Timeline of quantum computing and communication

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This is a timeline of quantum computing.



  • Stephen Wiesner invents conjugate coding. (manuscript written while participating in the Columbia University student protests of April 1968 and eventually published in ACM SIGACT News 15(1):78–88) [1]





  • R. P. Poplavskii publishes "Thermodynamical models of information processing" (in Russian)[4] which showed the computational infeasibility of simulating quantum systems on classical computers, due to the superposition principle.


  • Polish mathematical physicist Roman Stanisław Ingarden publishes a seminal paper entitled "Quantum Information Theory" in Reports on Mathematical Physics, vol. 10, 43–72, 1976. (The paper was submitted in 1975.) It is one of the first attempts at creating a quantum information theory, showing that Shannon information theory cannot directly be generalized to the quantum case, but rather that it is possible to construct a quantum information theory, which is a generalization of Shannon's theory, within the formalism of a generalized quantum mechanics of open systems and a generalized concept of observables (the so-called semi-observables).



  • Paul Benioff describes the first quantum mechanical model of a computer. In this work, Benioff showed that a computer could operate under the laws of quantum mechanics by describing a Schrödinger equation description of Turing machines, laying a foundation for further work in quantum computing. The paper [5] was submitted in June 1979 and published in April 1980.
  • Yuri Manin briefly motivates the idea of quantum computing[6]
  • Tommaso Toffoli introduces the reversible Toffoli gate,[7] which, together with the NOT and XOR gates provides a universal set for reversible classical computation.


  • At the First Conference on the Physics of Computation, held at MIT in May, Paul Benioff and Richard Feynman give talks on quantum computing. Benioff's built on his earlier 1980 work showing that a computer can operate under the laws of quantum mechanics. The talk was titled “Quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of discrete processes that erase their own histories: application to Turing machines”.[8] In Feynman's talk, he observed that it appeared to be impossible to efficiently simulate an evolution of a quantum system on a classical computer, and he proposed a basic model for a quantum computer.[9]





  • Yoshihisa Yamamoto (scientist) and K. Igeta propose the first physical realization of a quantum computer, including Feynman's CNOT gate.[15] Their approach uses atoms and photons and is the progenitor of modern quantum computing and networking protocols using photons to transmit qubits and atoms to perform two-qubit operations.





  • David Deutsch and Richard Jozsa propose a computational problem that can be solved efficiently with the determinist Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm on a quantum computer, but for which no deterministic classical algorithm is possible. This was perhaps the earliest result in the computational complexity of quantum computers, proving that they were capable of performing some well-defined computational task more efficiently than any classical computer.





  • Lov Grover, at Bell Labs, invents the quantum database search algorithm. The quadratic speedup is not as dramatic as the speedup for factoring, discrete logs, or physics simulations. However, the algorithm can be applied to a much wider variety of problems. Any problem that has to be solved by random, brute-force search, can take advantage of this quadratic speedup (in the number of search queries).
  • The United States Government, particularly in a joint partnership of the Army Research Office (now part of the Army Research Laboratory) and the National Security Agency, issues the first public call for research proposals in quantum information processing.
  • Andrew Steane designs Steane codes for error correction.[24]
  • David P. DiVincenzo, from IBM, proposes a list of minimal requirements for creating a quantum computer.[25]




  • Samuel L. Braunstein and collaborators show that none of the bulk NMR experiments performed to date contained any entanglement, the quantum states being too strongly mixed. This is seen as evidence that NMR computers would likely not yield a benefit over classical computers. It remains an open question, however, whether entanglement is necessary for quantum computational speedup.[31]
  • Gabriel Aeppli, Thomas Felix Rosenbaum and colleagues demonstrate experimentally the basic concepts of quantum annealing in a condensed matter system.
  • Yasunobu Nakamura and Jaw-Shen Tsai demonstrate that a superconducting circuit can be used as a qubit.[32]







  • First working pure state NMR quantum computer (based on parahydrogen) demonstrated at Oxford University and University of York.
  • Physicists at the University of Innsbruck show deterministic quantum-state teleportation between a pair of trapped calcium ions.[40]
  • First five-photon entanglement demonstrated by Jian-Wei Pan's group at the University of Science and Technology of China, the minimal number of qubits required for universal quantum error correction.[41]



