Tove Marika Jansson (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈtuːve ˈjɑːnsːon] ; 9 August 1914 – 27 June 2001) was a Swedish-speaking Finnish author, novelist, painter, illustrator and comic strip author. Brought up by artistic parents, Jansson studied art from 1930 to 1938 in Helsinki, Stockholm, and Paris. She held her first solo art exhibition in 1943. Over the same period, she penned short stories and articles for publication, and subsequently drew illustrations for book covers, advertisements, and postcards. She continued her work as an artist and writer for the rest of her life.

Tove Jansson
c. 1970
c. 1970
BornTove Marika Jansson
(1914-08-09)9 August 1914
Helsinki, Grand Duchy of Finland
Died27 June 2001(2001-06-27) (aged 86)
Helsinki, Finland
OccupationArtist, writer
Notable worksThe Moomins
The Summer Book
Notable awardsHans Christian Andersen Award
Order of the Smile
Pro Finlandia
PartnerTuulikki Pietilä

Jansson wrote the Moomin novel series for children, starting with the 1945 The Moomins and the Great Flood. The following two books, Comet in Moominland and Finn Family Moomintroll, published in 1946 and 1948 respectively, were highly successful, and sales of the first book increased correspondingly. For her work as a children's author she received the Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1966; among her many later awards was the Selma Lagerlöf Prize in 1992. Her Moomin stories have been adapted for the theatre, the cinema, and as an opera.

She held a solo exhibition of paintings in 1955, and five more between 1960 and 1970. She carried out several commissions for murals in public buildings around Finland between 1945 and 1984. She created the illustrations both for her own books and for classics including Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and The Hobbit.

Starting with the semi-autobiographical Bildhuggarens dotter (Sculptor's Daughter) in 1968, Jansson wrote six novels, including the admired[1] Sommarboken (The Summer Book), and five short story collections for adults.

Early life edit

Jansson in 1923

Tove Jansson was born in Helsinki, in the Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous state ruled by the Russian Empire at the time. Her family, part of the Swedish-speaking minority of Finland, was an artistic one: her father, Viktor Jansson, was a sculptor, and her mother, Signe Hammarsten-Jansson, was a Swedish-born graphic designer and illustrator. Tove's siblings also became artists: Per Olov Jansson became a photographer and Lars Jansson an author and cartoonist. Whilst their home was in Helsinki, the family spent many of their summers in a rented cottage on one of the islands of Pellinki near Porvoo, 50 km (31 miles) east of Helsinki;[2] The Söderskär Lighthouse island off Porvoo in the Gulf of Finland may have helped to inspire her later books, such as Moominpappa at Sea.[3]

Jansson went to Finland's first co-educational school, Läroverket för gossar och flickor in Helsinki.[4] She then studied at Konstfack (University College of Arts, Crafts and Design), in Stockholm in 1930–1933, the Graphic School of the Finnish Academy of Fine Arts in 1933–1937, and finally at L'École d'Adrien Holy and L'École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1938.[5] Her first solo exhibition was held in 1943.[2]

At age 14, Jansson wrote and illustrated her first picture book Sara och Pelle och näckens bläckfiskar (Sara and Pelle and Neptune's Children).[2][6] It was not published until 1933. She also sold drawings that were published in magazines in the 1920s.[2]

In the 1930s Jansson made several trips to other European countries. She drew from these for her short stories and articles, which she also illustrated, and which were also published in magazines, periodicals and daily papers. During this period, Jansson also designed many book covers, adverts and postcards. Following her mother's example, she drew illustrations for Garm, a Finnish-Swedish political and satirical magazine.[2]

Work edit

Moomins edit

Cover of Finn Family Moomintroll (1948)

