B. E. Vijayam
B. E. Vijayam (1933–2019) was an Indian geologist with major contribution to the field of Geology. A 1958–1959 Technical Report of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research heralded the news that new developments had taken place in scientific matters led by a team of researchers at the Andhra University,
B. E. Vijayam
Professor Vijayam with his students at Osmania University, Secunderabad (1973)
(Courtesy Mennonite Church USA archives)
|Born||November 20, 1933|
|Died||January 30, 2019 (aged 85)|
|Other names||Bunyan Edmund Vijayam|
|Education||B. Sc. (Andhra),|
M. Sc. (Andhra),
Ph. D. (Osmania),
Postdoctoral researcher (Northwestern)
|Known for||Teaching and research in applied Geology|
|Awards||Prof. Bal Dattatreya Tilak Endowment Lecture (1995), Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi|
|Doctoral advisor||Prof. S. Balakrishna|
|Other academic advisors||Prof. C. Mahadevan,|
Prof. U. Aswathanarayana
|Influences||Bishop Bunyan Joseph|
|Influenced||Founding of MERIBA, PROGRESS and TENT|
A new technique for the ion-exchange separation of uranium from thorium and rare earths has been developed. A simple chromatographic method for the estimation of thorium (present in very small quantities) has been evolved. This utilizes thenoyl trifluoroacetone (TTA) in benzene as solvent-C. Mahadevan, U. Aswathanarayana, V. V. S. S. Tilak, B. E. Vijayam and D. Purushottam, Department of Geology, Andhra University..... 
Even as a student of geology at Andhra University, Waltair, Vijayam and his fellow researchers were already carrying out research in the field. During 1954–1958, Vijayam had carried out research on geology in parts of Kurnool district. Vijayam's research articles began appearing in geological and other inter-disciplinary scientific journals for more than three decades and continue to be referred by the present generation of Geologists.
Vijayam stood witness to Christ and inspired many. During the Fifth National Convention of the Christian Businessmen's Committee in 1987 held in Hyderabad, he spoke on the theme You shall be witnesses unto me and shared dais with Archbishop Samineni Arulappa, Member of parliament, Lok Sabha Marjorie Godfrey and Policeman G. Alfred, IPS. Vijayam also led honorary initiatives towards Christian missions by equipping the Laity not only with knowledge of the Gospel, but also a means of livelihood was recognised by Theologians, comprising the Missiologist, Roger Hedlund, SB, and Bishop Ezra Sargunam, ECI. During the 2000s, the Christian artist P. Solomon Raj, AELC made an Empirical research highlighting the new and indigenous missions, and Vijayam's effort falls in such line of indigenous missions to equip the grassroot Evangelists, which even the Old Testament Scholar, Victor Premasagar, CSI appreciated such initiatives.
Life and backgroundEdit
Vijayam was born in 1933 in Giddaluru in erstwhile Madras Presidency during the colonial era to Bunyan Joseph, an Evangelist and grew up in rural India in the drought-prone Rayalaseema zone in southern India. The Church made an impact in the life of Vijayam as those were the days' of early Christians in the Telugu hinterland where the Catholic and the Protestant Missions had already set foot. Among the Protestant missions, the American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society, the London Missionary Society (LMS) and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) were the Christian missions at work in the Rayalaseema area. Vijayam grew up in a Christian household in mission compounds of the Churches as his father was a Priest, Canon and later Bishop. When Vijayam moved to Waltair in the 1950s, he also took part in the fellowship gatherings of the Canadian Baptist Ministries (Convention of Baptist Churches of Northern Circars).
Education and careerEdit
After initial studies in schools across Andhra Pradesh, wherever his father (Bunyan Joseph) was transferred, Vijayam moved to Madras Christian College, Tambaram for a pre-University course (PUC). For undergraduate studies, he enrolled at Andhra University, Waltair, in 1953 and pursued graduate and postgraduate courses specialising in Geology. He was a direct student of Professor Calamur Mahadevan and U. Aswathanarayana and imbibed the subtle nuances for research which infused in him a flair for scientific research throughout his career in geological sciences. One of his companions during his study days at Waltair included the Theologian G. D. Melanchthon, AELC. Vijayam was awarded with an M. Sc. in 1957.