  • Materials Science Department of Oxford University, cage a qubit in a "buckyball" (a molecule of buckminsterfullerene), and demonstrated quantum "bang-bang" error correction.[44]
  • Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign use the Zeno Effect, repeatedly measuring the properties of a photon to gradually change it without actually allowing the photon to reach the program, to search a database without actually "running" the quantum computer.[45]
  • Vlatko Vedral of the University of Leeds and colleagues at the universities of Porto and Vienna found that the photons in ordinary laser light can be quantum mechanically entangled with the vibrations of a macroscopic mirror.[46]
  • Samuel L. Braunstein at the University of York along with the University of Tokyo and the Japan Science and Technology Agency gave the first experimental demonstration of quantum telecloning.[47]
  • Professors at the University of Sheffield develop a means to efficiently produce and manipulate individual photons at high efficiency at room temperature.[48]
  • New error checking method theorized for Josephson junction computers.[49]
  • First 12 qubit quantum computer benchmarked by researchers at the Institute for Quantum Computing and the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, as well as MIT, Cambridge.[50]
  • Two dimensional ion trap developed for quantum computing.[51]
  • Seven atoms placed in stable line, a step on the way to constructing a quantum gate, at the University of Bonn.[52]
  • A team at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands created a device that can manipulate the "up" or "down" spin-states of electrons on quantum dots.[53]
  • University of Arkansas develops quantum dot molecules.[54]
  • Spinning new theory on particle spin brings science closer to quantum computing.[55]
  • University of Copenhagen develops quantum teleportation between photons and atoms.[56]
  • University of Camerino scientists develop theory of macroscopic object entanglement, which has implications for the development of quantum repeaters.[57]
  • Tai-Chang Chiang, at Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, finds that quantum coherence can be maintained in mixed-material systems.[58]
  • Cristophe Boehme, University of Utah, demonstrates the feasibility of reading spin-data on a silicon-phosphorus quantum computer.[59]


  • Subwavelength waveguide developed for light.[60]
  • Single photon emitter for optical fibers developed.[61]
  • Six-photon one-way quantum computer is created in lab.[62]
  • New material proposed for quantum computing.[63]
  • Single atom single photon server devised.[64]
  • First use of Deutsch's Algorithm in a cluster state quantum computer.[65]
  • University of Cambridge develops electron quantum pump.[66]
  • Superior method of qubit coupling developed.[67]
  • Successful demonstration of controllably coupled qubits.[68]
  • Breakthrough in applying spin-based electronics to silicon.[69]
  • Scientists demonstrate quantum state exchange between light and matter.[70]
  • Diamond quantum register developed.[71]
  • Controlled-NOT quantum gates on a pair of superconducting quantum bits realized.[72]
  • Scientists contain, study hundreds of individual atoms in 3D array.[73]
  • Nitrogen in buckyball molecule used in quantum computing.[74]
  • Large number of electrons quantum coupled.[75]
  • Spin-orbit interaction of electrons measured.[76]
  • Atoms quantum manipulated in laser light.[77]
  • Light pulses used to control electron spins.[78]
  • Quantum effects demonstrated across tens of nanometers.[79]
  • Light pulses used to accelerate quantum computing development.[80]
  • Quantum RAM blueprint unveiled.[81]
  • Model of quantum transistor developed.[82]
  • Long distance entanglement demonstrated.[83]
  • Photonic quantum computing used to factor number by two independent labs.[84]
  • Quantum bus developed by two independent labs.[85]
  • Superconducting quantum cable developed.[86]
  • Transmission of qubits demonstrated.[87]
  • Superior qubit material devised.[88]
  • Single electron qubit memory.[89]
  • Bose-Einstein condensate quantum memory developed.[90]
  • D-Wave Systems demonstrates use of a 28-qubit quantum annealing computer.[91]
  • New cryonic method reduces decoherence and increases interaction distance, and thus quantum computing speed.[92]
  • Photonic quantum computer demonstrated.[93]
  • Graphene quantum dot spin qubits proposed.[94]