Jansson is principally known as the author of the Moomin books. Jansson created the Moomintrolls, a family who are white, round and smooth in appearance, with large snouts that make them vaguely resemble hippopotamuses. She first drew a deliberately ugly creature as a caricature of Immanuel Kant, the philosopher; a kinder version became the Moomintroll.[7] The first book, The Moomins and the Great Flood, was written in 1945. Although the primary characters are Moominmamma and Moomintroll, most of the principal characters of later stories were only introduced in the next book, so The Moomins and the Great Flood is frequently considered a forerunner to the main series. The book was not a success, but the next two installments in the Moomin series, Comet in Moominland (1946) and Finn Family Moomintroll (1948), brought Jansson some fame.[a][7]

The style of the Moomin books changed as time went by. The first books, written starting just after the Second World War, up to Moominland Midwinter (1957), are adventure stories that include floods, comets and supernatural events.[8] The Moomins and the Great Flood deals with Moominmamma and Moomintroll's flight through a dark and scary forest, where they encounter various dangers. In Comet in Moominland, a comet nearly destroys the Moominvalley. Some critics have considered this an allegory of nuclear weapons.[9] Finn Family Moomintroll deals with adventures brought on by the discovery of a magician's hat.[7] The Exploits of Moominpappa (1950) tells the story of Moominpappa's adventurous youth and cheerfully parodies the genre of memoir.[10] Finally, Moominsummer Madness (Farlig midsommar, 1955) is set in a theatre: the Moomins explore the empty building and perform Moominpappa's melodrama.[11]

Moominland Midwinter marks a turning point in the series. Jansson described it as a book about “what it is like when things get difficult”: the story focuses on Moomintroll, who wakes up in the middle of the winter (Moomins hibernate from November to April), and has to cope with the strange and unfriendly world he finds.[12][13] The short story collection Tales from Moominvalley (1962) and the novels Moominpappa at Sea (1965) and Moominvalley in November (1970) are serious and psychologically searching books, far removed from the light-heartedness and cheerful humor of Finn Family Moomintroll.[13] Moominvalley in November, in which the Moomin family themselves never appear, is especially sombre in tone, possibly in consequence of the death of Jansson's mother during the year that it was written. Because of this, it has been described as being a "textbook on letting go, being a mature orphan, existing spiritually alone".[2] Following this book, Jansson stated that she "couldn't go back and find that happy Moominvalley again" and so decided to stop writing the Moomin books.[14]

In addition to the Moomin novels and short stories, Tove Jansson wrote and illustrated four picture books: The Book about Moomin, Mymble and Little My (1952),[15] Who will Comfort Toffle? (1960), The Dangerous Journey (1977) and An Unwanted Guest (1980). As the Moomins' fame grew, two of the original novels, Comet in Moominland and The Exploits of Moominpappa, were revised[b] by Jansson and republished.[17][18]

Jansson in 1956 with Moomintroll dolls made by Atelier Fauni

Critics have interpreted various Moomin characters as being inspired by real people, especially members of the author's family and close friends, and Jansson spoke in interviews about the backgrounds of, and possible models for, her characters.[2] The personality of Tuulikki Pietilä, Jansson's partner, inspired the character Too-Ticky in Moominland Midwinter,[5][2] while Moomintroll and Little My have been seen as psychological self-portraits of the artist.[5][2] The Moomins relate strongly to Jansson's own family – they were bohemian and lived close to nature. Jansson remained close to her mother until her mother's death in 1970; even after Tove had become an adult, the two often traveled together, and during her final years Signe lived with Tove part-time.[2] Moominpappa and Moominmamma are often seen as portraits of Jansson's parents.[5][2]

Other writing edit

Jansson's first foray outside children's literature was Bildhuggarens dotter (Sculptor's Daughter), a semi-autobiographical novel published in 1968. She went on to write five more novels for adults, including Sommarboken (The Summer Book) and five collections of short stories. The Summer Book is the best known of her adult fiction; it describes the summer stay on an island of a young girl and her grandmother. The girl is modelled on her niece, Sophia Jansson; the girl's father on Sophia's father, Lars Jansson; and the grandmother on Tove's mother Signe.[1]

