The state of Mewar was founded around 530; the first capital was at Chittorgarh. Later the kingdom would also, and ultimately predominantly, be called Udaipur after the name of its new capital. When Udaipur State joined the Indian Union in 1949 it had been ruled by the Chattari Rajputs of MoriGuhilotParihar and Sisodia dynasties for over 1,400 years.
Since its founding in the 6th century, the geographical boundaries of Mewar have waxed and waned. Since the treaty with the British in 1818 to its accession to the Republic of India in 1949, the boundaries of the state were as follows: the state was bounded on the north by the British district of Ajmer-Merwara; on the west by Jodhpur and Sirohi; on the southwest by Idar; on the south by Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratabgarh; on the east by Bundi and Kotah; and on the northeast by Jaipur.
Rana Kumbha was the vanguard of the fifteenth century Hindu resurgence in northwestern India. A very tall and powerful man, he held the Mewar flag flying high in an age when several Indian kings like Kapilendradeva of east India, Deva Raya II of south India and Man Singh Tomar of central India defeated the Turkic invaders in different parts of India; and he expanded his kingdom at the expense of the sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat.
Rana Sanga of Mewar became the principal player in Northern India. His objectives grew in scope – he planned to conquer the much sought after prize of the Muslim rulers of the time, Delhi. However, his defeat in the Battle of Khanwa consolidated the new Mughal dynasty in India.
Maharana Pratap of Mewar, a 16th-century Rajput ruler firmly resisted the Mughals. Akbar sent many missions against him. He survived to ultimately gain control of all of Mewar, excluding Chittorgarh Fort.
For half a century prior to 1818, the armies of Holkar, Scindia, and Amir Khan had plundered Mewar, pauperising its ruler and people. As early as 1805, Maharana Bhim Singh of Mewar approached the British for assistance but the Treaty of 1803 with Scindia prevented the British from entertaining the request. But by 1817, the British too were anxious to have alliances with Rajput rulers and the Treaty of Friendship, Alliances and Unity was concluded between Mewar and East India Company (on behalf of Britain) on January 13, 1818.
Under the treaty, the British Government agreed to protect the territory of Mewar, in return for which Mewar acknowledged British supremacy and agreed to abstain from political associations with other states and to pay one-fourth of its revenues as tribute for 5 years, and three-eight in perpetuity. The British authorities granted the ruler of Udaipur a 19 gun salute.
Kanak-Sen left Koshala in the 2nd century and settled in Saurashtra. His descendents established themselves and became rulers at Vallabhi. Ages later, Prince Guhaditya also known as Guhil obtained the small kingdom of Idar. His name became the patronymic Grahilot, later corrupted to Gahlot.
The Gahlot Dynasty sometimes supported the Pratiharas (the dominant clan in Rajasthan) along with the Chauhans against the Arab invasions of India in the 7th century. Later the wilderness of Idar had to be abandoned and the clan settled at Ahar, and the new name Aharya came into use. Around the 12th century the sons of Karan Singh I included Mahup, who established himself at Dungarpur while his younger brother Rahup established himself near Sisodia village. Later the term Sisodia supplanted both Gahlot and Aharya.
Bhartribhatt I - Organized a congregation with descendants of Kanak Sen, in which several States participated. In 823 CE Keshav Dev Sikarwar, the army commander of Rawal Matribhatji of Chittor, along with troops from the Gohils of Pirangarh, Jhalasof Halwad, Chawadas, Chandrawats, Shaktawats, Sikarwars form Sikar, Mangals from Lodwara, Bargujars from Rajurgarh, Bhatejas, Guhilots and the Sisodias from Mewar went on an expansion spree.
Rana Laksha of the SisodiaRajput clan with all his 10 sons had rallied in defense of Chittor but in vain. The Sardars decided that it was time to safeguard the royal lineage. There is mention of only two sons of Rana Laksha by name, Ari Singh and Ajay Singh. Ari Singh I had a son named Hammir Singh I who was taken by his uncle Ajay to Kelwara for safety. After the defeat of Mewar at Chittor by Alauddin Khilji, in which Rana Laksha and his son Ari Singh perished, the people began to rally behind Ajay who pursued a guerrilla campaign until he too died in the 1320s. The Sardars now picked Hamir Singh I as head of the Sisodia clan and rightful heir to the throne of Mewar. He married the daughter of Maldeo of Jalore, who now governed Chittor for the Delhi Sultanate. He overthrew his father-in-law and reclaimed his ancestral homeland.
