Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, with an atomic mass of 85.4678. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to those of other alkali metals, including rapid oxidation in air. On Earth, natural rubidium comprises two isotopes: 72% is the stable isotope, 85Rb; 28% is the slightly radioactive 87Rb, with a half-life of 49 billion years—more than three times longer than the estimated age of the universe.
|Standard atomic weight (Ar)||85.4678(3)|
|Rubidium in the periodic table|
|Atomic number (Z)||37|
|Group, period||group 1 (alkali metals), period 5|
|Element category||alkali metal|
|Electron configuration||[Kr] 5s1|
Electrons per shell
|2, 8, 18, 8, 1|
|Phase (at STP)||solid|
|Melting point||312.45 K (39.30 °C, 102.74 °F)|
|Boiling point||961 K (688 °C, 1270 °F)|
|Density (near r.t.)||1.532 g/cm3|
|when liquid (at m.p.)||1.46 g/cm3|
|Triple point||312.41 K, ? kPa|
|Critical point||2093 K, 16 MPa (extrapolated)|
|Heat of fusion||2.19 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||69 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||31.060 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||+1, −1 (a strongly basic oxide)|
|Electronegativity||Pauling scale: 0.82|
|Atomic radius||empirical: 248 pm|
|Covalent radius||220±9 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||303 pm|
|Crystal structure||body-centered cubic (bcc)|
|Speed of sound thin rod||1300 m/s (at 20 °C)|
|Thermal expansion||90 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)|
|Thermal conductivity||58.2 W/(m·K)|
|Electrical resistivity||128 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)|
|Magnetic susceptibility||+17.0·10−6 cm3/mol (303 K)|
|Young's modulus||2.4 GPa|
|Bulk modulus||2.5 GPa|
|Brinell hardness||0.216 MPa|
|Discovery||Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff (1861)|
|First isolation||George de Hevesy|
|Main isotopes of rubidium|
Rubidium's compounds have various chemical and electronic applications. Rubidium metal is easily vaporized and has a convenient spectral absorption range, making it a frequent target for laser manipulation of atoms.
Rubidium is a very soft, ductile, silvery-white metal. It is the second most electropositive of the non-radioactive alkali metals and melts at a temperature of 39.3 °C (102.7 °F). Similar to other alkali metals, rubidium metal reacts violently with water. As with potassium (which is slightly less reactive) and caesium (which is slightly more reactive), this reaction is usually vigorous enough to ignite the hydrogen gas it produces. Rubidium has also been reported to ignite spontaneously in air. It forms amalgams with mercury and alloys with gold, iron, caesium, sodium, and potassium, but not lithium (even though rubidium and lithium are in the same group).
Rubidium has a very low ionization energy of only 406 kJ/mol. Rubidium and potassium show a very similar purple color in the flame test, and distinguishing the two elements requires something more sophisticated, such as spectroscopy.
Rubidium chloride (RbCl) is probably the most used rubidium compound: among several other chlorides, it is used to induce living cells to take up DNA; it is also used as a biomarker, because in nature, it is found only in small quantities in living organisms and when present, replaces potassium. Other common rubidium compounds are the corrosive rubidium hydroxide (RbOH), the starting material for most rubidium-based chemical processes; rubidium carbonate (Rb2CO3), used in some optical glasses, and rubidium copper sulfate, Rb2SO4·CuSO4·6H2O. Rubidium silver iodide (RbAg4I5) has the highest room temperature conductivity of any known ionic crystal, a property exploited in thin film batteries and other applications.
Rubidium forms a number of oxides when exposed to air, including rubidium monoxide (Rb2O), Rb6O, and Rb9O2; rubidium in excess oxygen gives the superoxide RbO2. Rubidium forms salts with halides, producing rubidium fluoride, rubidium chloride, rubidium bromide, and rubidium iodide.
Although rubidium is monoisotopic, rubidium in the Earth's crust is composed of two isotopes: the stable 85Rb (72.2%) and the radioactive 87Rb (27.8%). Natural rubidium is radioactive, with specific activity of about 670 Bq/g, enough to significantly expose a photographic film in 110 days.
Twenty four additional rubidium isotopes have been synthesized with half-lives of less than 3 months; most are highly radioactive and have few uses.
