania - The Buba is a serpentine monster. Mothers would tell their children to be quiet or the Buba would get them. The Gogol is a terrible giant that frightens children into being good. The Lubia is a female demon with an insatiable appetite for the flesh of children, especially girls. She has many heads, from seven to a hundred, and like the Greek hydra if one head is severed then others will grow in its place.
- Azerbaijan – The Div is a hairy giant that eats children. It was outsmarted and defeated by a clever young boy named Jirtdan, a popular hero in Azerbaijani fairy tales.
- Belize – Tata Duende is a mythical goblin described as being of small stature, with a beard, wrinkles, backwards feet, a large brimmed hat, and lacking thumbs. It is a protector of the forests and animals and was used to scare children from going out to play at night or going into the jungle.[unreliable source?]
- Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and North Macedonia – Babaroga (a South Slavic variant of Baba Yaga; baba meaning hag and rog meaning horn, thus literally meaning horned hag) is commonly attributed the characteristics of the bogeyman. The details vary regionally and by household due to oral tradition, but it always manifests as a menacing hag who hunts irreverent children. It is described as fond of trapping and eating caught children.[unreliable source?]
- Brazil and Portugal – A monster more akin to the Bogeyman is called Bicho Papão ("Eating Beast") or Sarronco ("Deep-Voiced Man"). A notable difference between it and the homem do saco is that the latter is a daytime menace and "Bicho Papão" is a nighttime menace. Another important difference is that "Homem do Saco" ("Sack Man") usually kidnaps children who go to places without parents authorization, while "Bicho Papão" scares naughty children and hides under their beds, closets or roofs.[unreliable source?]
- In Inuit religion, there is a shapeshifter called the Ijiraq which is said to kidnap children, hide them away, and abandon them. If the children can convince the Ijiraq to let them go, they can use inukshuk to find their way home. Within Inuit mythology, there is also the Qallupilluit, human-like creatures with long fingernails, green skin, and long hair that live in the sea. They carry babies and children away in their parkas if children they disobey their parents and wander off alone close to the water. The Qalupalik adopt the children and bring them to live with them underwater.
- Canada – Within the culture of French Canadians the Bogeyman is called Bonhomme Sept Heures (En: The Seven O'Clock Man). Children are cautioned to go to bed by 7 pm, or else be taken by The Seven O'Clock Man.
- Cyprus – In Cypriot Greek, the Bogeyman is called Kkullas (Κκουλλάς); a man (vaguely described as hooded and/or deformed) who will put misbehaving children in a bag and take them away from their homes.
- Czech Republic – The equivalent of the Bogeyman in the Czech Republic is bubák (≈ imp) or strašidlo (≈ ghost), but these are not typically connected with abducting children nor with discriminating between well and bad behaved ones. This is more often attributed to polednice[unreliable source?] and klekánice (Lady Midday), or to the čert (Krampus, or lit. devil) who, along with St. Nicholas is traditionally believed to visit families on December 5.[unreliable source?]
- Egypt – The "Abu Rigl Maslukha" (ابو رجل مسلوخة), which translates to the "Man With Burnt/Skinned Leg". It is story that is traditionally told by parents when children misbehave. It is a monster said to have been burnt as a child because he did not listen to his parents. He grabs naughty children to cook and eat them.[unreliable source?]
- In East Yorkshire, children were warned that if they stole from orchards they might be eaten by a creature called Awd Goggie.
- Yorkshire children were also warned that if they were naughty the Great Black Bird would come and carry them away.
- In Devon, local versions of Spring-Heeled Jack included a "bogeyman" that "danced in the road and leapt over hedges with the greatest of ease"[This quote needs a citation], with reported sightings in North Devon and locals describing "haunted" stretches of road in the South Devon towns of St Marychurch and Torquay, beginning in the 1840s.
- The Gooseberry Wife was said to guard gooseberry bushes on the Isle of Wight and took the form of a large hairy caterpillar.