Vijayam also pursued a Ph. D. programme during his early years at Osmania University, Secunderabad, on the topic Sedimentation in the upper proterozoic near Kurnool under the supervision of Prof. S. Balakrishna and was awarded a doctorate in the year 1965. He also spent time at Northwestern University, Evanston (United States) as a Postdoctoral researcher through the benevolence of Fulbright Program and also published a research article, Tectonic framework of sedimentation in the northwestern part of the San Andreqa fault zone at Park field, California on his return to India.
Vijayam joined the ranks of Geological Survey of India in 1961. He then moved to academics and joined Osmania University, Secunderabad, A State-run university, where he also pursued a Ph. D. programme. In 1965 and became a lecturer in the same university. Over the years, he rose to the ranks of a reader and professor and in 1984, he became head of the Department of Geology and chairperson of the board of studies.
During the three decades, beginning with the 1960s, Vijayam researched together with his fellow geologists and brought out different aspects of the Earth's rich resources to the fore. He was also managing editor of Journal of Indian Academy of Geoscience during the 1970s.
- Vijayam, B. E.; Aswathanarayana, U.; Mahadevan, Calamur (1960). "Sand movement on the Waltair beach, Visakhapatnam, India" (PDF). Physical Sciences. 26. ISSN 0370-0046.
- Vijayam, B. E. (May 1964). "Transgressing marine beach in Cuddapah basin, South of Kurnool, A. P." (PDF). Current Science. Bangalore. 33 (9). ISSN 0011-3891. OCLC 1565678.
- Vijayam, B. E. (1964). "Sedimentary petrographic analysis of Gulcheru conglomerate, Kurnool district,A.P." Journal of Indian Geology Association. 4.
- Vijayam, B. E. (5 January 1968). "An interesting dyke near archaean-Cuddapah Boundary, Veldurthi, Kurnool District, A. P." (PDF). Current Science. Bangalore. 37 (1). ISSN 0011-3891. OCLC 1565678.
- Vijayam, B. E. (1968). "Tectonic framework of sedimentation in the northwestern part of the San Andreqa fault zone at Park field, California" (PDF). Journal of Osmania University (Science). Secunderabad. Golden Jubilee Volume.
- Kamal, M. Y.; Vijayam, B. E. (1968). "Sedimentary tectonics of the Kurnool Cuddapah basin". 6 (2). Hyderabad: NGRI. Cite journal requires
- Balakrishna, S.; Vijayam, B. E. (1968). "Sedimentation of non-clastics in the western part of the Cuddapah basin". 6 (2). Hyderabad: NGRI. Cite journal requires
- Vijayam, B. E. (5 March 1968). "Worm Burrows in Narji Limestones, near Govindinne, Kurnool District, A. P." (PDF). Current Science : A Fortnightly Journal of Research. Bangalore: Current Science. 37 (5). ISSN 0011-3891. OCLC 1565678.
- Vijayam, B. E. (1969). Plutonic rocks in the Cuddapah basin. 11. Journal of the Indian Geoscience Association. ISBN 9781862393455.
- Vijayam, B. E. (1969). "Occurrence of Tuffisites in Pebble Dyke, Ulindakonda, Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). 5. Geological Society of India. Cite journal requires
- Vijayam, B. E. (1973). "Geological Time Scale". Journal of the Andhra Pradesh Academy of Sciences. Hyderabad. 9.
- Reddy, P. H.; Vijayam, B. E. (1974). "Environmental significance of clay minerals in Auk and Nandyal shales of Palnad Basin". Indian Mineralogist. 15.
- Janardan Rao, Y.; Vijayam, B. E.; Narasimham, J. S. V. L. (1974). "Natural and human influence on the hydrological cycle in South India" (PDF). Cite journal requires
- Vijayam, B. E. (1974). "Sedimentary tectonics of Kurnool Group : in Evolution of orogenic belts of India and geological history of platform areas". The Quarterly Journal of the Geological, Mining, and Metallurgical Society of India.
- Janardan Rao, Y.; Vijayam, B. E.; Ch., Sudarsana Raju (1975). "Optimum design of dug wells in hard rock terrains". Indian Farming.
- Vijayam, B. E.; Reddy, P. H. (December 1976). "Tectonic Framework of Sedimentation in the Western Part of the Palnad Basin, Andhra Pradesh". Journal of Geological Society of India. Bangalore. 17 (4).