Wartime satire in Garm magazine edit

Cover of Garm magazine, October 1944, lampooning Adolf Hitler as "self-important and comic"[19]

Tove Jansson worked as an illustrator and cartoonist for the Swedish-language satirical magazine Garm from 1929 to 1953, when the magazine ceased production.[20] One of her political cartoons achieved a brief international fame: she drew Adolf Hitler as a crying baby in diapers, surrounded by Neville Chamberlain and other great European leaders, who tried to calm the baby down by giving it slices of cake – Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, etc. In the Second World War, during which Finland fought against the Soviet Union, part of the time cooperating with Nazi Germany,[21] her cover illustrations for Garm lampooned both Hitler and Joseph Stalin: in one, Stalin draws his sword from his impressively long scabbard, only to find it absurdly short; in another, multiple Hitlers ransack a house, carrying away food and artworks. In The Spectator's view, Jansson made both "Hitler and Stalin appear as preposterous little figures, self-important and comic".[19]

Comic strip artist edit

Her earliest comic strips were created for productions including Lunkentus (Prickinas och Fabians äventyr, 1929), Vårbrodd (Fotbollen som Flög till Himlen', 1930), and Allas Krönika (Palle och Göran gå till sjöss, 1933).[22]

The figure of the Moomintroll appeared first in Jansson's political cartoons, where it was used as a signature character near the artist's name. This "Proto-Moomin", then called Snork or Niisku,[2] was thin and ugly, with a long, narrow nose and devilish tail. Jansson said that she had designed the Moomins in her youth: after she lost a philosophical quarrel about Immanuel Kant with one of her brothers, she drew "the ugliest creature imaginable" on the wall of their outhouse and wrote under it "Kant". This Moomin later gained weight and a more pleasant appearance, but in the first Moomin book The Moomins and the Great Flood (originally Småtrollen och den stora översvämningen), the Immanuel-Kant-Moomin is still perceptible. The name Moomin comes from Tove Jansson's uncle, Einar Hammarsten: when she was studying in Stockholm and living with her Swedish relatives, her uncle tried to stop her pilfering food by telling her that a "Moomintroll" lived in the kitchen closet and breathed cold air down people's necks.[2]

In 1952, after Comet in Moominland and Finn Family Moomintroll had been translated into English, a British newspaper man, Charles Sutton, asked if Tove Jansson would be interested in drawing comic strips about the Moomins.[23] Jansson accepted the offer.[23] The comic strip Moomintroll started in the London Evening News, which had a circulation of 12 million at that time, making it the world's largest daily newspaper.[23] The strip spread to hundreds of other newspapers in 12 countries.[23]

Painter and illustrator edit

Paintings edit

Although she became known first and foremost as an author, Tove Jansson considered her careers as author and painter to be of equal importance. She painted throughout her life. She exhibited during the 1930s and early 1940s, holding her first solo exhibition in 1943. Despite generally positive reviews, criticism induced Jansson to refine her style; her 1955 solo exhibition was simpler in detail and content. Between 1960 and 1970 she held five more solo exhibitions.[2] The National Biography of Finland describes Jansson as going "against the conventional image of an artist with her unusually even balance between visual art and writing."[2]

Murals edit

Throughout her career, Jansson created a series of commissioned murals and public works which may still be viewed in their original locations, including:

Illustrations edit

Detail of Jansson's drawing of Smaug destroying Lake-town, a scene from a 1962 edition of The Hobbit. Her work helped to define how fantasy could be illustrated,[24] but has been seen as unfashionably "expressive".[25][26]

As well as illustrating her own books, Jansson illustrated Swedish translations of classics such as Lewis Carroll's The Hunting of the Snark and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.[26]

She created a set of illustrations for the 1962 Swedish edition of J. R. R. Tolkien's 1937 children's book The Hobbit.[26] The scholar of literature Björn Sundmark states that Jansson's work helped to define how Tolkien's Middle-earth fantasy could be depicted visually.[24] The edition with her illustrations was not reprinted for many years,[c] even though reviewers and "Tolkienists" liked Jansson's "expressive"[25] images. Sundmark suggests that the reason was that in the 1960s, a new, more realistic style became the norm for fantasy art.[25]

