John Bercow

John Simon Bercow (/ˈbɜːrk/; born 19 January 1963)[2] is a British politician who served as Speaker of the House of Commons from 2009 to 2019, and as Member of Parliament (MP) for Buckingham between 1997 and 2019. He was the first MP who was elected Speaker without previously serving as a Deputy Speaker since Selwyn Lloyd in 1971. Prior to his election as Speaker, he was a Conservative MP.


John Bercow
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Bercow in 2018
Speaker of the House of Commons
In office
22 June 2009 – 4 November 2019
MonarchElizabeth II
Prime Minister
Deputy
Preceded byMichael Martin
Succeeded byLindsay Hoyle
Shadow Secretary of State for International Development
In office
10 November 2003 – 8 September 2004
LeaderMichael Howard
Preceded byCaroline Spelman
Succeeded byAlan Duncan
Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury
In office
18 September 2001 – 23 July 2002
LeaderIain Duncan Smith
Preceded byOliver Letwin
Succeeded byHoward Flight
Member of Parliament
for Buckingham
In office
1 May 1997 – 4 November 2019
Preceded byGeorge Walden
Succeeded byGreg Smith
Chancellor of the University of Essex
Assumed office
22 July 2017
Vice ChancellorAnthony Forster
Preceded byShami Chakrabarti
Chancellor of the University of Bedfordshire
Assumed office
25 July 2014
Vice ChancellorBill Rammell
Preceded byThe Baroness Howells of St Davids
Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead
Assumed office
4 November 2019
Preceded byHeidi Alexander (2018)
Member of Lambeth London Borough Council for St Leonard's ward
In office
1986–1990
Personal details
Born
John Simon Bercow

(1963-01-19) 19 January 1963 (age 57)
Edgware, London, England
Political partyIndependent (2019–present)
Other political
affiliations
Spouse(s)
Sally Illman (m. 2002)
Children3
Alma materUniversity of Essex (BA)
WebsiteOfficial website

He served as a councillor in the London Borough of Lambeth from 1986 to 1990 and unsuccessfully contested parliamentary seats in the 1987 and 1992 general elections, before being elected for Buckingham in 1997. Promoted to the Shadow Cabinet in 2001, Bercow held posts under Iain Duncan Smith and Michael Howard. In November 2002, he resigned over a dispute concerning his support for same-sex adoption, but returned a year later, only to be dismissed from the Shadow Cabinet in 2004. Having initially been strongly associated with the right-wing faction of his party, his views shifted over time; by 2009 there were rumours that he would defect to the Labour Party, although Bercow denied these.[3]

Following the resignation of Speaker Michael Martin in June 2009, Bercow stood in the election to replace him and was successful. He went on to be re-elected Speaker unopposed at the start of the new Parliaments in 2010, 2015 and 2017.[4] This made him the first Speaker since the Second World War to have been elected four times, as well as the first since then to have served alongside four Prime Ministers.[5][6] In September 2019, Bercow declared that he would stand down as Commons Speaker and MP on 31 October; he remained Speaker until being appointed to the Manor of Northstead on 4 November 2019.[7] Having served 10 years as Speaker, Bercow became the longest-serving Speaker since Edward FitzRoy, who served nearly 15 years in post between 1928 and 1943.

In 2014, Bercow was appointed Chancellor of the University of Bedfordshire,[8] and in July 2017 he was appointed Chancellor of the University of Essex.[9] In January 2020, he became part-time professor of politics at Royal Holloway, University of London.[10][11]

Early life and educationEdit

Bercow was born in Edgware, Middlesex, the son of Brenda (Bailey) and Charles Bercow, a taxi driver.[citation needed] His father was born to a Jewish family and his mother converted to Judaism.[12][13][14] His paternal grandparents were Jews who arrived in Britain from Romania in the early 20th century.[15][16] Having settled in the UK, the family anglicised its surname from Berkowitz to Bercow.[17] Bercow attended Frith Manor Primary School in Woodside Park, and Finchley Manorhill, a large comprehensive school in North Finchley. In his youth, Bercow had been a successful junior tennis player, but was too short to go professional.[18][19] In 1975 he appeared on the UK children's television series Crackerjack![20]