- Churnmilk Peg in West Yorkshire was a female goblin who guarded nut thickets until they could be harvested and would always be seen smoking a pipe. Melsh Dick was her male counterpart and performed the same function.
- Tom Dockin had iron teeth that he used to devour bad children.
- Black Annis was a hag with a blue face and iron claws who lived in a cave in the Dane Hills of Leicestershire. She ventured forth at night in search of children to devour.
- Grindylow, Jenny Greenteeth and Nelly Longarms were grotesque hags who lived in ponds and rivers and dragged children beneath the water if they got too close.
- Peg Powler is a hag who is said to inhabit the River Tees.
- Other nursery bogies include Mumpoker, Tankerabogus who drags children into his deep, dark pit and Tom-Poker who lives in dark closets and holes under stairs.
- Finland – The equivalent of the Bogeyman in Finland is mörkö, often depicted as a dark and hairy creature that may or may not be humanoid. The most famous[according to whom?] contemporary usage of the word is in Moomin-stories (originally written in Swedish) in which mörkö (the Groke) is a large, frightening, dark blue, ghost-like creature. The children's game "Kuka pelkää Mustaa Pekkaa?" ("Who's Afraid of Black Peter?") was also commonly played among children through to the 1960s and '70s, especially in urban settings, as a backyard game.[unreliable source?]
- France – The French equivalent of the Bogeyman is le croque-mitaine ("the mitten-biter" or "the hand-cruncher").
- Germany – The Bogeyman is known as Der schwarze Mann ("the Black Man"). The word black/schwarz does not refer to the colour of his skin, but rather to his preference for hiding in dark places, such as in the closets or under the beds of children.[unreliable source?] There is also a folk game played by young children called "Wer hat Angst vorm schwarzen Mann?" (Who is afraid of the Black Man?), which is equivalent to the English game British Bulldog, and a folk song called "Es tanzt ein Bi-Ba-Butzemann in unserm Haus herum" (A Bi-Ba-Bogeyman Dances Around in Our House).
- Greece – In Greek culture, there exists a mythical creature called Baboulas (Greek: Μπαμπούλας). It is used by parents to scare children from misbehaving. It is said to be some kind of cannibal which eats children. A common phrase involving it is: "Greek: Ο Μπαμπούλας θα έρθει και θα σε φάει", meaning "The Bogeyman will come and eat you".
- Haiti – In Haiti, a Bogeyman-like entity exists known as Mètminwi / The Master of Midnight. It is depicted as a skinny, extremely tall man who walks around late at night and eats those on the streets. The story is told to children to deter them from going out late.
- Hungary – The Hungarian equivalent of the Bogeyman is the Mumus, which is a monster-like creature, as well as the Zsákos Ember, literally meaning "a man with a sack". A third creature is the Rézfaszú bagoly ("Copperpenis Owl"), a giant owl with a copper penis.
- Iceland – The Icelandic equivalent of the Bogeyman is Grýla, a female troll who is said to take and eat misbehaving children on Christmas Eve, despite supposedly having been dead for some time. She is also the mother of the Yule Lads, an Icelandic equivalent of Santa Claus.
- India – In India, the entity is known by many different names across numerous cultures. Urdu speaking peoples refer to Bogeyman-like creatures by names including Shaitan, Bhoot, and Jin Baba. Hindi speakers call them Baba and Bhoot. In Bihar, parents use a demon named Bhakolwa as a Bogeyman. The terms Petona and Kaatu are also used. In Rajasthan, parents use the name Haboo. In Karnataka, the demon Goggayya (roughly meaning "terrible man") is a Bogeyman counterpart. In the state of Tamil Nadu, Rettai Kannan (the two-eyed one) or Poochaandi (பூச்சாண்டி) are equivalents. In Andhra Pradesh, the equivalent of the bogeyman is Boochodu. In central Kerala, the bogeyman is referred to as "Kokkachi", who is said to take away disobedient children. In South Kerala, the bogeyman is called "Oochandi". Among Konkani speakers on India's western coast, "Gongo" is the Bogeyman equivalent. Among Marathi speaking people (predominantly in Maharashtra), parents threaten the misbehaving children with a male ghost called "Bāgul Buā" (बागुल बुवा). In general, the "Buā" is supposed to kidnap children when they misbehave or do not sleep. In the eastern state of Odisha the bogeyman is a ghost figure called "Baaya" (ବାୟା)..
