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A number of significant scientific events have occurred or are scheduled to occur in 2019.

List of years in science (table)

Contents

EventsEdit

JanuaryEdit

 
1 January: The New Horizons space probe flies by Ultima Thule, a remote Kuiper belt object (3D version).[1][2][3][4]
 
17 January: Australopithecus sediba found to be distinct from, but similar to, both the older Australopithecus africanus and the younger Homo habilis.[18]
 
23 January: Five identical cloned gene-edited monkeys (similar to the one pictured above) created, in order to study several medical diseases.[32][33][34]
  • 24 January
    • NASA announces that the Opportunity rover has been on the planet Mars for 15 years.[36][37]
    • NASA scientists report the discovery of the oldest known Earth rock – on the Moon. Apollo 14 astronauts returned several rocks from the Moon and later, scientists determined that a fragment from one of the rocks contained "a bit of Earth from about 4 billion years ago." The rock fragment contained quartz, feldspar, and zircon, all common on the Earth, but highly uncommon on the Moon.[38]
    • The complete axolotl genome is reported to have been sequenced by the University of Kentucky.[39][40]
  • 25 January – AlphaStar, a new artificial intelligence algorithim by Alphabet's DeepMind subsidiary, defeats professional players of the real-time strategy game StarCraft II in ten rounds out of eleven.[41][42][43]
  • 29 January – Researchers at Purdue University's College of Engineering release a paper in the journal ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering detailing a new process to turn plastic waste in hydrocarbon fuels.[44][45][46]
  • 30 January – Scientists report that several types of humans, including Denisovans, Neanderthals and related hybrids, may have habitat-ed the Denisova Cave in Siberia over thousands of years, but it is unclear whether they ever shared the cave.[47]
  • 31 January
    • Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrate a new form of 3D printer, which uses light exposure to transform a viscous liquid into complex solid objects.[48]
    • A new AI developed by RMIT University in Melbourne and trained to play the 1980s video game Montezuma's Revenge is reported to be 10 times faster than Google DeepMind and able to finish the game.[49]

FebruaryEdit

 
3 February: Medical scientists announce that iridium (image above) attached to albumin produces a photosensitized molecule able to penetrate and, via photodynamic therapy, destroy cancer cells.[50][51]
 
13 February: Mars Opportunity rover mission ends; last image (see above) of 228,771 total over nearly 15 years.[63][64]
 
21 February: Report of Hachimoji DNA, an 8-base DNA, that has a similar structure (above) as the 4-base natural DNA.[75][76]

MarchEdit

  • 3 March – An unmanned demonstration flight of the new crew capable version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, intended to carry American astronauts into space, achieves successful autonomous docking with the International Space Station.[89] It returned to Earth a few days later.[90]
 
11 March: Scientists report that cell nuclei from woolly mammoth remains showed biological activity when transplanted into mouse cells.[91]
  • 4 March – Scientists report that asteroids may be much more difficult to destroy than thought earlier.[92][93] In addition, an asteroid may reassemble itself due to gravity after being disrupted.[94]
  • 5 March
  • 7 March – Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) demonstrate a new optical imaging system that could enable the discovery of tiny tumours, as small as 200 cells, deep within the body.[100]
  • 8 March – Astronomers report that the mass of the Milky Way galaxy is 1.5 trillion solar masses within a radius of about 129,000 light-years, over twice as much as was determined in earlier studies, and suggesting that about 90% of the mass of the galaxy is dark matter.[101][102]
  • 11 March – A team of Japanese and Russian scientists report that cell nuclei from woolly mammoth remains showed biological activity when transplanted into mouse cells.[91]
  • 13 March – The laser of ELI-NP in Măgurele, part of the European ELI Project, becomes the most powerful laser system ever made, reaching a peak power of 10 Petawatts.[103]
  • 15 March – NASA reports that latent viruses in humans may be activated during space missions, adding possibly more risk to astronauts in future deep-space missions.[104]
 
20 March: First fossil bird, named Avimaia schweitzerae, found with an unlaid egg,[105][106]

AprilEdit

 
10 April: Astronomers release the first-ever image of a black hole (M87 galaxy).[126][127][128][129]
 
30 April: Scientists confirm the detection of buckminsterfullerene (C60) (also known as "buckyballs") in the interstellar medium spaces between the stars.[141][142]

