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Actors representing La Llorona, 2003

In Latin American folklore, La Llorona (pronounced [la ʝoˈɾona]; "The Weeping Woman" or "the Cryer") is one of the most famous oral legends. The lore states a woman was abandoned by her husband and was left alone to raise her two sons, whom she instead drowned in a river out of grief and anger. As a result of her actions the woman is condemned to wander for all eternity until she finds the bodies of her children, often causing misfortune to those who are near or hear her. The oral story represents La Llorona as a person, legend, ghost, goddess, metaphor and symbol.[1]

LegendEdit

The legend described in this article is a generic version of the Mexican version of this folktale. Other regional variations of the story exist.

The legend is said that in a rural village there lived a young woman named Maria. She came from a poor family but was known around her village for her beauty. One day, an extremely wealthy nobleman traveled through her village. He stopped in his tracks when he saw Maria. Maria was charmed by him and he was taken by her beauty, so when he proposed to her, she immediately accepted. Maria's family was thrilled that she was marrying into a wealthy family, but the nobleman's father was extremely disappointed that his son was marrying into poverty. Maria and her new husband built a house in the village to be away from his disapproving father. Eventually, she gave birth to a son and a daughter. Her husband was always traveling and began to stop spending time with his family. When he came home, he only paid attention to the children and as time passed Maria could tell that her husband was falling out of love with her because she was getting old. One day he returned to the village with a younger woman, and bid his children farewell, ignoring Maria.[2]

Maria, angry and hurt, took her children to a river and drowned them in a blind rage. She realized what she had done and searched for them, but the river had already carried them away. Days later, she was found dead on the river bank. She had committed the two ultimate sins: Murder and Suicide.

Challenged at the gates of heaven for the whereabouts of her children, she is not permitted to enter the afterlife until she finds them. Stuck between the land of the living and the dead, she spends eternity looking for her lost children. She is always heard weeping for her children, earning her the name "La Llorona".[3] It is said that if you hear her crying, you are to run the opposite way. If you hear her cries, they could bring misfortune or even death. Many parents in Latin America use this story to scare their children from staying out too late.[1]

La Llorona kidnaps wandering children at night, mistaking them for her own. She begs the heavens for forgiveness, and drowns the children she kidnaps.[4] People who claim to have seen her say she appears at night or in the late evening by rivers or lakes, wearing a white or black gown with a veil.[5] Some believe those who hear the wails of La Llorona are marked for death or misfortune, similar to the Gaelic banshee legend.[6] Among her wails, she is noted as crying "¡Ay, mis hijos!" which translates to "Oh, my children!" or "Oh, my sons!" She scrapes the bottom of the rivers and lakes, searching for her sons. It is said that when her wails sound near she is actually far and when she sounds distant, she is actually very near.[7]

OriginsEdit

The legend of La Llorona is traditionally known throughout Latin America, including Mexico, Central and South America.[8]

La Llorona is also sometimes identified with La Malinche,[9] the Nahua woman who served as Cortés' interpreter and mistress who bore his children[10] and who some say was betrayed by the Spanish conquistadors. In one folk story of La Malinche, she became Hernán Cortés' mistress and bore him a child, only to be abandoned so that he could marry a Spanish lady (although no evidence exists that La Malinche killed her children). Aztec pride drove La Malinche to acts of vengeance. In this context, the tale compares the Spanish discovery of the New World and the demise of indigenous culture after the conquest with La Llorona's loss.

Stories of weeping female phantoms are common in the folklore of both European and indigenous American cultures. Scholars have pointed out similarities between La Llorona and the Cihuacōātl of Aztec mythology,[8] as well as Eve and Lilith of Old World mythology.[11] Author Ben Radford's investigation into the legend of La Llorona, published in Mysterious New Mexico, traced elements of the story back to a German folktale dating from 1486.[12]

The earliest published reference to La Llorona occurred in a sonnet written by Mexican poet Manuel Carpio in the late 1800s. The poem makes no reference to infanticide, rather La Llorona is identified as the ghost of a woman who was murdered by her husband.[8]

Similar folktalesEdit

The Chumash of Southern California have their own connection to La Llorona. Chumash mythology mentions La Llorona when explaining nunašɨš (creatures of the other world) called the "maxulaw" or "mamismis."[13] Mythology says the Chumash believe in both the nunašɨš and La Llorona and specifically hear the maxulaw cry up in the trees. The maxulaw cry is considered an omen of death.[13] The Maxulaw is described as looking like a cat with skin of rawhide leather.[13]

Outside the Americas, La Llorona bears a resemblance to the ancient Greek tale of the demonic demigodess Lamia.[14] Hera, Zeus' wife, learned of his affair with Lamia and, out of anger, killed all the children Lamia had with Zeus.[14] Out of jealousy over the loss of her own children, Lamia steals other women's children.[14] In Greek mythology, Medea killed the two children fathered by Jason (one of the Argonauts) after he left her for another woman.