- Indonesia – In Indonesian mythology, particularly on Java, Wewe Gombel is a benevolent ghost which takes away children mistreated by their parents. She keeps the children in her nest atop a palm tree and takes care of the children until the parents decide to mend their ways. If they truly want their children back, Wewe Gombel will return them.
- Iran - In Iran, a popular children's folklore creature known as "لولو خورخوره" (Lulu Khor-Khore). Perception of it varies widely but it's commonly represented as coming out at night and eating misbehaving children.
- Iraq - Iraqi folklore has the saalua, a half-witch half-demon ghoul that "is used by parents to scare naughty children". She is briefly mentioned in a tale of the 1001 Nights, and is known in some other Persian Gulf countries as well.
- Ireland - In Ireland, “An fear dubh” similar to Italian folklore.
- Italy – In Italy, "L'uomo nero" (meaning "the black man") is a demon that can appear as a black man or black ghost without legs, often used by adults for scaring their children when they do not want to sleep. In some parts of the country, it is known also as "babau".[better source needed]
- Lithuania – referred to as the Baubas, an evil spirit with long lean arms, wrinkly fingers, and red eyes. He harasses people by pulling their hair or stifling them.[unreliable source?]
- Luxembourg – De béise Monni (the evil uncle), De Kropemann (the hookman), De Bö, and de schwaarze Mann (the black man) are Luxembourg's equivalents of the Bogeyman. Luxembourg's many variations of the bogeyman may be the result of the strong influence of neighbouring cultures. The Kropemann is said to live in the sewer, using his hook to catch children by the nose if they stand too close to a storm drain. Children may also be warned of the béise Monni / schwaarze Mann, will come to take them away if they don't behave.
- Malta – The Kaw Kaw/ Gaw Gaw is said to be a grey, slimy creature which roames the streets at night. It smells guilt and enter the homes of guilty people, supposedly through cracks and fissures and by extending and contracting its snail-like body. Once inside, it is said to smile uncannily and terrifying victims.
- Nepal – In Nepali culture, a popular bogeyman-like figure is hau-guji. Among the Newar people, the "Gurumapa" is a mythical ape-like creature who is said to enjoy devouring children. In central Kathmandu, at Itum Bahal, in front of the Bhadrakali Temple, is a plaque associated with Gurumapa.
- Netherlands - The Bokkenrijders or “buck riders” are ghostly thieves who ride flying goats.
- Pakistan – The Mamma is a large apelike creature that lives in the mountains and ventures forth to kidnap young girls. He will carry them back to his cave where he licks their palms and the soles of their feet which makes them permanently unable to flee.
- Panama – In Panama, children are warned that if they are naughty, La Tulivieja will come to get them. She is said to be a spirit cursed by God for drowning her child, and transformed into a hideous monster with a pockmarked face, long and bristly hair, clawed hands, a cat's body, and hooved feet. She was also cursed to forever look for her drowned child.
- Poland – Baba Jaga is a mythological forest who is said to kidnap badly behaving children and eats them. In some regions (mainly in western Poland) a more common creature is Bebok/Bobok which is a small, annoying demon.
- Russia and Ukraine – Children are warned of Babay/Babayka, buka, and Baba Yaga, who are said to come for them at night if they misbehave.