- Vijayam, B. E.; Stephen George, T. (January 1978). "On the Occurrence of Barite in Kurnool District". Journal of Geological Survey of India. 19 (1).
- Vijayam, B. E.; Deshpande, Y. R. (1979). "Lithofacies Analysis of Barakar Formation of Kothagudem Area, (A. P.) India". 2. Geological Survey of India. Cite journal requires
- Madhavan Nair, K.; Vijayam, B. E. (October 1980). "Sedimentology of Limestones in Niniyur Formation, Paleocene, Cauvery Basin, South India". Journal of Geological Society of India. Bangalore. 21 (10).
- Vijayam, B. E.; Kamal, M. Y.; K., Veeriah (1981). "Sedimentation in the Kurnool group". Hyderabad: Indian Institute of Peninsular Geology. doi:10.1007/s12665-017-6972-3. Cite journal requires
- Osmani, A. S.; Vijayam, B. E. (1981). "X-ray diffraction studies of the Intertrappean Fuller's Earth, Alipur, Vikarabad". The Indian Mineralogist. 21-25.
- Madhavan Nair, K.; Vijayam, B. E. (1981). "Depositional and diagenetic characteristics of reef and flank facies, a comparative study in the Lower Cretaceous limestones in Kallakkudi Embayment, Cauvery Basin". Bulletin of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission. 18 (1).
- Kamal, M. Y.; Vijayam, B. E. (20 February 1982). "Intraformational conglomerate of the Banganapalle formation, Kurnool group" (PDF). Current Science. Bangalore. 51 (4). ISSN 0011-3891. OCLC 1565678.
- Shyam Prasad, Mokkapati; Kamal, M. Y.; Vijayam, B. E. (1982). "Study of beach profiles of Nizampatnam Bay". Geoviews. 9.
- Shyam Prasad, Mokkapati; Prabhakar, K; Kamal, M. Yusuf; Vijayam, B. E. (March 1982). "A Study of the Movement of Beach Sand at Nizampatnam Bay by Tracer Techniques". Journal of Geological Survey of India. Bangalore. 23 (3).
- Kamal, M. Y.; Vijayam, B. E. (1982). "Intraformational conglomerate of the Banganapalle Formation, Kurnool Group" (PDF). Current Science. Bangalore. 51 (4).
- Vijayam, B. E. (1985). "Sedimentary tectonic history of Cuddapah Basin". Journal of the Indian Association of Sedimentologists. 5.
- Vijayam, B. E. (1992). "Mobilizing the Laity". Chennai: Mission India 2000. Cite journal requires
- Vijayam, B. E. (1992). "Tentmaker Evangelism". Chennai: Mission India 2000. Cite journal requires
- Linda Prabhakar Babu, B.; Vijayam, B. E. (1996). "Geochemistry and sedimentology of cherts and its associated carbonate rocks of Mallampalli Formations of Pakhal Super Group" (PDF). The International Symposium of Applied Geochemistry. Cite journal requires
In addition to his academic pursuits, Vijayam was involved in founding entities as a means to bring in development in rural areas. Vijayam himself hailed from a rural family and his career pursuits brought him to an urban setting. In spite of it, he chose to better the lives of those in special circumstances. Towards this end, he drew talent from universities as a matter of service and also sought the partnership of United Nations Development Programme, Government of India, and other funding agencies. In 1982, he also went to Bangla Desh to see the work of Social Entrepreneur and Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus. In 2012, two sets of researchers working independent of each other had written about the work of Vijayam beyond the portals of learning.
Professor Vijayam was a retired professor of Geology who worked, at the Department of Geology, Osmania University in Hyderabad. He founded MERIBA, PROGRESS, TENT, JVI, I-WILL agencies and his approach to poverty alleviation in rural India, was inspired by the Judeo-Christian values approach and was promoting attitudes of love, unity, mutual respect, self-help and collective action to overcome the hindrances to human deprivation, poverty and suffering.
Community development initiatives without adequate geological input are potentially doomed to failure. For many years now, wonderful counterexamples have functioned under the guidance of distinguished geologist B. E. Vijayam in India. Vijayam’s NGO creations, including PROGRESS and TENT, integrate geological principles into almost every aspect of holistic rural development. Many of the village-level projects under TENT are planned to consider improvements in the context of a unified watershed. Water sources, sanitation, erosion, agriculture, land-use planning, and energy provision are all analyzed and managed as components of a larger, single geological system.
