Rayalaseema

Rayalaseema (Rāyalasīma) is a geographic region in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It comprises four southern districts of the state namely, Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa and Kurnool.[2][3] As of 2011 census of India, the region with four districts had a population of 15,184,908 and covers an area of 67,526 km2 (26,072 sq mi).[4]

Rayalaseema

Ceded, Dathamandalam
Telugu Talli Statue with Kondareddy Buruju in Kurnool City
Telugu Talli Statue with Kondareddy Buruju in Kurnool City
Nickname(s): 
Cultural Region of Andhra Pradesh
Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh
Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
District(s)
Largest cities
Founded byChilukuri Narayana Rao
Government
 • TypeDemocratic
 • BodyBicameral
Area
 • Total67,526 km2 (26,072 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total15,184,908
 • Density226/km2 (590/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
 • RegionalUrdu
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationAP02, AP03, AP04, AP21, AP39
Largest airportTirupati Airport
Gooty Fort In Anantapur District
Gandikota fort view
Kondareddy Buruju in Kurnool city

EtymologyEdit

The region was previously called Ceded districts during the rule of the British Raj. This is with reference to the time when the Nizam of Hyderabad, Ali Khan ceded the region to the British as a part of subsidiary alliance. Chilukuri Narayana Rao, a Telugu lecturer and activist from Anantapur deemed the term "ceded" as derogatory and coined the term Rayalaseema.[5] In the Andhra Mahasabha and Ceded Districts Conference held at Nandyala in November 1928, he moved a resolution to the effect which was accepted by the other delegates of the conference.

The name Rayalaseema hearkened back to the Vijayanagara times, whose Kings used a suffix Rāya (tadbhava of Sanskrit Rāja) or Rāyalu in Telugu as their title. The boundaries of Rayalaseema roughly match with the territorial extent of the Aravidu dynasty, the last dynasty to rule the Vijayanagara Empire.[5]

HistoryEdit

During the British era, the Nizam of Hyderabad ceded this area to the British, and hence was called Ceded Districts. Upon Independence, it was renamed as Rayalaseema as 'seema' was an administrative territorial entity of the Vijayanagara Empire similar to today's districts.[citation needed]

Post independenceEdit

The four districts of the region were part of the Madras Presidency until 1953.[6] From 1953 to 1956, the region was a part of Andhra State and in 1956, the Telangana region was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh State.[7] On 2 February 1970, three taluks from Kurnool i.e., Markapur, Cumbum and Giddalur were merged along with some other taluks of Nellore district and Guntur district to form Prakasam district.

In February 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts. Hyderabad will remain as a joint capital for 10 years for both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.[8] The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India.[9] The formation of a new state named Telangana from Andhra Pradesh is not considered an amendment to the Constitution of India per article 3 and 4 of that document.[10]

GeographyEdit

Rayalaseema region is located in the southern region of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The region borders the state of Tamil Nadu to the south, Karnataka to the west and Telangana to the north. Some areas in Coastal Andhra, such as Markapur revenue division, which share similar geography and climate to Rayalaseema.[11]

Religious destinationsEdit

Rayalaseema has many important places of pilgrimage. Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, abode of Lord Venkateswara is one of the richest and the most visited place of worship in the world.[citation needed] The other being Srisailam, Ahobilam, Srikalahasti, Kanipakam, Kadiri, Rayadurgam, Penna Ahobilam, Mahanandi, Mantralayam, Proddatur, Puttaparthi, Yaganti, Lepakshi, Ontimitta, Bramhamgarimatham, Pushpagiri etc. Shahi Jamia Masjid in Adoni is one of the oldest constructions in South India, built around 1662 AD by Siddi Masood Khan.[12]

EducationEdit

UniversitiesEdit

Medical collegesEdit

Central institutionsEdit

Deemed universitiesEdit

InfrastructureEdit

RoadwaysEdit

 
Pulivendula-Kadapa 4 lane road near pulivendula

The road network in region consists of many National Highways such as, NH 40, NH 42, NH 44, NH 140, NH 167, NH 340, NH 67, NH 69, NH 71, NH 716.