Bercow graduated with a first-class honours degree in government from the University of Essex in 1985.[21] Anthony King, a professor at the university, has said about Bercow that "When he was a student here, he was very right-wing, pretty stroppy, and very good. He was an outstanding student."[21] As a young activist, Bercow was a member of the right-wing Conservative Monday Club. He stood as a candidate for the club's national executive in 1981 with a manifesto calling for a programme of "assisted repatriation" of immigrants, and became secretary of its immigration and repatriation committee.[22] However, at the age of 20 he left the club, citing the views of many of the club's members as his reason,[23] and has since then called his participation in the club "utter madness" and dismissed his views from that period as "bone headed".[22]

After graduating from the University of Essex, Bercow was elected as the last national chairman of the Federation of Conservative Students (FCS), 1986–87.[21] The FCS was then broken up by the chairman of the Conservative Party, Norman Tebbit, after one of its members had accused previous Tory PM Harold Macmillan of war crimes in extraditing Cossacks to the Soviet Union.[24] Bercow attracted the attention of the Conservative leadership, and in 1987 he was appointed by Tebbit as vice-chairman of the Conservative Collegiate Forum (the successor organisation of the FCS) to head the campaign for student support in the run-up to the 1987 general election.

After a spell in merchant banking, Bercow joined the lobbying firm Rowland Sallingbury Casey (part of Saatchi & Saatchi) in 1988, becoming a board director within five years. With fellow Conservative Julian Lewis, Bercow ran an advanced speaking and campaigning course for over 10 years, which trained over 600 Conservatives (including several current MPs) in campaigning and communication techniques. He has also lectured in the United States to students of the Leadership Institute.[25]

Political careerEdit

CouncillorEdit

In 1986, Bercow was elected as a Conservative councillor in the London Borough of Lambeth, and served for four years representing the Streatham, St Leonard's ward. In 1987, he was appointed the youngest deputy group leader in the United Kingdom.[26]

Special adviserEdit

In 1995, Bercow was appointed as a special adviser to the Chief Secretary to the Treasury, Jonathan Aitken. After Aitken's resignation to fight a libel action, Bercow served as a special adviser to the Secretary of State for National Heritage, Virginia Bottomley.

Parliamentary careerEdit

 
Bercow in Poland in 2010

Bercow was an unsuccessful Conservative candidate in the 1987 general election in Motherwell South, and again at the 1992 general election in Bristol South. In 1996 he paid £1,000 to charter a helicopter so that he could attend the selection meetings for two safe Conservative parliamentary seats on the same day – Buckingham and Surrey Heath – and was selected as the candidate for Buckingham. He has referred to the hiring of the helicopter as "the best £1,000 I have ever spent".[26]

Bercow was first elected to parliament in the 1997 general election as the MP for Buckingham with a majority of 12,386. He then increased his majority at the 2001 general election being elected by a margin of 18,129 votes. He was re-elected at the 2005 general election, but with a reduced majority of 12,529.

Bercow rose quickly through the opposition's junior offices. He was appointed a frontbench spokesman for Education and Employment in June 1999, and then a frontbench spokesman for Home Affairs in July 2000, before being brought into the shadow cabinet in 2001 by the Conservative leader Iain Duncan Smith. He served as Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury from September 2001 to July 2002, and as Shadow Minister for Work and Pensions from July to November 2002. During this first spell on the front benches, Bercow publicly said that he did not think he was ruthless enough to reach the top of politics.[27] In November 2002, when the Labour government introduced the Adoption and Children Act, which would allow unmarried gay and heterosexual couples to adopt children, Duncan Smith imposed a three-line whip requiring Conservative MPs to vote against the bill, rather than allowing a free vote. Arguing that it should be a free vote, Bercow defied the whips and voted with Labour, then resigned from the front bench.[28] As a backbencher he was openly critical of Duncan Smith's leadership.[citation needed]