In popular cultureEdit

The plot of the 1961 Mexican film The Curse of the Crying Woman (La maldición de la llorona) involves the resurrection of the spirit of La Llorona.

La Llorona appeared as the main antagonist in the 2007 movie J-ok'el.

La Llorona appeared as the "monster of the week" in the NBC TV series Grimm, in the ninth episode of the second season which first aired on October 2012. In this storyline, she is a ghost-like creature (her exact origin and nature is undefined) who appears in different cities at yearly intervals around Halloween, always luring three children to a point where three rivers meet, attempting to 'sacrifice' these children to regain her own. In the episode, series protagonist Nick Burkhardt and his partner Hank Griffin work with wesen detective Valentina Espinosa, who lost her nephew to La Llorona some years ago, and manage to save her latest victims, although La Llorona simply vanishes into the water.

La Llorona appeared as the first antagonist in the 2005 pilot episode of the TV series Supernatural. Sarah Shahi portrayed Constance Welch, The Woman in White who, after discovering her husband's infidelity took the lives of her two children by drowning them in a bathtub at home and soon after, took her own by jumping off a bridge into a river. Her ghost was known to haunt the Centennial Highway, hitchhiking unknowing motorists, mostly men, and killing those whom she deemed unfaithful. Main character Sam Winchester destroyed her ghost by crashing his car into the house where she used to live. Finally facing the ghosts of her children, The Woman in White was destroyed by her own guilt from killing them.

La Llorona briefly appears in the 1973 Mexican film Leyendas macabras de la colonia. La Llorona is mentioned and appears in several episodes of "El Chavo del Ocho" and "El Chapulín Colorado", both comic series written by Roberto Gómez Bolaños, aka Chespirito.[citation needed]

La Llorona appears as the main antagonist of the Mexican animated film La Leyenda de la Llorona. Here, La Llorona is portrayed as a more sympathetic character, with her children's deaths coming as an accident rather than at her own hands.

In 1995, Mexican playwright Josefina Lopez wrote "Unconquered Spirits", which uses the myth of La Llorona as a plot device. The play has two time periods, with Act One taking place in 16th Century Mexico after Spain occupied it. Here, Lopez takes inspiration from the "La Malinche" variation, with the heroine represented as a young Aztec girl who is brutally raped by a Spanish Friar. She gives birth to twin boys as a result, and drowns them in the river out of protection rather than spite. Act Two takes place in 1938 amidst the San Antonio Pecan Sheller's Strike. A widowed mother who works at the Pecan factory has an abortion after being raped by her white supervisor, resulting in a visit from La Llorona to give her the strength to fight back against her attacker. The play is well noted for its sympathetic portrayal of La Llorona as a victim of oppression.

In Nancy Farmer's 2002 science fiction novel, The House of the Scorpion, and its 2013 sequel book, The Lord of Opium, the main character, Matt, makes several references to La Llorona, often when retelling the story to other main characters or during self-reflection.

La Llorona is mentioned in the 2003 film Chasing Papi starring Sofía Vergara, Roselyn Sánchez, Jaci Velasquez, and Eduardo Verástegui. Her screams can be heard when Thomas (Eduardo) is under stress or confronted by the three women in his life. La Llorona's image is shown a few times in the film too.