- Saudi Arabia – Abu Shalawlaw (أبو شلولو) is a Bogeyman-like creature said by parents to come to eat children who are disobedient, e.g., by not going to sleep on time or not completing their homework.
- Scotland -Misbehaving children were warned that a goblin or demon known as the bodach would come down the chimney and take them.
- Serbia – The Bauk is an animal-like mythic creature in Serbian folklore. Bauk is described as hiding in dark places, holes or abandoned houses, waiting to grab, carry away, and devour its victim; it can be scared away by light and noise.
- South Africa – The Tokoloshe or Tikoloshe is a dwarfish creature of Xhosa and Zulu mythology said to be summoned by sangomas, a traditional healer of the region. It wanders around causing mischief and frightening children. It is also described as a small, muscular, hairy witch-familiar with an unusually large penis which visits women in their dreams and sexually assaults them.
- South Korea - The "Net Bag Grandfather" (Mangtae Hal-abeoji, 망태 할아버지) is an imaginary old man employed by adults to frighten children into obedience. It is said that he kidnaps spoiled, misbehaving children and takes them away to the mountains, where they are never seen again.
- Catalonia - espantacriatures (lit. 'scare children' in Catalan/Valencian) is the general term for imaginary beings employed by adults to frighten children into obedience. Some examples include El Butoni, El Banyeta, la Quarantamaula, l'Home del sac (Sack Man), les encantades 'the enchanted (women)', la Cuca Fera, el Moro Mussa (or "Mussa the Moor"), la Bubota, els gambosins, and l'Home dels nassos.
- Switzerland – In Switzerland, the Bogeyman is called Böllima or Böögg and has an important role in springtime traditions. The figure is a symbol of winter and death, and in the annual Sechseläuten ceremony of Zürich, a figure of the Böögg is burnt. In Southern Switzerland, people have the same traditions as in Italy.[unreliable source?]
- Syria - Principally in Syria, but also in bordering countries such as Lebanon and Turkey, parents warn at bedtime to go to sleep or King Richard the Lionheart will get them. The image of the English King Richard the First as a bogeyman in the Middle East has existed since the Third Crusade.
- Taiwan – Among Minnan Taiwanese, Grandmother Tiger (虎姑婆 / Hóo-koo-pô) is a figure used to scare disobedient children.
- Trinidad and Tobago – Most Trinbagonians (mostly rural peoples) use folklore to scare disobedient children. The most common beings invoked are the Jumbee. Some "jumbies" are the Soucouyant, Lagahoo, La Diablesse, Papa Bois.Bogeyman is also used in the same way, but it is more common in the cities. It is also called "The Babooman".
- Turkey – The Öcü ([œˈdʒy]) is an equivalent monster in Turkish culture. Much like its English language counterpart, the form, powers, or even general temperament of the creature is undefined to the degree that it is unclear whether the word refers to a single being or a category or species of mythic creatures.[unreliable source?]
- United States – The Bogeyman may be called "Boogerman" or "Boogermonster" in rural areas of the American South ("booger" being an American English equivalent of the British English "bogey"), and was most often used to keep young children from playing outside past dark, or wandering off in the forest. During the Green Corn Ceremony, young Cherokee boys wearing caricature masks would make fun of politicians, frighten children into being good, and shake their masks at young women and chase them around. Male participants in this "Booger Dance" were referred to as the "Booger Men". In some Midwestern states, the boogeyman scratches at the window. In the Pacific Northwest, he may manifest in "green fog". In other places he hides or appears from under the bed or in the closet and tickles children when they go to sleep at night, while in others he is a tall figure in a black hooded cloak who puts children in a sack. It is said that a wart can be transmitted to someone by the boogeyman.
- The Jersey Devil, which originated in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey in the early 18th century, was originally described as having a horse's head, bat wings, cloven hooves, and a serpent's tail. Regarding the famous Jersey Devil sightings of 1909, Loren Coleman and Ivan T. Sanderson offered the explanation that they were part of an elaborate real estate hoax, used by developers as a boogeyman figure to frighten residents into selling their property at lower prices.[unreliable source?]
