2019 in science

A number of significant scientific events occurred in 2019.

List of years in science (table)
Fields
Extraterrestrial environment
Terrestrial environment
Other/related

EventsEdit

JanuaryEdit

 
1 January: The New Horizons space probe flies by 486958 Arrokoth, a remote Kuiper belt object (3D version).[1][2][3][4]
 
17 January: Australopithecus sediba found to be distinct from, but similar to, both the older Australopithecus africanus and the younger Homo habilis.[18]
 
23 January: Five identical cloned gene-edited monkeys (similar to the one pictured above) created, in order to study several medical diseases.[32][33][34]
  • 24 January
    • NASA announces that the Opportunity rover has been on the planet Mars for 15 years.[36][37]
    • NASA scientists report the discovery of the oldest known Earth rock – on the Moon. Apollo 14 astronauts returned several rocks from the Moon and later, scientists determined that a fragment from one of the rocks contained "a bit of Earth from about 4 billion years ago." The rock fragment contained quartz, feldspar, and zircon, all common on the Earth, but highly uncommon on the Moon.[38]
    • The complete axolotl genome is reported to have been sequenced by the University of Kentucky.[39][40]
  • 25 January – AlphaStar, a new artificial intelligence algorithim by Alphabet's DeepMind subsidiary, defeats professional players of the real-time strategy game StarCraft II in ten rounds out of eleven.[41][42][43]
  • 29 January – Researchers at Purdue University's College of Engineering release a paper in the journal ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering detailing a new process to turn plastic waste in hydrocarbon fuels.[44][45][46]
  • 30 January – Scientists report that several types of humans, including Denisovans, Neanderthals and related hybrids, may have habitated the Denisova Cave in Siberia over thousands of years, but it is unclear whether they ever shared the cave.[47]
  • 31 January
    • Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrate a new form of 3D printer, which uses light exposure to transform a viscous liquid into complex solid objects.[48]
    • A new AI developed by RMIT University in Melbourne and trained to play the 1980s video game Montezuma's Revenge is reported to be 10 times faster than Google DeepMind and able to finish the game.[49]

FebruaryEdit

 
3 February: Medical scientists announce that iridium (image above) attached to albumin produces a photosensitized molecule able to penetrate and, via photodynamic therapy, destroy cancer cells.[50][51]
 
13 February: Mars Opportunity rover mission ends; last image (see above) of 228,771 total over nearly 15 years.[63][64]
 
21 February: Report of Hachimoji DNA, an 8-base DNA, that has a similar structure (above) as the 4-base natural DNA.[75][76]

MarchEdit

  • 3 March – An unmanned demonstration flight of the new crew capable version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, intended to carry American astronauts into space, achieves successful autonomous docking with the International Space Station.[89] It returned to Earth a few days later.[90]
 
11 March: Scientists report that cell nuclei from woolly mammoth remains showed biological activity when transplanted into mouse cells.[91]
  • 4 March – Scientists report that asteroids may be much more difficult to destroy than thought earlier.[92][93] In addition, an asteroid may reassemble itself due to gravity after being disrupted.[94]
  • 5 March
  • 7 March – Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) demonstrate a new optical imaging system that could enable the discovery of tiny tumours, as small as 200 cells, deep within the body.[100]
  • 8 March – Astronomers report that the mass of the Milky Way galaxy is 1.5 trillion solar masses within a radius of about 129,000 light-years, over twice as much as was determined in earlier studies, and suggesting that about 90% of the mass of the galaxy is dark matter.[101][102]
  • 11 March – A team of Japanese and Russian scientists report that cell nuclei from woolly mammoth remains showed biological activity when transplanted into mouse cells.[91]
  • 13 March – The laser of ELI-NP in Măgurele, part of the European ELI Project, becomes the most powerful laser system ever made, reaching a peak power of 10 Petawatts.[103]
  • 15 March – NASA reports that latent viruses in humans may be activated during space missions, adding possibly more risk to astronauts in future deep-space missions.[104]
 
20 March: First fossil bird, named Avimaia schweitzerae, found with an unlaid egg,[105][106]

AprilEdit

 
10 April: Astronomers release the first-ever image of a black hole (M87 galaxy).[128][129][130][131]
 
30 April: Scientists confirm the detection of buckminsterfullerene (C60) (also known as "buckyballs") in the interstellar medium spaces between the stars.[144][145]