Adaptations edit

Several stage productions have been made from Jansson's Moomin series, including a number that Jansson herself was involved in. The earliest production was a 1949 theatrical version of Comet in Moominland performed at Åbo Svenska Teater.[2][5] In the early 1950s, Jansson collaborated on Moomin-themed children's plays with Vivica Bandler. In 1952, Jansson designed stage settings and dresses for Pessi and Illusia, a ballet by Ahti Sonninen (Radio tekee murron) which was performed at the Finnish National Opera.[2] By 1958, Jansson began to become directly involved in theater as Lilla Teater produced Troll i kulisserna (Troll in the wings), a play with lyrics by Jansson and music composed by Erna Tauro.[5] The production was a success, despite the actors' difficulties speaking through their bulbous "Moominsnouts",[23] and later performances were held in Sweden and Norway.[5]

In 1974 the first Moomin opera was produced, with music composed by Ilkka Kuusisto.[5] The Moomintrolls have been adapted to media including television animations[2] such as the 1990 Moomin series,[27] and feature films.[28]

Personal life edit

Tuulikki Pietilä, Tove Jansson and her mother Signe at Klovharu, the island in the Porvoo archipelago where the Janssons had a summer house, 1958

Jansson had several male lovers, including the political philosopher Atos Wirtanen, and briefly became engaged to him.[2] He was the inspiration for the Moomin character Snufkin.[29] However, she eventually "went over to the spook side" as she put it—a coded expression for homosexuality[30][31][32]—and developed a secret love affair with the married theater director Vivica Bandler.[29]

In 1956 Jansson met her lifelong partner, Tuulikki Pietilä, known as "Tooti". In Helsinki they lived apart but nearby, so they could meet unnoticed, but this did not resolve the problem that Jansson's mother often came to stay.[33][34][d] They found a partial solution by building a house on a small island in the Gulf of Finland, and staying there for the summer.[33] Jansson's and Pietilä's travels and summers spent together on the Klovharu island in Pellinki have been captured on several hours of film, shot by Pietilä. Several documentaries have been made of this footage, the latest being Haru, yksinäinen saari (Haru, the lonely island) (1998)[35] and Tove ja Tooti Euroopassa (Tove and Tooti in Europe) (2004).[36] The character Too-ticky, described by Sue Prideaux as "a wild-haired artistic troll in a Breton sweater and a beret",[23] was inspired by Pietilä.[23]

Jansson died on 27 June 2001 at the age of 86.[23] She is buried at the Hietaniemi Cemetery in Helsinki.[37]

Cultural legacy edit

The first major retrospective exhibition of Jansson's art in the United Kingdom was held at the Dulwich Picture Gallery, 2017–2018.[38]

Documentaries and exhibitions of her work edit

In 1968, Swedish public TV, SVT, made a documentary about Tove called Moomins and the Sea (39 min.).[39] Jansson's books, originally written in Swedish, have been translated into 45 languages.[40] The Moomin Museum in Tampere displays much of Jansson's work on the Moomins.[41] There is a Moomin theme park named Moomin World in Naantali. In 2012, the BBC broadcast a one-hour documentary on Jansson, Moominland Tales: The Life of Tove Jansson.[42] A Moominvalley Park opened at Hannō, Japan in 2019.[43]

In March 2014, the Ateneum Art Museum opened a major centenary exhibition showcasing Jansson's works as an artist, an illustrator, a political caricaturist and the creator of the Moomins. The exhibition drew nearly 300,000 visitors in six months.[44] After Helsinki the exhibition embarked on a tour in Japan to visit five Japanese museums.[45][46]