- Bloody Bones, also known as Rawhead or Tommy Rawhead, is a boogeyman of the American South. Rawhead and Bloody Bones are sometimes regarded as two individual creatures or two separate parts of the same monster. One is a bare skull that bites its victims and its companion is a dancing headless skeleton. Bloody Bones tales originated in Britain.
- The Nalusa Falaya ("Long Black Being") is a ghost being of Choctaw mythology described as a tall spindly humanoid that can slither like a snake or become a shadow. It may frighten children from staying out too late and can bewitch hunters.
- Cipelahq (or Chebelakw) is a dangerous bird spirit of Wabanaki folklore, used in stories to scare children into obeying their parents. Chebelakw has an unearthly cry and resembles a large diving owl, with only its head and talons visible. Similar monsters called Stinkini and Big Owl were found in Seminole and Apache mythologies, respectively.
- Vietnam - In Vietnam, the Ông Ba bị, Ông kẹ or Ngáo ộp is creature offten used by adults to scare children if they disobey. The Ông Ba bị is described as having nine straps and twelve eyes (Ba bị chín quai mười hai con mắt).
See also Edit
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- Shimabukuro, Karra (2014). "The Bogeyman of Your Nightmares: Freddy Krueger's Folkloric Roots". Studies in Popular Culture. Popular Culture Association in the South. 36 (2): 45–65. JSTOR 24332650 – via JSTOR.
- D'Costa, Krystal. "What's the Bogeyman?". Scientific American Blog Network.
- "Bogeyman | Origin, Definition, & Synonyms | Britannica".
- Harper, Douglas (23 August 2017). "bugbear | Etymology, origin, and meaning of bugbear by etymonline". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
- Cooper, Brian (4 March 2005). "Lexical reflections inspired by Slavonic * bog: English bogey from a Slavonic root?". Transactions of the Philological Society. 103 (1): 73–97. doi:10.1111/j.1467-968X.2004.00145.x. eISSN 1467-968X. Retrieved 10 August 2023 – via Wiley Online Library.
- Geller (8 July 2018). "Bogeyman (Boogeyman or Boogie Man): Mythical Monster". Mythology.net. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
- Sörenssen, Federico Ayala (September 24, 2014). "El verdadero "Hombre del Saco" - ABC.es" [The true "Sack Man"]. ABCfoto (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
- Garcia, Kevin (31 October 2005). "El cucuy has roots deep in border folklore". The Brownsville Herald. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2005.
- Núñez, Eloy Martos (2004). "LA IMAGEN DEL JOVEN A TRAVÉS DE LAS FICCIONES DE TERROR Y SUS FUENTES FOLKLÓRICO-LITERARIAS. EL CASO IBEROAMERICANO" (PDF). Alonso Quijano Foundation (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
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- Iseabail MacLeod, Pauline Cairns: Bogeyman – Black Man. Concise English-Scots Dictionary, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1999, ISBN 9781902930046, p.22.
- Mills, Margaret; Claus, Peter; Diamond, Sarah, eds. (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia. New York City: Taylor & Francis (published 28 October 2020). doi:10.4324/9781003061717. ISBN 9781003061717. OL 37318120M. S2CID 126524265.
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- "Polednice by K. J. Erben, translated by S. Reynolds". 17 December 2013.
- "Saint Nicholas Day (Mikuláš)".
- Pursiful, Darrell J (25 April 2014). "Boo! Five Bogeymen to Run Away From". Into the Wonder. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
- Bane, Theresa (18 September 2013). Encyclopedia of Fairies in World Folklore and Mythology. McFarland. pp. 40–41. ISBN 9780786471119.
- Wright, Elizabeth Mary (1913). Rustic Speech and Folk-lore. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781503314290.
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