In November 2003, the new Conservative leader Michael Howard appointed Bercow as Shadow Secretary of State for International Development. However, he went on to clash with Howard over taxes, immigration and Iraq,[29] and was sacked from the front bench in September 2004 after telling Howard that Ann Widdecombe was right to have said that there was "something of the night about him".[30] Bercow has a long-standing interest in Burma and frequently raised issues of democracy and genocide in the country. In 2006 he was made a patron of the Tory Reform Group.[31] In 2001, he supported the ban on MPs becoming members of the Monday Club.[32]

Bercow was formerly the treasurer of the All-Party Parliamentary Group for Tribal Peoples,[33] an APPG composed of over 30 cross-party MPs which aims to raise parliamentary and public awareness of tribal peoples.[34]

Bercow won the Stonewall award for Politician of the Year in 2010 for his work to support equality for lesbian, gay and bisexual people.[35] He was given a score of 100% in favour of lesbian, gay and bisexual equality by Stonewall.[36]

Opposition MP of the YearEdit

In 2005, Bercow won the Channel Four/Hansard Society Political Award for 'Opposition MP of the Year'. He said:

In addition to pursuing a wide variety of local issues, I have attempted to question, probe and scrutinise the Government in the House of Commons on important national and international topics which concern people. Over the last 12 months, I have constantly pressed the case for reform of world trade rules to give the poorest people on the planet a chance to sell their products and improve their quality of life. The plight of the people of Darfur, Western Sudan, has also been a regular theme. They have suffered too much for too long with too little done about the situation. I shall go on arguing for Britain to take the lead in the international community in seeking decisive action for peace and justice.[37]

Rumours of defectionEdit

Following the defection of Conservative MP Quentin Davies to the Labour Party in June 2007, there were persistent rumours that Bercow was likely to be the next Conservative MP to leave the party.[38]

Bercow did not defect to Labour, but in September 2007, accepted an advisory post on Gordon Brown's government's review of support for children with speech, language and communication special needs. The Conservative Party chairman, Caroline Spelman, confirmed that this appointment was with the consent of the Conservative Party.[39] Bercow had a long-term interest in this topic, as his son Oliver has been diagnosed with autism.[40]

Bercow reviewEdit

In 2008, Bercow was asked by Labour cabinet members Ed Balls and Alan Johnson to produce a substantial review of children and families affected by speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). After the report, the government pledged £52 million to raise the profile of SLCN within the education field.

The review looks at the extreme consequences to which communication problems can lead; from initial frustration at not being able to express oneself, to bullying or being bullied at school, fewer job prospects and even a descent into criminality.[41][42]

The interim report highlighted a number of core issues: that speech, language and communication are not only essential life skills but fundamental human rights; that early identification of problems and intervention is important to avoid social problems later on; and that the current system of treatment is patchy, i.e. there is a need for services to be continually provided for children and families from an early age.[43][44]

Role in expenses scandalEdit

Until 2008/09 Bercow usually claimed the maximum available amount for the 'Additional Costs Allowance' to pay for the cost of staying away from his main home. In 2007/08 and 2008/09 his total expenses were amongst the lowest claimed by MPs (coming 631st and 640th, respectively, out of 645 and 647).[citation needed]

During the 2009 expenses scandal, it was revealed that Bercow changed the designation of his second home on more than one occasion – meaning that he avoided paying capital gains tax on the sale of two properties. He also claimed just under £1,000 to hire an accountant to fill in his tax returns. Bercow denied any wrongdoing, but agreed to pay £6,508 to cover any tax that he may have had to pay to HM Revenue and Customs.[45]

It was revealed in 2014 that the House of Commons authorities had destroyed all evidence of MPs' expenses claims prior to 2010. Bercow faced accusations that he had presided over what had been dubbed a "fresh cover-up" of the expenses scandal.[46]