  • Graphene quantum dot qubits[95]
  • Quantum bit stored[96]
  • 3D qubit-qutrit entanglement demonstrated[97]
  • Analog quantum computing devised[98]
  • Control of quantum tunneling[99]
  • Entangled memory developed[100]
  • Superior NOT gate developed[101]
  • Qutrits developed[102]
  • Quantum logic gate in optical fiber[103]
  • Superior quantum Hall Effect discovered[104]
  • Enduring spin states in quantum dots[105]
  • Molecular magnets proposed for quantum RAM[106]
  • Quasiparticles offer hope of stable quantum computer[107]
  • Image storage may have better storage of qubits[108]
  • Quantum entangled images[109]
  • Quantum state intentionally altered in molecule[110]
  • Electron position controlled in silicon circuit[111]
  • Superconducting electronic circuit pumps microwave photons[112]
  • Amplitude spectroscopy developed[113]
  • Superior quantum computer test developed[114]
  • Optical frequency comb devised[115]
  • Quantum Darwinism supported[116]
  • Hybrid qubit memory developed[117]
  • Qubit stored for over 1 second in atomic nucleus[118]
  • Faster electron spin qubit switching and reading developed[119]
  • Possible non-entanglement quantum computing[120]
  • D-Wave Systems claims to have produced a 128 qubit computer chip, though this claim has yet to be verified.[121]


  • Carbon 12 purified for longer coherence times[122]
  • Lifetime of qubits extended to hundreds of milliseconds[123]
  • Quantum control of photons[124]
  • Quantum entanglement demonstrated over 240 micrometres[125]
  • Qubit lifetime extended by factor of 1000[126]
  • First electronic quantum processor created[127]
  • Six-photon graph state entanglement used to simulate the fractional statistics of anyons living in artificial spin-lattice models[128]
  • Single molecule optical transistor[129]
  • NIST reads, writes individual qubits[130]
  • NIST demonstrates multiple computing operations on qubits[131]
  • First large-scale topological cluster state quantum architecture developed for atom-optics[132]
  • A combination of all of the fundamental elements required to perform scalable quantum computing through the use of qubits stored in the internal states of trapped atomic ions shown[133]
  • Researchers at University of Bristol demonstrate Shor's algorithm on a silicon photonic chip[134]
  • Quantum Computing with an Electron Spin Ensemble[135]
  • Scalable flux qubit demonstrated[136]
  • Photon machine gun developed for quantum computing[137]
  • Quantum algorithm developed for differential equation systems[138]
  • First universal programmable quantum computer unveiled[139]
  • Scientists electrically control quantum states of electrons[140]
  • Google collaborates with D-Wave Systems on image search technology using quantum computing[141]
  • A method for synchronizing the properties of multiple coupled CJJ rf-SQUID flux qubits with a small spread of device parameters due to fabrication variations was demonstrated[142]
  • Realization of Universal Ion Trap Quantum Computation with Decoherence Free Qubits [143]
  • First chip-scale quantum computer[144]



  • Ion trapped in optical trap[145]
  • Optical quantum computer with three qubits calculated the energy spectrum of molecular hydrogen to high precision[146]
  • First germanium laser brings us closer to optical computers[147]
  • Single electron qubit developed[148]
  • Quantum state in macroscopic object[149]
  • New quantum computer cooling method developed[150]
  • Racetrack ion trap developed[151]
  • Evidence for a Moore-Read state in the   quantum Hall plateau,[152] which would be suitable for topological quantum computation
  • Quantum interface between a single photon and a single atom demonstrated[153]
  • LED quantum entanglement demonstrated[154]
  • Multiplexed design speeds up transmission of quantum information through a quantum communications channel[155]
  • Two photon optical chip[156]
  • Microfabricated planar ion traps[157][158]
  • Quantum dot qubits manipulated electrically, not magnetically[159]