MaharanaMahendra Singh - "Titular head of clan since India's independence, rule abolished"
Maharana Bhagwat Singh died on 2 November 1984. He has two sons: elder Maharana Mahendra Singh and younger Arvind Singh. Before his death, he founded a trust named Maharana Mewar Foundation and tasked younger son Arvind Singh to look after the trust. Arvind lives in Udaipur's City Palace.
Chief Ministers, British Residents and Political AgentsEdit
Rai Pannalal Mehta (Dewan, from 1878 – September 1894)
The 1st Class Jagirdars, the 1st 16 Umraos (no order of precedence), seated on the either side of the Maharana. Ideally, those to right were seated at right angles to the Gaadi and were called Badi Ole and those to the left, not to feel any inferior, were seated parallel to the Gaadi and were called Munda-barobur (parallel to the face of the Maharana). The visiting dignitaries/guests and some of the relatives of Maharana and main Purohits were seated in front of Maharana’s Gaadi, Saamey-ki-baithak.
a, b = Aik Baithak (same seat/status), any ONE was invited for the Durbar usually as per Osra (alternately / roster)
5th Ranked Thikana Ghanerao was transferred to Marwad with Godwar, the seat was kept vacant for a while, the thikana also had a seat amongst the first class nobles - Sirayat - in the Marwad Court/Durbar.
17. Mahuwada- Descendants of Abdur Rahim Baig of Sindh who bravely assisted Maharana Ari Singh II against the Maratha invasion in AD 1769 and therefore made the 17th Umarao
2nd Class Sardars - Bateesa
There were 32 Jagirdars after 1939. Prior to AD 1935 just four. They were later called Bada Bateesaa. 1. Boheda (Shaktawat)
2. Hamirgadh (Hameergadh) (Veeramdevot-Baba Ranawat)- Elder house of the descendents of the third son of Maharana Udai Singh II (1537–72), Maharana Veeramdeo, also known as Baba Ranawats. They were the first branch of Sisodia rajputs to carry this patronym.
3. Pipalya (Shaktawat)
5. Amargadh (Kanawat)
6. Badi Rupaheli (Badi Roopaheli) (Mertia Rathore)
7. Bambori (Paramaras)
8. Banol  (Jaitmal Rathore)
9. Batherda (Sarangdevot)
10. Bavlas (Ranawat)
12. Bhadesar (Choondawat)
13. Bhagwanpura (Choondawat)
14. Bhopalnagar ( Chauhan)
15. Bhunas ( Bhunawaas, Baba Ranawat)
16. Binota (Shaktawat)
17. Chavand (Choondawat)
18. Dharyavad (Dhariawad) (Ranawat)
19. Falichda (Falichra) (Chauhan)
20. Jarkhana (Dhanerya, Ranawat) Descendants of Second son of the first Shivrati Maharaj Arjun Singh, who was the fourth son of Maharana Sangram Singh II, AD 1710-1734
21 . Kheroda (Mertia Rathore) - Prathvirajot subclan 22. Kareda (Choondawat)
23. Karoi (Ranawat)
24. Kelwa (Jaitmal Rathore)
25. Khairabad (Kherabad) (Veeramdevot-Baba Ranawat)- Elder house of the descendents from the third son of Maharana Udai Singh II (1537–72), Maharana Veeramdeo, also known as Baba Ranawats. They were the first branch of Sisodia rajputs to carry this patronym.
26. Lasani (Choondawat)
27. Loonda (Choondawat)
28. Mahua (Mahuva) (Ranawat)
29. Maharaj ki Netawal (Ranawat)
30. Nimbaheda (Mertia Rathore)
31. Peeladhar (Sisodia) 32. Rampura (Mertia Rathore)
33. Sangramgadh (Choondawat)
34. Sanjela (choondawat)
35. Sanwar (Viramdevot- Baba Ranawat) Elder house of Veeramdevot Ranawats. Descendents from the third son of Maharana Udai Singh II (1537–72), Maharana Viramdeo, also known as Baba Ranawats. They were the first branch of Sisodia rajputs to carry this patronym.