MayEdit

 
6 May: The IPBES warns that extinction of the natural living world is accelerating, largely a result of human activity - passenger pigeons are now extinct.[159][160][161]
  • 1 May – A study by U.S. researchers finds that deleting the ATDC gene can prevent the growth of pancreatic cancer in mice.[162]
  • 2 May
  • 3 May – The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) and University of Leicester report the first generation of usable electricity from americium, which could lead to the development of "space batteries" that power missions for up to 400 years.[166][167]
  • 6 May
  • 8 May – A British teenager, Isabelle Holdaway, 17, is reported to be the first patient to receive a genetically modified phage therapy to treat a drug-resistant infection.[169][170]
  • 11 May – Atmospheric CO2, as measured by the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, reaches 415 parts per million (ppm), the highest level for 2.5 million years.[171][172] During the late Pliocene, sea levels were up to 20 m higher, and the global climate was 3 °C hotter.
  • 14 May
    • Computer security researchers at Graz University of Technology and Catholic University of Leuven, in a coordinated disclosure with Intel, announce the discovery of a group of Microarchitectural Data Sampling vulnerabilities, affecting millions of Intel microprocessors, which they named Fallout, RIDL (Rogue In-Flight Data Load) and ZombieLoad.[173]
    • Researchers at Microsoft reported the BlueKeep security vulnerability (CVE-2019-0708) (noted as "critical" by Microsoft) that may affect nearly one million computers using older versions (Windows 8 and Windows 10 are not affected) of the Windows operating systems with a "wormable" Remote Desktop Services (RDS) Remote Code Execution (RCE) Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) vulnerability. Microsoft recommends installing available update patches as soon as possible, and also recommends turning off Remote Desktop Services if they are not required.[174][175][176][177]
    • Researchers at Macquarie University report that plastic pollution is harming the growth, photosynthesis and oxygen production of Prochlorococcus, the ocean's most abundant photosynthetic bacteria, responsible for 10% of oxygen breathed by humans.[178]
 
15 May: Creation of a new synthetic form of viable life, a variant of the bacteria Escherichia coli, reported by researchers.[179]
 
22 May: Fossilized fungus, Ourasphaira giraldae (not pictured), found that may have grown on land a billion years ago, well before plants were on land.[190][191][192]

JuneEdit

 
10 June: Scientists report that Ahuna Mons, a very high mountain on Ceres, may have been formed from a plume of mud ejected from deep inside the dwarf planet.[205]
 
21 June: Scientists release 1st video appearance of a giant squid in United States waters.[225]

JulyEdit

 
3 July: Substantial amounts of "lost tropical rainforest" can be restored, based on studies.[241][242]
 
* 11 July: Detection, for the first time, of a moon-forming circumplanetary disk around a distant planet, PDS 70c.[249][250]
  • 7 July – Researchers report receiving the first pictures from LightSail 2, a CubeSat developed by The Planetary Society, and launched into Earth orbit on 25 June 2019 by a Falcon Heavy rocket.[251]
  • 8 July – Astronomers report that a new method to determine the Hubble constant, and resolve the discrepancy of earlier methods, has been proposed based on the mergers of pairs of neutron stars, following the detection of the neutron star merger of GW170817.[252][253] Their measurement of the Hubble constant is 70.3+5.3
    −5.0
    (km/s)/Mpc.[254]
  • 10 July – Anthropologists report the discovery of 210,000 year old remains of a Homo sapiens and 170,000 year old remains of a Neanderthal in Apidima Cave in southern Greece, over 150,000 years older than previous H. sapiens finds in Europe.[255][256][257]
  • 11 July
  • 12 July – Physicists report, for the first time, capturing an image of quantum entanglement.[260][261]
  • 13 July – The Russian/German Spektr-RG observatory is successfully launched into space, on a seven-year mission to study X-ray sources.[262]
  • 15 July – Astronomers report that non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts (FRB)s may not be one-off events, but actually FRB repeaters with repeat events that have gone undetected and, further, that FRBs may be formed by events that have not yet been seen or considered.[263][264]
  • 16 July – Astronomers report the determination, based on a new method (Red Giant Stars method), of the Hubble Constant as 69.8 km s−1 Mpc−1, a value in the middle of two earlier values determined by two other methods: 67.4 (CMB Radiation method) and 74.0 (Cepheids method).[265][266]
  • 17 July – Astronomers rule out the chances of ~30 m (98 ft) asteroid 2006 QV89's impacting Earth in September 2019 by eliminating the possibility of its passing through an area where it would have to be if it were on an impacting orbit. Prior to this, the asteroid had been given a one-in-7,000 chance of impacting Earth. [267]

Predicted and scheduled eventsEdit

JulyEdit

OctoberEdit

  • The CHEOPS space telescope, whose mission is to study the formation of extra-solar planets, is expected to launch in October or November.[268]

NovemberEdit

DecemberEdit

AwardsEdit

DeathsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b Chang, Kenneth (31 December 2018). "New Horizons Spacecraft Completes Flyby of Ultima Thule, the Most Distant Object Ever Visited". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
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