In January 2016, a permanent Tove Jansson exhibition of murals, an oil painting, photographs and sketches opened at the Helsinki Art Museum. The two murals, Party in the Countryside and Party in the City were created for Helsinki City Hall's Kaupunginkellari restaurant.[47] From October 2017 to January 2018, the Dulwich Picture Gallery held an exhibition of Jansson's paintings, illustrations, and cartoons.[48] This was the first major retrospective exhibition of her work in the United Kingdom.[38]

A biopic, titled Tove, directed by Zaida Bergroth was released in October 2020.[49]

Commemorations edit

Memorial plaque to Jansson at her home in Ullanlinnankatu, Helsinki

Jansson was selected as the main motif in the 2004 minting of a Finnish commemorative coin, the €10 Tove Jansson and Finnish Children's Culture commemorative coin. The obverse depicts a combination of her portrait and the skyline, an artist's palette, a crescent and a sailing boat. The reverse features three Moomin characters. In 2014 she was again featured on a commemorative coin, this time of €20, becoming the only person other than the former Finnish president Urho Kekkonen to be granted two such coins.[50] She was featured on a €2 commemorative coin that entered general circulation in June 2014.[51] Since 1988, Finland's Post has released several postage stamp sets and one postal card with Moomin motifs.[52] In 2014, Jansson herself was featured on a Finnish stamp set.[53] In 2014 the City of Helsinki honored Jansson by renaming a park near her childhood home in Katajanokka "Tove Jansson's Park" (Finnish: Tove Janssonin puisto, Swedish: Tove Janssons park).[54][55]

With a new animated series, Moominvalley[56] broadcast in 2019, Rhianna Pratchett wrote an article about the impact Jansson had had on her father, the science fiction author Terry Pratchett; he called Jansson one of the greatest children's writers ever, and credited her writing as one of the reasons he became an author.[57]

Bibliography edit

The Moomin books edit

Novels edit

Short story collections edit

Picture books edit

Comic strips edit

  • Mumin, Books 1–7 (1977–1981, Moomin; Books 3–7 with Lars Jansson) (Books 1–6 released in English).[58]

Other books edit

Novels edit

Short story collections edit

  • Bildhuggarens dotter (1968, Sculptor's Daughter) (semi-autobiographical)
  • Lyssnerskan (1971, The Listener)
  • Dockskåpet och andra berättelser (1978, lit. "The Doll's House and Other Stories", translated as Art in Nature)
  • Resa med lätt bagage (1987, Travelling Light)
  • Brev från Klara och andra berättelser (1991, Letters from Klara and Other Stories)
  • Meddelande. Noveller i urval 1971–1997 (1998 compilation, Messages: Selected Stories 1971–1997)
  • A Winter Book (Sort of Books, 2006). Selected and introduced by Ali Smith, from Sculptor's Daughter, Messages, The Listener, Letters from Klara, and Traveling Light.
  • The Woman Who Borrowed Memories (New York Review Books, 2014). Selections from The Listener, The Doll's House, Traveling Light, Letters from Klara, and Messages. Translated by Thomas Teal and Silvester Mazzarella.

Miscellaneous edit

  • Sara och Pelle och näckens bläckfiskar (under the pseudonym of Vera Haij, 1933, Sara and Pelle and the Octopuses of the Water Sprite)
  • Anteckningar från en ö (1993, Notes from an Island; autobiography; illustrated by Tuulikki Pietilä)
  • Letters from Tove (2019) (personal letters, edited by Boel Westin and Helen Svensson)

Awards edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ The original title of Finn Family Moomintroll, Trollkarlens Hatt, which would more literally be The Magician's Hat in English.
  2. ^ The first edition (1946) of Comet in Moominland echoed the threat to Finland of a Soviet takeover at that time. The 1956 and 1968 editions were edited as the threats changed. By 1968, that was nuclear war.[16]
  3. ^ It was eventually reprinted in 1994 in the same 24 cm format by Rabén Prisma, ISBN 978-9-15182-727-8.
  4. ^ Same-sex marriage in Finland was legalized in 2017.