During 1978 Vijayam founded Mission to Encourage Rural Development in Backward Areas (MERIBA) as an entity to bring forth development in select areas of drought-prone Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh amidst caste-ridden hegemony. The work of MERIBA was taken up in Kurnool district in the villages of Balapanuru, Kouluru, Neravada, Bhimaram and Yerraguntla. For organising Dalits through participatory management initiatives through Sarvodaya Sanghams, Vijayam's entity was also locked in horns with those oppressing the Dalits. There was indeed some resistance to the reformation that MERIBA ought to bring in and even the State executive was found to be in tandem with those oppressing the Dalits. It took judicial intervention to get the oppressors behind bars, but in no time they were freed and were ready to seek vengeance, but for the timely presence of Vijayam who sought reconciliation, an act which stunned the oppressors. Incidentally, Nagi Reddy, an advocate by profession, became MERIBA's first project director, and there was renewed activism in taking legal recourse in curbing atroticities on Dalits through SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.
By 1982, Vijayam founded Peoples Research Organization for Grass-root Environmental Scientific Services (PROGRESS) as a platform to share the benefits of technological advancement with the rural poor. Select case studies and stories relating to the success of PROGRESS had been documented in 1994 by National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board and there also had been significant contribution by scientists working in PROGRESS to the environmental studies. In 1996, P. Sita Janki and K. Sumalini contributed a paper entitled Enhancement of seed germination in Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) by different growth regulator treatments that appeared in the Journal for Tropical Forestry. A 2007 report of the University Grants Commission (UGC) listed PROGRESS among those NGOs  supported by it in advancing Rural development. PROGRESS was a member in the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee.
The Theologians, F. Hrangkhuma and Sebastian Kim had recognised the efforts of Vijayam towards Tentmaking. At the same time, Roger Hedlund had acknowledged Vijayam's efforts towards founding TENT in equipping individuals with means of livelihood as well as basic theological principles. It was in 1985 that Vijayam founded Training in Evangelism Needs and Technology (TENT), interwining technology with theology for ministerial advancement, which the notable Entomologist P. Judson has also been associated.
- Gadde Peda Rattaiah (2012). Organisations processes and changing power relations a study of UNDP aided project area Kurnool district (A.P.). hdl:10603/105301.
- Kay Marshall Strom (2009). The Second-Half Adventure: Don't Just Retire--Use Your Time, Skills, and Resources to change the World. ISBN 9780802478757.
- Kay Marshall Strom (2008). In the presence of the poor: Changing the face of India. ISBN 9781606570128.
- Roger Hedlund (2000). Quest for Identity: India's Churches of Indigenous Origin: the "Little Tradition" in Indian Christianity. ISBN 9788172145255.
- Ezra Sargunam (Compiled) (2000). "Mission Mandate: A Compendium on the Perspective of Missions in India". Cite journal requires
- Luis Bush, Lorry Lutz (1990). Partnering in Ministry: The Direction of World Evangelism. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830813322.
- Antonius Kroot (1910). "History of the Telugu Christians". Cite journal requires
- Commonwealth Universities Handbook, Parts 3-4, 1986, p.1874
- Luis Bush, Lorry Lutz, Partnering in Ministry: The Direction of World Evangelism, Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove, p.110.
- Kay Marshall Strom, In the presence of the poor: Changing the face of India, Authentic, Hyderabad, 2008.
- Indian National Science Academy, Recipients. .
- Records of the Geological Survey of India, Volume 95, 1964, pp.47, 314.
- B. E. Vijayam, Sedimentation in the upper proterozoic near Kurnool, cited in B. E. Vijayam, Worm Burrows in Narji Limestones, near Govindinne, Kurnool District, A. P., Current Science, Volume 5, March 5, 1968, p.142.
- Hari Narain, Obituary note on Suri Balakrishna (1931-1984), Journal of Geological Society of India, Volume 25, Issue 11, 1984, pp.759-760. 
- Calamur Mahadevan (1901 - 1962): A humane professor in The Hindu - Metro Plus Visakhapatnam, April 7, 2003.
- Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Technical Report 1958–1959, New Delhi, 1958, p.249.
