Jahandar Shah

ninth Mughal emperor
Jahandar Shah
Jahandar Shah, Mughal Emperor..jpg
Flag of the Mughal Empire (triangular).svg 8th Mughal Emperor
Reign 27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713
Coronation 29 March 1712 at Lahore
Predecessor Bahadur Shah I
Successor Farrukhsiyar
Born (1661-05-09)9 May 1661
Deccan, Mughal Empire
Died 12 February 1713(1713-02-12) (aged 51)
Delhi, Mughal Empire
Burial Humayun's Tomb
Spouse Saidat-un-Nisa Begum
Imtiaz Mahal Begum
Anup Bai
Issue Muhammad Azhar-ud-Din Bahadur
A'az-ud-Din Wali Ahd Bahadur
Muhammad Aziz-ud-Din Bahadur Alamgir II
Izz-ud-Din Bahadur
Said-un-Nisa Begum
Iffat Ara Begum
Rabi Begum
Full name
Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Beig Mohammed Khan Jahandar Shah Bahadur
Dynasty Timurid
Father Bahadur Shah I
Mother Nizam Bai
Religion Islam

Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Beig Mohammed Khan also called Jahandar Shah (10 May 1661 – 12 February 1713) was a Mughal Emperor who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713, "a worthless debauch, became emperor after liquidating his three brothers."[1] His title was Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Quran Padshah-i-Jahan (Khuld Aramgah).

Contents

Early lifeEdit

Prince Jahandar Shah was born on 10 May 1661 in Deccan Subah, to emperor Bahadur Shah I and Nizam Bai, daughter of Mirza Raja Jai Singh. He was appointed Vizier of Balkh in 1671 by his grandfather Aurangzeb.

Upon the death of their father on 27 February 1712, he and his brother, Azim-ush-Shan, both declared themselves emperor and battled for succession. Azim-us-Shan was killed on 17 March 1712, and Jahandar Shah was able to rule for eleven months. Before coming to the throne, Jahandar Shah had sailed around the Indian ocean, had been a very prosperous trader, and was later appointed Subedar of Sindh. He fathered three sons, including Aziz-ud-Din, who reigned as Mughal emperor between 1754 and 1759.

ReignEdit

 
Lal Kunwar
 
Mughal Army commander Abdus Samad Khan Bahadur being received by Jahandar Shah

Jahandar Shah, was very frivolous in lifestyle, his court was enlivened by dancing and entertainment. He chose a favourite wife, Lal Kunwar who was a mere dancing girl before her elevation to the position of Queen Consort. Together they shocked the Mughal Empire and were even opposed by Aurangzeb's surviving daughter Zinat-un-Nissa.

His authority was rejected by the third Nawab of the Carnatic Muhammed Saadatullah Khan I, who killed De Singh of Orchha, mainly because the Nawab believed that he was the righteous commander of the Gingee Fort, and began a smear campaign referring to Jahandar Shah as an usurper to the Mughal throne. To further strengthen his authority Jahandar Shah sent gifts to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmad III.[2]

RebellionEdit

The Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah died in 1712 and was succeeded by Jahandar Shah, the puppet Mughal ruler. Banda Singh Bahadur knew his weaknesses, and between his region he captured Punjab region, east of Lahore along with the Mughal territories near trans-Yamuna region. The Raja of Dwangarh Umar Singh Rajawat Was Serving The Officer of Deccan Wars during Aurangzeb Reign. He was greatly respected by The Emperor who appointed him as the Commander of 3000 Cavalry. After Aurangzeb died Umar Singh sided with the heir apparent Muhammad Azam Shah, who was killed with all his sons in 1707. Umar Singh never returned to the Mughal Court after Jahandar Shah became Emperor, instead Reached Lahore. The Emperor send his son Alamgir 2 as Governor of Lahore. Umar Singh attacked the Fort in 1713 February. The Prince Alamgir was only 14 years old when he ordered his officers to Fight against Umar Singh. Alamgir was defeated by And he under arrested and sent to Farruksiyar The New Mughal Emperor. In 1755 Alamgir became emperor order to Lahore Fort attacking The Raja Jagat Singh Surrended Mughals. Lahore was under Mughal Province

DeathEdit

 
Silver coin issued from Shahjahanabad, during the reign of Jahandar Shah.

He was defeated in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713 by Farrukhsiyar, his nephew and the second son of Azim-ush-Shan, with the support of the Syed Brothers. He fled to Delhi, where he was captured and handed over to the new Emperor, who confined him along with Lal Kunwar. He lived in confinement for a month, until 11 February 1713, when professional stranglers were sent to murder him. His eldest son, Prince Aazuddin, died on 12 December 1744.

CoinsEdit

Jahandar Shah reintroduced couplets and issued coins in gold, silver, and copper. Two couplets i.e Abu al-Fateh and Sahab Qiran were used. Copper coins were issued in both weight standard i.e 20 grams and 14 grams.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 193. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  2. ^ Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (1989-01-01). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. 


Jahandar Shah
Preceded by
Bahadur Shah I
Mughal Emperor
1712–1713
Succeeded by
Farrukhsiyar