  • Entanglement in a solid-state spin ensemble[160]
  • NOON photons in superconducting quantum integrated circuit[161]
  • Quantum antenna[162]
  • Multimode quantum interference[163]
  • Magnetic Resonance applied to quantum computing[164]
  • Quantum pen[165]
  • Atomic "Racing Dual"[166]
  • 14 qubit register[167]
  • D-Wave claims to have developed quantum annealing and introduces their product called D-Wave One. The company claims this is the first commercially available quantum computer[168]
  • Repetitive error correction demonstrated in a quantum processor[169]
  • Diamond quantum computer memory demonstrated[170]
  • Qmodes developed[171]
  • Decoherence suppressed[172]
  • Simplification of controlled operations[173]
  • Ions entangled using microwaves[174]
  • Practical error rates achieved[175]
  • Quantum computer employing Von Neumann architecture[176]
  • Quantum spin Hall topological insulator[177]
  • Two Diamonds Linked by Quantum Entanglement could help develop photonic processors[178]


  • D-Wave claims a quantum computation using 84 qubits.[179]
  • Physicists create a working transistor from a single atom[180][181]
  • A method for manipulating the charge of nitrogen vacancy-centres in diamond[182]
  • Reported creation of a 300 qubit/particle quantum simulator.[183][184]
  • Demonstration of topologically protected qubits with an eight-photon entanglement, a robust approach to practical quantum computing[185]
  • 1QB Information Technologies (1QBit) founded. World's first dedicated quantum computing software company.[186]
  • First design of a quantum repeater system without a need for quantum memories[187]
  • Decoherence suppressed for 2 seconds at room temperature by manipulating Carbon-13 atoms with lasers.[188][189]
  • Theory of Bell-based randomness expansion with reduced assumption of measurement independence.[190]
  • New low overhead method for fault-tolerant quantum logic developed, called lattice surgery[191]


  • Coherence time of 39 minutes at room temperature (and 3 hours at cryogenic temperatures) demonstrated for an ensemble of impurity-spin qubits in isotopically purified silicon.[192]
  • Extension of time for qubit maintained in superimposed state for ten times longer than what has ever been achieved before[193]
  • First resource analysis of a large-scale quantum algorithm using explicit fault-tolerant, error-correction protocols was developed for factoring[194]



  • Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time.[205]
  • Quantum information encoded by simple electrical pulses.[206]
  • Quantum error detection code using a square lattice of four superconducting qubits.[207]
  • D-Wave Systems Inc. announced on June 22 that it had broken the 1,000-qubit barrier.[208]
  • A two-qubit silicon logic gate is successfully developed.[209]
  • A quantum computer, along with quantum superposition and entanglement, is emulated by a classical analog computer, with the result that the fully classical system behaves like a true quantum computer.[210]


  • Physicists led by Rainer Blatt joined forces with scientists at MIT, led by Isaac Chuang, to efficiently implement Shor's algorithm in an ion-trap based quantum computer.[211]
  • IBM releases the Quantum Experience, an online interface to their superconducting systems. The system is immediately used to publish new protocols in quantum information processing[212][213]
  • Google, using an array of 9 superconducting qubits developed by the Martinis group and UCSB, simulates a hydrogen molecule.[214]
  • Scientists in Japan and Australia invent the quantum version of a Sneakernet communications system[215]


  • D-Wave Systems Inc. announces general commercial availability of the D-Wave 2000Q quantum annealer, which it claims has 2000 qubits.[216]
  • Blueprint for a microwave trapped ion quantum computer published.[217]
  • IBM unveils 17-qubit quantum computer—and a better way of benchmarking it.[218]
  • Scientists build a microchip that generates two entangled qudits each with 10 states, for 100 dimensions total.[219]
  • Microsoft reveals Q Sharp, a quantum programming language integrated with Visual Studio. Programs can be executed locally on a 32-qubit simulator, or a 40-qubit simulator on Azure.[220]
  • Kazi Saabique Ahmed, the former intelligent systems advisor of DARPA in collaboration with the researchers of QuAIL develop the world's first user-interactive operating system to be used in commercial quantum computers. And Intel confirms development of a 17-qubit superconducting test chip.[221]
  • IBM reveals a working 50-qubit quantum computer that can maintain its quantum state for 90 microseconds.[222]