In July 2015, Bercow was again criticised for the amount of his expenses, including a claim of £172 for a 0.7-mile chauffeur-driven journey. Andy Silvester, campaign director at the TaxPayers' Alliance, said: "This is an obscene waste of money and shows appalling judgment from whoever made the arrangements."[47]

Charitable workEdit

Bercow has supported a number of charities. He is a Patron of the ME Association,[48] Brain Tumour Research[49] and a Patron of the Patchwork Foundation[50] founded by Harris Bokhari. He has also spoken at and supported other charities such as the mental health charity Jami.[51] He recently supported a fundraiser for Children in Need.[52]

Speaker of the House of CommonsEdit

Election and first termEdit

 
Bercow presides over the House, 2012.

Bercow had long campaigned quietly to become Speaker[53] and was touted as a successor to Michael Martin. On 20 May 2009, he officially declared to stand in the Speakership election, which had been triggered by Martin's resignation, and launched his manifesto for the job.[54] In reference to his decision to stand, Bercow said: "I wanted it because I felt that there was a task to be undertaken and that's about strengthening backbench involvement and opportunity in parliament, and helping parliament get off its knees and recognise that it isn't just there as a rubber-stamping operation for the government of the day, and as necessary and appropriate to contradict and expose the government of the day."[55]

In the first round of the election on 22 June, Bercow received 179 votes – more than any other candidate, but short of the majority required for victory. In the third and final round of voting later that day, he defeated George Young by 322 votes to 271,[56] and was approved by the Queen at 10 pm that night as the 157th Speaker. In accordance with convention, he rescinded his Conservative party membership.[8][57]

Bercow's election as Speaker was controversial because he is believed to have had the support of very few MPs from his former party.[citation needed] Conservative MPs generally viewed Bercow with distrust because of his changing political views (having moved over the years from being very right-wing to become more socially liberal, leading to clashes with past party leaders),[citation needed] his acceptance of an advisory role from the Labour government (a party he had often been rumoured to be on the verge of joining),[citation needed] his general lack of good relations with fellow MPs from the Conservatives,[citation needed] and his vigorous campaigning for the Speaker's job.[citation needed] Thought[by whom?] to have received the votes of as few as three of his fellow Conservative MPs,[citation needed] he succeeded on the back of a large number of Labour votes, many MPs being driven by the perception that Michael Martin had been hounded out of the job and wanting his replacement to be someone who was not a Conservative Party favourite.[58][59]

Bercow was the first Speaker who is Jewish,[60] the first Speaker to have been elected by an exhaustive ballot, and the first Speaker not to wear traditional court robes while presiding over the House of Commons.[61] However, in accordance with tradition, Bercow did display his coat of arms at Speaker's House.[62]

Speaker's residence refurbishmentEdit

Within weeks of taking office as Speaker, Bercow ordered a redecoration and refurbishment of the Speaker's grace and favour apartment in the Palace of Westminster, partly with the objective of making it child-friendly; the work cost £20,659 and was paid for by Parliament. It followed extensive work on the apartment under the previous Speaker.[63]

Youth ParliamentEdit

In October 2009, Bercow chaired the United Kingdom Youth Parliament's first annual sitting in the House of Commons, making them the only group except members of parliament to sit in the chamber. He chaired every subsequent sitting and attended every annual conference until his resignation in 2019, addressing and supporting Members of Youth Parliament from across the UK.

2010 general election and second termEdit

The Speaker of the House of Commons is traditionally seen as outside party politics, and is often not challenged by the main parties at general elections, including the 2010 general election. In September 2009, Nigel Farage resigned his leadership of the UK Independence Party (UKIP) to stand for Bercow's Buckingham seat, asserting, "This man represents all that is wrong with British politics today. He was embroiled in the expenses saga and he presides over a Parliament that virtually does nothing."[64][65] John Stevens, another candidate, found support for his campaign from the former Independent MP Martin Bell.[66] Bercow also faced opposition from the British National Party and the Christian Party.[67]