References edit

  1. ^ a b Westin, Boel (2013). Tove Jansson - Ord, bild, liv (in Swedish). Albert Bonniers. ISBN 978-9-51-501672-0.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Ahola, Suvi (2008). "Jansson, Tove (1914–2001)". Biografiakeskus. Translated by Fletcher, Roderick. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2009.
  3. ^ "Söderskär Lighthouse". Helsinki This Week. 3 July 2019. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Tove Jansson". Retrieved 5 December 2023. Läroverket för gossar och flickor (an educational institution for boys and girls), also known as Brobergska samskolan, Helsinki 1923–1930
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Liukkonen, Petri. "Tove Jansson". Books and Writers ( Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008.
  6. ^ "ArchWay With Words". Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Bosworth, Mark (13 March 2014). "Tove Jansson: Love, war and the Moomins". BBC. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  8. ^ Allardice, Lisa (6 April 2019). "'It is a religion': how the world went mad for Moomins". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  9. ^ Schoolfield, George C. (1998). A history of Finland's literature. University of Nebraska Press. p. 572. ISBN 978-0-8032-4189-3.
  10. ^ "Introduction to Moomin books: The Exploits of Moominpappa, 1950". 21 December 2015.
  11. ^ Detweiler, Katelyn (22 April 2010). "Moominsummer Madness Re-read". Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  12. ^ "My favourite book as a kid ... Moominland Midwinter by Tove Jansson". The Guardian. 7 May 2020.
  13. ^ a b "'It is a religion': how the world went mad for Moomins". The Guardian. 6 April 2019.
  14. ^ Burr, Ty (27 July 2001). "Moomin Struck - Tove Jansson: 1914-2001". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  15. ^ Casper, Robert (11 August 2014). "Celebrating Tove Jansson". Library of Congress. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  16. ^ Markkanen, Tapio (2016). "Echoes of Cosmic Events and Global Politics in Moominvalley: Cosmic and Astronomical Sources of Incitement in Tove Jansson's Comet in Moominland". Acta Baltica Historiae et Philosophiae Scientiarum. 4 (1). doi:10.11590/abhps.2016.1.
  17. ^ Jansson, Tove (1956). Mumintrollet på kometjakt (in Swedish) (2nd ed.). Vadstena: Sörlins förlag.
  18. ^ Jansson, Tove (1956). Muminpappans memoarer (in Swedish) (2nd ed.). Stockholm: Geber.
  19. ^ a b McDonagh, Melanie (18 November 2017). "A chance to see the Moomins' creator for the genius she really was: Tove Janssons reviewed". The Spectator (November 2017). Archived from the original on 6 January 2018.
  20. ^ Ant O'Neill (2017). "Moominvalley Fossils: Translating the Early Comics of Tove Jansson". Bookbird: A Journal of International Children's Literature. 55 (2): 52. doi:10.1353/bkb.2017.0023. ISSN 0006-7377. S2CID 151535137.
  21. ^ Taylor, Alan (23 May 2013). "Finland in World War II". The Atlantic. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  22. ^ "Comic creator: Tove Jansson". Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Prideaux, Sue (15 January 2014). "Tove Jansson: Life, Art, Words by Boel Westin – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  24. ^ a b Sundmark, Björn (2020). "The Translation and Visualization of Tolkien's The Hobbit into Swedish, the Aesthetics of Fantasy, and Tove Jansson's Illustrations". Translating and Transmediating Children's Literature. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 117–132. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-52527-9_7. ISBN 978-3-030-52526-2. S2CID 226550272.
  25. ^ a b c Sundmark, Björn (2014). ""En hobbit och ett mumintroll skulle kunna mötas i bästa sämja": Receptionen av Bilbo, en hobbits äventyr (1962)" ["A hobbit and a moomintroll would be able to meet in complete harmony": Reception of 'Bilbo, en hobbits äventyr']. Barnboken (in Swedish). 37. The Swedish Institute for Children's Books. doi:10.14811/clr.v37i0.186. hdl:2043/20341. ISSN 0347-772X.
  26. ^ a b c "Tove Jansson's illustrations for Carroll and Tolkien". British Library: European Studies Blog. 8 November 2021.
  27. ^ Clements, Jonathan; McCarthy, Helen (2006). The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917 (Revised and Expanded ed.). Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 428. ISBN 978-1933330105.