- List of Subjects in Arts and Sciences in which Research was carried out in the Universities and Research Institutions from June 1954 to May 1958, The Inter-University board of India, New Delhi, 1958, 
- M. Preeti, G. Ramadass, Total magnetic investigations for structural mapping in gas show area in the Tadipatri Region, South Western margin of the Cuddapah Basins in International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2016, p.276-283.
- C. Peter Wagner, Praying with Power, Destiny Image Publishers Inc., Shippensburg, 1997.
- National Council of Churches Review, Volume 107, 1987, p.332.
- Kay Marshall Strom, The Second-Half Adventure: Don't Just Retire--Use Your Time, Skills, and Resources to change the World, Moody Publishers, Chicago, 2009, pp.94-95.
- Roger Hedlund, Quest for Identity: India's Churches of Indigenous Origin: the "Little Tradition" in Indian Christianity, MIIS/ISPCK, Chennai/New Delhi, 2000, p.207.
- M. Ezra Sargunam (Compiled), Mission Mandate: A Compendium on the Perspective of Missions in India, Mission India, Chennai, 2000.
- P. Solomon Raj, The New Wine-skins: The Story of the Indigenous Missions in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India, ISPCK/MIIS, New Delhi/Chennai, 2003.
- Antonius Kroot, History of the Telugu Christians, Mill Hill St. Joseph's Society, Trichinapalli, 1910. 
- Mahadevan’ Students and Admirers Association, List of Members
- Preeti M, Ramadass G, Total magnetic investigations for structural mapping in gas show area in the Tadipatri Region, South Western margin of the Cuddapah Basins, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2016, pp.276-283.
- Journal of the Indian Academy of Geoscience, Volume 14, 1972
- Robert S. White and Jeffrey K. Greenberg, Religious faith as a motivation in using geosciences to develop a sustainable future in Gregory R. Wessel, Jeffrey K. Greenberg (Edited), Geoscience for the Public Good and Global Development: Toward a Sustainable Future, The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 520, Boulder, 2016, p.29.
- Gadde Peda Rattaiah, Organisations processes and changing power relations a study of UNDP aided project area Kurnool district (A.P.), Unpublished doctoral dissertation submitted to University of Hyderabad, 2012.
- Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, APNA-Andhra Pradesh NGOs Alliance.
- Andhra Pradesh State AIDS Control Society, AP TI-NGOs List
- National AIDS Control Organisation, Audit Report, 2010
- Jeffrey K. Greenberg, Daniel Hefley, et. al., The Many Educational Facets of Development Cooperation Between a Kosovan Village and Earth Scientists, Journal of Geoscience Education, Volume 60, 2012, pp.201–211.
- NGO Darpan, Mission to Encourage Rural Development in Backward Areas (MERIBA)
- The Good News Today, Volume 8, Number 9, September 2009
- NGO Darpan, Peoples Research Organization for Grassroot Environmental Scientific Services.
- National Institute of Hydrology, Annual Report 2014-2015, 2015, p.122.
- R. R. Prasad, K. M. Nair, Integrated hydrogeological investigations and multipronged water conservation in selected watershed of Achankovil river basin, Report of PROGRESS, Hyderabad, 2004. Cited by D. Padmalal, K. Maya, Sand Mining: Environmental Impacts and Selected Case Studies, Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg, 2014, p.55.
- Panchayati raj information resource book, Foundation for Research in Community Health, Bombay, 1996, p.55.
- Forests, Trees, and People Newsletter, Issues 8-18, 1990, p.50
- Afforestation and Wastelands Development: Some Success Stories, Regional Centre, National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, 1994.
- Journal of Tropical Forestry, Volume 12, Issue 1, 1996, pp.48-50
- Indian Science Abstracts, Volume 33, 1997, p.111
- Journal of Tropical Forestry, Volumes 11-12, 1995
- Report of the UGC Committee on Inter-University Centre on Rural Development, 2007, p.124.
- F. Hrangkhuma, Sebastian C. H. Kim, The Church in India: Its Mission Tomorrow, ISPCK, New Delhi, 1996, p.138. 
- NGO Darpan, Training in Evangelism Needs and Technology
- TENT, History
- TENT, Board
|| Head of the Department of Geology,
Osmania University, Hyderabad
A. D. Karve,
| Prof. Bal Dattatreya Tilak Endowment Lecture,
Indian National Science Academy,
K. J. Ranadive,
- Recipients, Indian National Science Academy. .