As Bercow lacked a party endorsement and therefore a campaign team, he sought to build one and a group of his supporters known as 'Friends of Speaker Bercow' solicited donations for the campaign, aiming to raise £40,000. When one of their letters was received by a member of UKIP, the recipient referred it to the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards, complaining that it appeared that Bercow's fundraising campaign was operating from the Speaker's Office, which is required to remain politically neutral.[68] The Commissioner declined to launch an investigation because of the lack of evidence.[69]

Speaker's LecturesEdit

To mark the centenary of the Parliament Act 1911, Bercow commissioned a series of lectures about the main political figures of the century. The Speaker's Lectures continue with a variety of topics such as historic parliamentarians and current affairs.

2015 general election and third termEdit

Bercow was returned as an MP in the 2015 general election. The election was notable for the 1,289 spoilt ballot papers, an issue he addressed in his victory speech.[70]

On 26 March 2015, the House of Commons defeated a government motion (introduced by former Conservative party leader and then leader of the House of Commons William Hague) to require there to be a secret ballot vote on whether Bercow remain speaker after the 2015 general election. A number of MPs described it as an underhand plot to oust Bercow, largely based on the timing of the motion just before the dissolution of Parliament, when some Labour MPs expected to oppose it had already returned to their constituencies.[71][72][73][74] In the event, Bercow was re-elected unopposed as Speaker following the general election.

In February 2017, Bercow said he had supported continued membership of the European Union in the 2016 referendum.[75]

On 6 February 2017, Bercow said in the house that he would be "strongly opposed" to US President Donald Trump addressing the Houses of Parliament during his planned state visit to the UK, and told MPs that "opposition to racism and sexism" were "hugely important considerations".[76] The comments proved controversial and made the headlines in many UK newspapers the following day,[77] with some such as Guardian columnist Owen Jones,[78] Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, Labour MP Dennis Skinner and Liberal Democrat leader Tim Farron supporting this intervention.[79] His comments were criticised even by some opponents of Trump (such as Conservative MP Nadhim Zahawi), however, for being hypocritical and undermining the Speaker's neutrality,[80] and some in the government reportedly felt that Bercow had overstepped his role.[79] John Whittingdale, the Conservative MP for Maldon and a former Culture Secretary, dismissed Bercow's remarks as "playing to the gallery for as much publicity as possible",[81] and Bercow himself apologised to the Lord Speaker Lord Fowler over a lack of consultation over his remarks.[82]

2017 general election and fourth termEdit

Following the 2017 general election, John Bercow was unanimously re-elected as Speaker of the House by members of parliament on 13 June 2017.[83]

Bullying allegationsEdit

In May 2018, Bercow's former private secretary Angus Sinclair alleged on the BBC's Newsnight programme that Bercow had repeatedly bullied him while at work.[84] Sinclair said that he was told to sign a non-disclosure agreement when he left his post, to prevent him revealing Bercow's bullying. Bercow denied the claims.[85] Sinclair's allegations came not long after the BBC reported that his successor as Bercow's private secretary, Kate Emms, had been signed off work and then moved to another role. Unnamed colleagues of Emms had told the BBC's Newsnight programme that her sickness and change of role were because of bullying by Bercow.[86]

In January 2020, Lord Lisvane, who served as Clerk of the House of Commons under Bercow, submitted a formal complaint to the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards. The submission is understood by The Times and the BBC to allege that Bercow bullied his staff.[87][88] The same month, Lisvane's complaint was followed up by a further accusation of bullying, made by the former Black Rod, Lieutenant-General David Leakey.[89]

In October 2018, Bercow had called for an independent body to be set up to investigate allegations of harassment and bullying in Parliament, after facing calls to quit after a report said harassment had been tolerated and concealed for years which he denies.[90] On 23 October 2018, three Conservative MPs, Will Quince, Mims Davies and Anne Milton, resigned from the Commons Reference Group on Representation and Inclusion, which is chaired by Bercow, and cited Bercow's handling of bullying and sexual harassment allegations in Parliament as the reason for doing so.[91][92][93][94]