  28. ^ "The 58th BFI London Film Festival in partnership with American Express® announces full 2014 programme". 4 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  29. ^ a b Frank, Priscilla (14 September 2017). "Meet The Queer, Anti-Fascist Woman Behind The Freakishly Lovable 'Moomins'". HuffPost. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  30. ^ "Mamma of all the Moomins". Evening Standard. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  31. ^ "The Gay Love Stories of Moomin and the Queer Radicality of Tove Jansson". Autostraddle. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  32. ^ Vanderhooft, JoSelle (2 May 2010). "Tove Jansson: Out of the Closet". Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  33. ^ a b Scott, Izabella (May 2018). "The Party" (PDF). So It Goes (11).
  34. ^ Heti, Seila (30 March 2020). "Inside Tove Jansson's Private Universe". The New Yorker. In 1956, [Jansson] met Tuulikki Pietilä ("Tooti"), a prolific graphic artist and engraver. They would remain partners for forty-five years, until Jansson's death. But, as Westin and Svensson put it, "anyone who lived with Tove Jansson also had to live with her family". Her mother, nicknamed Ham, stayed with Jansson on and off. Even as a teenager, preparing to go away to school, Jansson had worried about her mother. In a letter from 1961, she describes the stress of managing both Tooti and Ham in their "all-female household." She felt that it had become impossible to please one without displeasing the other, and during a time of intense strife she wrote to a friend, "Sometimes I think I hate them both and it makes me feel ill".
  35. ^ National Audiovisual Institute (10 January 1998). "Haru, yksinäisten saari". Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  36. ^ Cederström, Kanerva; Tanner, Riikka. "Tove ja Tooti Euroopassa". Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  37. ^ "Hietaniemen hautausmaa – merkittäviä vainajia" [Hietaniemi Cemetery - significant deceased] (PDF). Helsingin seurakuntayhtymä. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  38. ^ a b Kennedy, Maev (22 October 2017). "Moomins and more: UK show to exhibit Tove Jansson's broader work". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  39. ^ Mumin och havet [Moomins and the Sea] (in Swedish), archived from the original on 6 April 2015, retrieved 15 March 2019
  40. ^ Hällsten, Annika (22 January 2014). "Boksuccé efterlyses". Hufvudstadsbladet. p. 21.
  41. ^ "Tällainen on maailman ainoa Muumimuseo – Ensimmäiset japanilaisturistit paikalla jo tunteja ennen avajaisia" [This is the only Moomin Museum in the world - The first Japanese tourists arrive hours before the opening]. Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 17 June 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  42. ^ "BBC Four - Moominland Tales: The Life of Tove Jansson". BBC.
  43. ^ "The first Moomin theme park outside Finland is simply magical – and officially open! See the full photo story from Moominvalley Park, Japan". 17 March 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  44. ^ "The Tove Jansson centenary exhibition attracted 293,837 visitors". Ateneum Art Museum. 7 September 2014. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  45. ^ "Tove Jansson 14.03.2014 – 07.09.2014". Ateneum Art Museum. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  46. ^ "Ei vain muumien äiti – Tove Janssonilla oli taiteilijana sadat kasvot" [Not just the mother of the moomins – Tove Jansson had hundreds of faces as an artist] (in Finnish). Yle Uutiset. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  47. ^ "Tove Jansson". Helsinki Art Museum. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  48. ^ "Tove Jansson (1914-2001)". Dulwich Picture Gallery. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  49. ^ "New feature drama film about Tove Jansson to premiere in 2020". 18 June 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  50. ^ "Another collector coin is minted in honour of Tove Jansson". Mint of Finland. 30 January 2014. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
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