RailwaysEdit

 
Kadapa Railway Station Premises

The rail connectivity is getting better with the projects allocated or being part of the region such as, Nandyal–Yerraguntla, Nadikudi–Srikalahasti, Kadapa–Bangalore sections are the under development projects which forms a part of the region.[13] Most of the region falls under the jurisdiction of Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone.

AirportsEdit

Rayalaseema region has air connectivity with four airports Tirupati International Airport, Sri Sathya Sai Airport, Kadapa Airport and Kurnool Airport.

PowerEdit

 
Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station

Rayalaseema Region has thermal as well solar power plants. Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station is located in Kadapa district and Andhra Pradesh government recently sanctioned solar power parks in Rayalaseema districts[14] with a capacity of 4000MW's.Today the state of Andhra Pradesh stood No.1 position in solar power generation with an installed capacity of 1868 MW[15] In India and also offers world's largest solar power park of 1000 MW is also located in Andhra Pradesh.

PoliticsEdit

Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, Damodaram Sanjivayya, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, N. Chandrababu Naidu, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, N.Kiran Kumar Reddy and Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy are the people who served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, hail from the Rayalaseema region of the state, with Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy being the incumbent. The region saw as many as 7 chief ministers for the state.[16]

Sri BaghpactEdit

Based on Sri Bagh Pact signed on 18 November 1937, Kurnool was made as the capital of the new state after the division of Andhra state from the Madras state.[17][18] As per the second State Resolution Commission, capital was shifted to Hyderabad upon the formation of Andhra Pradesh.[19]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Fact Sheet". mapsofindia.com.
  2. ^ Jammanna, Akepogu; Sudhakar, Pasala (2016). Dalits' Struggle for Social Justice in Andhra Pradesh (1956–2008): From Relays to Vacuum Tubes. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-4438-4496-3. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  3. ^ Rajeev, M (11 October 2015). "Rayalaseema in a state of discontent". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  4. ^ "Population of AP districts(2011)" (PDF). ap.gov.in. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  5. ^ a b Correspondent, Special. "The birth of Rayalaseema". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  6. ^ The Indian Express https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=P9oYG7HA76QC&dat=19531001&printsec=frontpage – via Google News Archive Search. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ The Indian Express https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=P9oYG7HA76QC&dat=19560221&printsec=frontpage – via Google News Archive Search. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). India Code Legislative Department. Ministry of Law and Justice. 1 March 2014. p. 2. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  9. ^ "Telangana state formation gazette". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  10. ^ "Constitution of India Sub-section". Indiankanoon.org. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  11. ^ "Andhra Pradesh – end of an era". Business Standard. Hyderabad. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Proper rail connectivity still a far cry in Rayalaseema". The Hindu. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  14. ^ "AP Solar Corpn sanctions 4,000 MW power parks". M.thehindubusinessline.com. 22 December 2015.
  15. ^ Raghavendra, V. (29 April 2017). "With Kurnool solar park, State takes a giant leap". Thehindu.com. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  16. ^ "Telangana.com – Committed For Development". Telangana.com.
  17. ^ Raju, P. Yenadi (2003). Rayalaseema during colonial times : a study un indian nationalism. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre. p. 214. ISBN 978-81-7211-139-7. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  18. ^ "APonline – History and Culture – History-Post-Independence Era". aponline.gov.in. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013.
  19. ^ "Revive Sri Bagh pact, demands vedika". Hyderabad. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2015.

Further readingEdit

  • Reddy, G. Samba Siva (2006–2007). "Making of Micro-Regional Identities in the Colonial Context: Studying the Rayalaseema Maha Sabha, 1934–1956". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 67: 500–513. JSTOR 44147969.

  Media related to Rayalaseema at Wikimedia Commons