  • MIT scientists report the discovery of a new triple-photon form of light.[223][224]
  • Oxford researchers successfully use a trapped-ion technique, where they place two charged atoms in a state of quantum entanglement to speed up logic gates by a factor of 20 to 60 times, as compared with the previous best gates, translated to 1.6 microseconds long, with 99.8% precision.[225]
  • QuTech successfully tests a silicon-based 2-spin-qubit processor.[226]
  • Google announces the creation of a 72-qubit quantum chip, called "Bristlecone",[227] achieving a new record.
  • Intel begins testing a silicon-based spin-qubit processor manufactured in the company's D1D Fab in Oregon.[228]
  • Intel confirms development of a 49-qubit superconducting test chip, called "Tangle Lake".[229]
  • Japanese researchers demonstrate universal holonomic quantum gates.[230]
  • Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables.[231]
  • On December 17, 2018, the company IonQ introduced the first commercial trapped-ion quantum computer, with a program length of over 60 two-qubit gates, 11 fully connected qubits, 55 addressable pairs, one-qubit gate error <0.03% and two-qubit gate error <1.0% [232][233]
  • On December 21, 2018, the National Quantum Initiative Act was signed into law by President Donald Trump, establishing the goals and priorities for a 10-year plan to accelerate the development of quantum information science and technology applications in the United States.[234][235][236]


  • IBM unveils its first commercial quantum computer, the IBM Q System One,[237] designed by UK-based Map Project Office and Universal Design Studio and manufactured by Goppion.[238]
  • Nike Dattani and co-workers de-code D-Wave's Pegasus architecture and make its description open to the public.[239][240]
  • Austrian physicists demonstrate self-verifying, hybrid, variational quantum simulation of lattice models in condensed matter and high-energy physics using a feedback loop between a classical computer and a quantum co-processor.[241]
  • Quantum Darwinism observed in diamond at room temperature.[242][243]
  • A paper by Google's quantum computer research team was briefly available in late September 2019, claiming the project has reached quantum supremacy.[244][245][246]
  • IBM reveals its biggest quantum computer yet, consisting of 53 qubits. The system goes online in October 2019.[247]



  • UNSW Sydney develops a way of producing 'hot qubits' – quantum devices that operate at 1.5 Kelvin.[248]
  • Griffith University, UNSW and UTS, in partnership with seven universities in the United States, develop noise cancelling for quantum bits via machine learning, taking quantum noise in a quantum chip down to 0%.[249][250]
  • UNSW performs electric nuclear resonance to control single atoms in electronic devices.[251]
  • University of Tokyo and Australian scientists create and successfully test a solution to the quantum wiring problem, creating a 2D structure for qubits. Such structure can be built using existing integrated circuit technology and has a considerably lower cross-talk.[252]