The 2006 Mexican horror film Kilometer 31 is inspired by the legend of La Llorona, and the main evil entity in the film is based on her and her story.[citation needed]

La Llorona has also been the theme character of several of Universal Studios's haunted houses during their annual Halloween event, Halloween Horror Nights (Both Hollywood and Orlando locations).[15]

La Llorona appears in Josh Walker's 2014 novel, Luke Coles and the Flower of Chiloe where the Llorona is the mark of one of Luke's hunts.[16]

La Llorona also is a short film which was released in 2015 which was directed by Shannon Ivey[17] and co directed by Matt Guthrie.[18]

In 2019, BuzzFeed Unsolved released a video called The Hunt for La Llorona - The Weeping Woman, the video discussed the details of the legend of La Llorona, while traveling to different places in the United States looking for the weeping woman.[19]

In April 2019, James Wan, Gary Dauberman and Emilie Gladstone produced a film titled The Curse of La Llorona. The film is the sixth installment in The Conjuring Universe. It was released on April 19, 2019, by New Line Cinema and Warner Bros. Pictures. The film was directed by Michael Chaves and stars Linda Cardellini, Raymond Cruz, Patricia Velasquez and Marisol Ramirez, who portrays the ghost.[20]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Perez, Domino (2008). There Was a Woman. ISBN 978-0-292-71812-8.
  2. ^ "LA LLORONA - A HISPANIC LEGEND". www.literacynet.org. Retrieved 2016-12-07.[dead link]
  3. ^ "LA LLORONA - A HISPANIC LEGEND". www.literacynet.org. Retrieved 2016-12-07.[verification needed]
  4. ^ "Mexico's legend of La Llorona continues to terrify". SFGate. Retrieved 2016-12-07.
  5. ^ "Chilling Legend of La Llorona | Psychic-Mediumship Training". imaginespirit.com. Retrieved 2016-12-07.
  6. ^ De Aragon, Ray John (2006). The Legend of La Llorona. Santa Fe, NM: Sunstone Press. p. 4.
  7. ^ "La calle donde tu vives - Héctor Gaitán - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  8. ^ a b c Werner 1997, p. 753.
  9. ^ Hayes, Joe (2006). La Llorona (The Weeping Woman). El Paso, Texas: Cinco Puntos Press; Bilingual edition.
  10. ^ "La Malinche - Spanish Conquest of Mexico | don Quijote". donQuijote. Retrieved 2016-12-07.
  11. ^ Norget 2006, p. 146.
  12. ^ Radford, Ben (2014). Mysterious New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8263-5450-1. While the classic image of La Llorona was likely taken from an Aztec goddess named Cihuacoatl, the narrative of her legend has other origins. As Bacil Kirtley (1960) wrote in Western Folklore, "During the same decade that La Llorona was first mentioned in Mexico, a story, seemingly already quite old, of 'Die Weisse Frau' ('The White Lady')—which reproduces many of the features consistently recurring in the more developed versions of 'La Llorona,' was recorded in Germany"; references to "Die Weisse Frau" date back as early as 1486. The story of the White Lady follows a virtually identical plot to the classical La Llorona story.
  13. ^ a b c ed. Blackburn, Thomas C. "December's Child: A Book of Chumash Oral Narratives" p. 93
  14. ^ a b c Folklore: In All of Us, In All We Do. University of North Texas Press. 2006. ISBN 9781574412239.
  15. ^ "La Llorona comes to "Halloween Horror Nights"". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  16. ^ Walker, Josh (2015). Luke Coles and the Flower of Chiloe. Titan InKorp Limited. ISBN 978-1785200694.
  17. ^ Shannon Ivey on IMDb
  18. ^ Matt Guthrie on IMDb
  19. ^ BuzzFeed Unsolved Network (2019-04-04), The Hunt For La Llorona - The Weeping Woman, retrieved 2019-04-08
  20. ^ "Bloody Disgusting about James Wan's The Curse of La Llorona". Bloody Disgusting.

BibliographyEdit

  • Perez, Domino Renee, There Was a Woman: La Llorona from Folklore to Popular Culture
  • Mathews, Holly F. 1992. The directive force of morality tales in a Mexican community. In Human motives and cultural models, edited by R.G.D'Andrade and C. Strauss, 127-62. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Norget, Kristin (2006). Days of Death, Days of Life: Ritual in the Popular Culture of Oaxaca. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13688-9.
  • Ray John De Aragon, The Legend of La Llorona, Sunstone Press, 2006. ISBN 9781466429796.
  • Belinda Vasquez Garcia, The Witch Narratives Reincarnation, Magic Prose Publishing, 2012. ISBN 978-0-86534-505-8
  • Werner, Michael S. (1997). Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, Society & Culture - Vol. 1. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1-884964-31-1.

External linksEdit