BrexitEdit

In January 2019, Bercow broke with convention, allowing a vote on an amendment to a government business motion. The amendment, tabled by Dominic Grieve MP, required the Prime Minister (Theresa May) to table a motion within three days on proposed alternative plans if her Brexit deal was rejected by Parliament.[95]

On 18 March 2019, Bercow, in a statement to the House, pre-empted a move by the Government to bring the UK/EU Withdrawal Agreement for a third vote. Citing a convention which dates back to 1604, Bercow stated that he would not allow a vote on a motion which was "substantially the same" as a previously rejected motion.[96]

Retirement as SpeakerEdit

 
MPs applaud Bercow as he sets the date for his retirement.

In October 2018, it was reported that Bercow intended to step down as Speaker in the summer of 2019,[97] but in January 2019 it was reported that he planned to stay as Speaker until the end of the parliament, in 2022.[98] On 9 September 2019, amid debates about Brexit and parliament being prorogued, Bercow declared to the House of Commons that he would stand down on 31 October, or at the next general election, whichever was sooner;[99] the former applied.

Despite the convention that former Speakers of the House of Commons are elevated to membership of the House of Lords when they resign, reports from the Cabinet suggested Bercow might be denied a peerage by the Prime Minister due to his supposed lack of impartiality and the difficulties he was seen to have caused the government over Brexit.[100] Bercow has become the first ex-Speaker since the retirement of Arthur Onslow in 1761 to have been eligible for, but not have been made the offer of, a peerage. Overall, he is the tenth Speaker not to receive a Peerage since the 1707 Act of Union, and the fifth since Onslow's retirement not to be immediately elevated to the House of Lords: Charles Wolfran Cornwall died in office with no peerage offer to his surviving family, John Henry Whitley was offered but declined, and following the deaths of Edward Fitzroy and Sir Harry Hylton-Foster in office, their widows were ennobled instead.[101]

On 4 November 2019, Bercow was appointed by Chancellor of the Exchequer Sajid Javid as Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead, immediately ceasing to be an MP.[102][103]

On 6 November 2019, Bercow gave a speech in London to the Foreign Press Association stating that he "think[s] that Brexit is the biggest foreign policy mistake in the post-war period, and that is my honest view."[104] This led to further questions about Bercow's impartiality during the Brexit parliamentary debates.[105] He maintained that he was fair in treating Remainers and Leavers during the debates, and only made his views clear once he didn't need to be impartial anymore.[106]

His autobiography, Unspeakable, was published in 2020.[107]

Personal lifeEdit

Bercow married Sally Illman in 2002 after 13 years of an "on-off" relationship,[108] and they have three children.[3] Their elder son, Oliver, has autism.[109] His wife, who used to be a Conservative, switched to supporting the Labour Party, campaigning for both her husband individually and Labour in the wider election in 1997. Bercow and those close to him reject the view that she was especially influential in changing his political views.[3][110] Bercow has spoken of "periods of turbulence" in the marriage—Sally left him for a time and had an affair with his cousin Alan Bercow, after which he made preparations to divorce her—but described his wife as "a rock".[108][111] Both he and his wife are teetotalers.[112]

Bercow is a humanist, and before taking the role of Speaker was a member of the All-Party Parliamentary Humanist Group.[113] When discussing the role of clergy in Parliament, he described himself in a Commons debate as "an irreligious person taking a secular interest in an important subject".[114]

Bercow has been a fan of Arsenal F.C. since January 1971 and is a season ticket holder. He always attends games with his son.[115] In 2014 his book Tennis Maestros: The Twenty Greatest Male Tennis Players of All Time was published by Biteback Publishing.[116][117]

BooksEdit

  • Tennis Maestros: The Twenty Greatest Male Tennis Players of All Time. Biteback Publishing, 2014.
  • Unspeakable: The Autobiography. W&N. 6 February 2020. ISBN 978-1474616621.