35. Thana (Choondawat)
36. Vijaipur (Bijaipur) (Achlawat-Shaktawat) 37. Panerwa ( Solanki)
Category 3 of Mewad Sardars
1. Aarjya (Ajarya) (Chavda)
2. Amlda (Kanawat)
3. Athun (Athoon) (Poorawat)
4. Bambora (Choondawat)
5. Bansra (Ranawat)
6. Barliawas (Barlyawas) (Ranawat)
7. Bassi (Choondawat)
8. Bhadu (Choondawat)
9. Bhanpura (Dulhawat)
10. Bokhada (Dulhawat)
11. Dabla (Mertia)
12. bhindar (KUNDAI Sisodia)
13. Gadar Mala (Gadarmala)
14. Gudla (Gudlan) (Chauhan)
15. Gurlan (Poorawat)
17. Hinta (Shaktawat)
18. Jagpura (Mertia Rathore)
19. Jamoli (Baba)
21. Jeewana (Veeramdevot- Baba Ranawat)- descendents of the third son of Maharana Udai Singh II (1537–72), Maharana Veeramdeo, also known as Baba Ranawats. They were the first branch of Sisodia rajputs to carry this patronym.
22. Jhadol (Jharol) (Jhala)
24. Kankarwa/Khartana (Veeramdevot-Baba Ranawat)- descendents of the third son of Maharana Udai Singh II (1537–72), Maharana Veeramdeo, also known as Baba Ranawats. They were the first branch of Sisodia rajputs to carry this patronym.
25. Kantora (Rathore)
26. Kerya (Poorawat)
27. Kunthawas (Kunthavas) (Shaktawat), (Sisodiya)
28. Mangrop (Poorawat)
29. Marchya Khedi(Solanki)
32. Neemri (Mahecha Rathore)
33. Pahuna (Veeramdevot- Baba Ranawat)descendents of the third son of Maharana Udai Singh II (1537–72), Maharana Veeramdeo, also known as Baba Ranawats. They were the first branch of Sisodia rajputs to carry this patronym.
34. Pansal (Shaktawat)
35. Parsad (Prasad) (Sisodia)
36. Pithawas (Peethwas) (Choondawat)
37. Rood (Shaktawat)
38. Roopnagar (Rupnagar) (Solanki)
39. Samal (Dulhawat)
40. Satola (Choondawat)
41. Semari (Shaktawat)
42. Khodiyo Ka Khera (Shaktawat)
43. Sihar (Shaktawat)
44. Singhada (Dulhawat)
45. Singoli (Poorawat)
46. Taal (Choondawat)
47. Taloli (Choondawat)
48. Junda (Chouhan)
50 Mandakala (Shaktawat) 51. bhanpura ranawat 52. Tana(jhala) 53. Ogna ( Solanki)
At the time of the 1901 census, the state was divided into 17 administrative sub-divisions - 11 zilas and 6 parganas, the difference between a zila and pargana being that the latter was larger and broken up into further subdivisions. Further, there were 28 principal jagirs and 2 bhumats. Each zila was administered by a hakim, a state official, supported at each tehsil (a zila sub-division) by an assistant hakim.
The principal forms of land tenure in the state were jagir, bhum, sasan, and khalsa. Jagirs were grants of land made in recognition service of a civil or political nature. Jagirdars, the holders of jagir, usually paid a fixed annual tribute called chhatund on an annual basis, and nazarana on the succession of a new Maharana. On the death of a jagirdar, the jagir reverted to the Maharana until the late jagirdar's successor was recognized by the Maharana. Those holding bhum tenures paid a small tribute or nominal quit-rent (bhum barar), and were liable to be called on for local service. Sasan (also known as muafi) holders were not liable for payments to the Maharana but taxes were sometimes recovered from them. Khalsa (crown lands) holders were cultivators who were undisturbed in their possession as long as they continued to pay land revenue. As of 1912, 38% of the land revenue of the State was from khalsa land, the rest from other forms of tenure.