  • 16 January – Quantum physicists report the first direct splitting of one photon into three using spontaneous parametric down-conversion and which may have applications in quantum technology.[253][254]
  • 11 February – Quantum engineers report that they have created artificial atoms in silicon quantum dots for quantum computing and that artificial atoms with a higher number of electrons can be more stable qubits than previously thought possible. Enabling silicon-based quantum computers may make it possible to reuse of manufacturing technology of "classical" modern-day computer chips among other advantages.[255][256]
  • 14 February – Quantum physicists develop a novel single-photon source which may allow to bridge semiconductor-based quantum-computers that use photons by converting the state of an electron spin to the polarisation of a photon. They show that they can generate a single photon in a controlled way without the need for randomly formed quantum dots or structural defects in a diamonds.[257][258]
  • 25 February – Scientists visualize a quantum measurement: by taking snapshots of ion states at different times of measurement via coupling of a trapped ion qutrit to the photon environment they show that the changes of the degrees of superpositions and therefore of probabilities of states after measurement happens gradually under the measurement influence.[259][260]
  • 2 March – Scientists report to have achieved repeated quantum nondemolition measurements of an electron's spin in a silicon quantum dot: measurements that don't change the electron's spin in the process.[261][262]
  • 11 March – Quantum engineers report to have managed to control the nucleus of a single atom using only electric fields. This was first suggested to be possible in 1961 and may be used for silicon quantum computers that use single-atom spins without needing oscillating magnetic fields which may be especially useful for nanodevices, for precise sensors of electric and magnetic fields as well as for fundamental inquiries into quantum nature.[263][264]
  • 19 March – A US Army laboratory announces that its scientists analysed a Rydberg sensor's sensitivity to oscillating electric fields over an enormous range of frequencies—from 0 to 10^12 Hertz (the spectrum to 0.3mm wavelength). The Rydberg sensor may potentially be used detect communications signals as it could reliably detect signals over the entire spectrum and compare favourably with other established electric field sensor technologies, such as electro-optic crystals and dipole antenna-coupled passive electronics.[265][266]
  • 23 March – Researchers report that they have found a way to correct for signal loss in a prototype quantum node that can catch, store and entangle bits of quantum information. Their concepts could be used for key components of quantum repeaters in quantum networks and extend their longest possible range.[267][268]
  • 15 April – Researchers demonstrate a proof-of-concept silicon quantum processor unit cell which works at 1.5 Kelvin – many times warmer than common quantum processors that are being developed. It may enable integrating classical control electronics with the qubit array and reduce costs substantially. The cooling requirements necessary for quantum computing have been called one of the toughest roadblocks in the field.[269][270][271][272][273][274]
  • 16 April – Scientists prove the existence of the Rashba effect in bulk perovskites. Previously researchers have hypothesized that the materials' extraordinary electronic, magnetic and optical properties – which make it a commonly used material for solar cells and quantum electronics – are related to this effect which to date hasn't been proven to be present in the material.[275][276]
  • 8 May – Researchers report to have developed a proof-of-concept of a quantum radar using quantum entanglement and microwaves which may potentially be useful for the development of improved radar systems, security scanners and medical imaging systems.[277][278][279]
  • 12 May – Researchers report to have developed a method to selectively manipulate a layered manganite's correlated electrons' spin state while leaving its orbital state intact using femtosecond X-ray laser pulses. This may indicate that orbitronics – using variations in the orientations of orbitals – may be used as the basic unit of information in novel IT devices.[280][281]
  • 19 May – Researchers report to have developed the first integrated silicon on-chip low-noise single-photon source compatible with large-scale quantum photonics.[282][283][284][285]
  • 11 June – Scientists report the generation of rubidium Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) in the Cold Atom Laboratory aboard the International Space Station under microgravity which could enable improved research of BECs and quantum mechanics, whose physics are scaled to macroscopic scales in BECs, support long-term investigations of few-body physics, support the development of techniques for atom-wave interferometry and atom lasers and has verified the successful operation of the laboratory.[286][287][288]
  • 15 June – Scientists report the development of the smallest synthetic molecular motor, consisting of 12 atoms and a rotor of 4 atoms, shown to be capable of being powered by an electric current using an electron scanning microscope and moving even with very low amounts of energy due to quantum tunneling.[289][290][291]
  • 17 June – Quantum scientists report the development of a system that entangles two photon quantum communication nodes through a microwave cable that can send information inbetween without the photons ever being sent through, or occupying, the cable. On 12 June it was reported that they also, for the first time, entangled two phonons as well as erase information from their measurement after the measurement has been completed using delayed-choice quantum erasure.[292][293][294][295]
  • 13 August – Universal coherence protection is reported to have been achieved in a solid-state spin qubit, a modification that allows quantum systems to stay operational (or "coherent") for 10,000 times longer than before.[296][297]
  • 26 August – Scientists report that that ionizing radiation from environmental radioactive materials and cosmic rays may substantially limit the coherence times of qubits if they aren't shielded adequately.[298][299][300]
  • 28 August – Quantum engineers working for Google report the largest chemical simulation on a quantum computer – a Hartree-Fock approximation with Sycamore paired with a classical computer that analyzed results to provide new parameters for the 12-qubit system.[301][302][303]
  • 2 September – Researchers present an eight-user city-scale quantum communication network, located in Bristol, using already deployed fibres without active switching or trusted nodes.[304][305]
  • 21 September – Researchers report the achievement of quantum entanglement between the motion of a millimetre-sized mechanical oscillator and a disparate distant spin system of a cloud of atoms.[306][307]
  • 3 December – U of Science and Technology, in Hefei, China uses 76 qubit photons peak (43 photons average) in benchtop optical circuits [308]

See alsoEdit


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