HonoursEdit

 
John Bercow's arms, designed by Hubert Chesshyre

ScholasticEdit

University degrees
Location Date School Degree
  England 1985 University of Essex First-class honours Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Government
Chancellor, visitor, governor, rector and fellowships
Location Date School Position
  England 2014–present University of Bedfordshire Chancellor[120]
  England 18 July 2017 – present University of Essex Chancellor[121][122]
  England 27 January 2017 – present University of Manchester Honorary Professor[123]
  England 4 November 2019 – present Birkbeck, University of London Fellowship[124]
  England 24 January 2020 – present Royal Holloway, University of London Professorship of Politics[125]
Honorary degrees
Location Date School Degree
  England 2010 University of Essex Doctor of the University (D.Univ)[126][127][128]
  England 16 March 2013 University of Buckingham Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[129][130]
  England 23 January 2014 De Montfort University Doctorate[131]
  England 30 January 2014 City, University of London Doctor of Science (D.Sc)[132]

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ a b c Wheeler, Brian (24 June 2009). "The John Bercow story". BBC. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  4. ^ "John Bercow to continue as Commons Speaker with MPs' backing". BBC News. 18 May 2015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  5. ^ McGillivray, Kate; Vartanian, Talin (4 October 2019). "Speaker John Bercow reflects on 10 years of keeping British parliamentarians in line". Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019. After being elected for four consecutive terms as Speaker, and serving under four prime ministers, Bercow is exiting at a time of high drama and tension in the U.K.
  6. ^ Tominey, Camilla (9 September 2019). "John Bercow: the Speaker dogged by claims of bullying and bias who was a thorn in the side of his own party". Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019. Bercow is the longest-serving Speaker since Edward FitzRoy served 15 years in post between 1928 and 1943, and the first Speaker since FitzRoy to serve under four Prime Ministers.
  7. ^ Rowena Mason "John Bercow to step down as Speaker by 31 October" Archived 30 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 9 September 2019
  8. ^ a b "Chancellor of the University of Bedfordshire". beds.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  9. ^ "Speaker of the House of Commons to become our sixth Chancellor". Colchester: The University of Essex. 18 July 2017. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  10. ^ Hope, Christopher (24 January 2020). "John Bercow starts first paid job since quitting Parliament as Professor of Politics at Royal Holloway University". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
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  17. ^ "British House Speaker Bercow on His Brexit Role". Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  18. ^ Diary: Norton cool on Claudia show Archived 15 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Independent, 2009
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  20. ^ Kidd, Patrick (12 February 2019). "Hairy debut for young John Bercow". The Times. Archived from the original on 4 November 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  21. ^ a b c "Essex graduate new speaker, Colchester Campus, Government, 23 June 2009". University of Essex. 23 June 2009. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
  22. ^ a b Rayner, Gordon; Bingham, John (10 July 2010). "Speaker John Bercow called for 'assisted repatriation' of immigrants". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  23. ^ Isaby, Jonathan (4 November 2002). "Profile: John Bercow". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 March 2006. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
  24. ^ John Stevens (21 August 1986). "Tories sue student editor over Macmillan war crimes charges". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 9.
  25. ^ John Bercow: Little Mr Turncoat in an awfully big chair, The Sunday Times, 28 June 2009
  26. ^ a b Wheeler, Brian (24 June 2009). "The John Bercow story". BBC News. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
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  31. ^ About People page Archived 8 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Tory Reform Group
  32. ^ "Tory MPs resign from far-right club". BBC News. 7 October 2001. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
  33. ^ Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (2010). Dod's parliamentary companion. 178. Dod's Parliamentary Companion Ltd. p. 1025. ISBN 978-0-905702-89-6.
  34. ^ "All-Party Parliamentary Group for Tribal Peoples website". Appg-tribalpeoples.org.uk. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
  35. ^ "Lesbilicious". Archived from the original on 25 October 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
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Further readingEdit

  • Bobby Friedman. Bercow, Mr Speaker: Rowdy Living in the Tory Party (2011) Gibson Square.

External linksEdit

Parliament of the United Kingdom
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