MayEdit

 
6 May: The IPBES warns that extinction of the natural living world is accelerating, largely a result of human activity – passenger pigeons are now extinct.[162][163][164]
  • 1 May – A study by U.S. researchers finds that deleting the ATDC gene can prevent the growth of pancreatic cancer in mice.[165]
  • 2 May
  • 3 May – The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) and University of Leicester report the first generation of usable electricity from americium, which could lead to the development of "space batteries" that power missions for up to 400 years.[169][170]
  • 6 May
  • 8 May – A British teenager, Isabelle Holdaway, 17, is reported to be the first patient to receive a genetically modified phage therapy to treat a drug-resistant infection.[172][173]
  • 11 May – Atmospheric CO2, as measured by the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, reaches 415 parts per million (ppm), the highest level for 2.5 million years.[174][175] During the late Pliocene, sea levels were up to 20 m higher, and the global climate was 3 °C hotter.
  • 14 May
    • Computer security researchers at Graz University of Technology and Catholic University of Leuven, in a coordinated disclosure with Intel, announce the discovery of a group of Microarchitectural Data Sampling vulnerabilities, affecting millions of Intel microprocessors, which they named Fallout, RIDL (Rogue In-Flight Data Load) and ZombieLoad.[176]
    • Researchers at Microsoft reported the BlueKeep security vulnerability (CVE-2019-0708) (noted as "critical" by Microsoft) that may affect nearly one million computers using older versions (Windows 8 and Windows 10 are not affected) of the Windows operating systems with a "wormable" Remote Desktop Services (RDS) Remote Code Execution (RCE) Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) vulnerability. Microsoft recommends installing available update patches as soon as possible, and also recommends turning off Remote Desktop Services if they are not required.[177][178][179][180]
    • Researchers at Macquarie University report that plastic pollution is harming the growth, photosynthesis and oxygen production of Prochlorococcus, the ocean's most abundant photosynthetic bacteria, responsible for 10% of oxygen breathed by humans.[181]
 
15 May: Creation of a new synthetic form of viable life, a variant of the bacteria Escherichia coli, reported by researchers.[182]
 
22 May: Fossilized fungus, Ourasphaira giraldae (not pictured), found that may have grown on land a billion years ago, well before plants were on land.[195][196][197]

JuneEdit

 
10 June: Scientists report that Ahuna Mons, a very high mountain on Ceres, may have been formed from a plume of mud ejected from deep inside the dwarf planet.[210]
 
21 June: Scientists release 1st video appearance of a giant squid in United States waters.[231]

JulyEdit

 
3 July: Substantial amounts of "lost tropical rainforest" can be restored, based on studies.[249][250]
 
11 July: Detection, for the first time, of a moon-forming circumplanetary disk around a distant planet, PDS 70c.[260][261]
 
22 July: Chandrayaan-2 is launched, an ISRO lunar exploration mission that includes an orbiter, lander and rover.[279]

AugustEdit

 
5 August: Tardigrades may have survived crash landing on the Moon.[300][301]
  • 5 August
    • Scientists report that a capsule containing tardigrades in cryptobiotic state (as well as a laser-etched copy of Wikipedia in glass) may have survived the April 2019 crash landing on the Moon of Beresheet, a failed Israeli lunar lander.[300][301]
    • Engineers at the University of Buffalo reveal a new device able to cool parts of buildings by up to 11 °C (20 °F), without consuming electricity. The system uses an inexpensive polymer/aluminum film at the bottom of a solar "shelter", which absorbs heat from the air inside the box and transmits that energy back into outer space.[302]
  • 6 August – Scientists at the University of Leeds create a new form of gold just two atoms thick, measured at 0.47 nanometres. In addition to being the thinnest unsupported gold ever produced, it functions 10 times more efficiently as a catalytic substrate than larger gold nanoparticles.[303][304][305]
  • 7 August – Biologists report the discovery of the fossil remains of a first-of-its-kind extinct giant parrot named The Hercules parrot (or Heracles inexpectatus) in New Zealand. The parrot is thought to have stood up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) tall and weighed approximately 7 kg (15 lb).[306][307]
  • 8 August
  • 9 August
 
8 August: The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) makes the first high-resolution measurements of an interplanetary shock wave from the sun.[308]
 
23 August: First teleportation of three-dimensional quantum states, or "qutrits"

SeptemberEdit

 
6 September: Exploit of wormable BlueKeep security vulnerability, affecting all unpatched Windows NT-based versions of Microsoft Windows, including Windows 2000 and Windows 7, has been released publicly.[340]
 
16 September: The most massive neutron star ever discovered, with 2.17 solar masses placing it on the boundary of the theoretical maximum.
 
25 September: Largest iceberg in 50 years breaks off from the Amery Ice Shelf in Antarctica.[373]

OctoberEdit

 
8 October: Researchers find human cartilage repair mechanism which may allow entire limbs to regenerate.[381]
 
23 October: Google notes its 53-qubit 'Sycamore' processor has achieved quantum supremacy.[399]
 
26 October: Botswana in south central Africa found to be the birthplace of all modern humans 200,000 years ago, based on genetic studies.[415][416]

NovemberEdit

 
4 November: Scientists officially confirm that the Voyager 2 space probe left the Solar System and entered interstellar space on 5 November 2018.[432][433]
 
15 November: 143 new Nazca geoglyphs are reported by researchers.[443]
 
23 November: Last known Sumatran rhinoceros in Malaysia passes on.[458]

DecemberEdit

 
2 December: Molecule, PJ34, found that promotes the self-destruction of up to 90% of the pancreatic cancer cells in laboratory mouse studies.[472][473]
 
10 December: Substantial amounts of water ice detected just below the surface in certain areas on the planet Mars.[486]

AwardsEdit

DeathsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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