Rubidium-87 has a half-life of ×109 years, which is more than three times the 48.8age of the universe of ±0.021)×109 years, (13.799 making it a primordial nuclide. It readily substitutes for potassium in minerals, and is therefore fairly widespread. Rb has been used extensively in dating rocks; 87Rb beta decays to stable 87Sr. During fractional crystallization, Sr tends to concentrate in plagioclase, leaving Rb in the liquid phase. Hence, the Rb/Sr ratio in residual magma may increase over time, and the progressing differentiation results in rocks with elevated Rb/Sr ratios. The highest ratios (10 or more) occur in pegmatites. If the initial amount of Sr is known or can be extrapolated, then the age can be determined by measurement of the Rb and Sr concentrations and of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. The dates indicate the true age of the minerals only if the rocks have not been subsequently altered (see rubidium-strontium dating).
Rubidium-82, one of the element's non-natural isotopes, is produced by electron-capture decay of strontium-82 with a half-life of 25.36 days. With a half-life of 76 seconds, rubidium-82 decays by positron emission to stable krypton-82.
Rubidium is the twenty-third most abundant element in the Earth's crust, roughly as abundant as zinc and rather more common than copper. It occurs naturally in the minerals leucite, pollucite, carnallite, and zinnwaldite, which contain as much as 1% rubidium oxide. Lepidolite contains between 0.3% and 3.5% rubidium, and is the commercial source of the element. Some potassium minerals and potassium chlorides also contain the element in commercially significant quantities.
Because of its large ionic radius, rubidium is one of the "incompatible elements." During magma crystallization, rubidium is concentrated together with its heavier analogue caesium in the liquid phase and crystallizes last. Therefore, the largest deposits of rubidium and caesium are zone pegmatite ore bodies formed by this enrichment process. Because rubidium substitutes for potassium in the crystallization of magma, the enrichment is far less effective than that of caesium. Zone pegmatite ore bodies containing mineable quantities of caesium as pollucite or the lithium minerals lepidolite are also a source for rubidium as a by-product.
Two notable sources of rubidium are the rich deposits of pollucite at Bernic Lake, Manitoba, Canada, and the rubicline ((Rb,K)AlSi3O8) found as impurities in pollucite on the Italian island of Elba, with a rubidium content of 17.5%. Both of those deposits are also sources of caesium.
Although rubidium is more abundant in Earth's crust than caesium, the limited applications and the lack of a mineral rich in rubidium limits the production of rubidium compounds to 2 to 4 tonnes per year. Several methods are available for separating potassium, rubidium, and caesium. The fractional crystallization of a rubidium and caesium alum (Cs,Rb)Al(SO4)2·12H2O yields after 30 subsequent steps pure rubidium alum. Two other methods are reported, the chlorostannate process and the ferrocyanide process.
For several years in the 1950s and 1960s, a by-product of potassium production called Alkarb was a main source for rubidium. Alkarb contained 21% rubidium, with the rest being potassium and a small amount of caesium. Today the largest producers of caesium, such as the Tanco Mine, Manitoba, Canada, produce rubidium as a by-product from pollucite.
Rubidium was discovered in 1861 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, in Heidelberg, Germany, in the mineral lepidolite through spectroscopy. Because of the bright red lines in its emission spectrum, they chose a name derived from the Latin word rubidus, meaning "deep red".
Rubidium is a minor component in lepidolite. Kirchhoff and Bunsen processed 150 kg of a lepidolite containing only 0.24% rubidium oxide (Rb2O). Both potassium and rubidium form insoluble salts with chloroplatinic acid, but those salts show a slight difference in solubility in hot water. Therefore, the less-soluble rubidium hexachloroplatinate (Rb2PtCl6) could be obtained by fractional crystallization. After reduction of the hexachloroplatinate with hydrogen, the process yielded 0.51 grams of rubidium chloride for further studies.[clarification needed] Bunsen and Kirchhoff began their first large-scale isolation of caesium and rubidium compounds with 44,000 litres (12,000 US gal) of mineral water, which yielded 7.3 grams of caesium chloride and 9.2 grams of rubidium chloride. Rubidium was the second element, shortly after caesium, to be discovered by spectroscopy, just one year after the invention of the spectroscope by Bunsen and Kirchhoff.
The two scientists used the rubidium chloride to estimate that the atomic weight of the new element was 85.36 (the currently accepted value is 85.47). They tried to generate elemental rubidium by electrolysis of molten rubidium chloride, but instead of a metal, they obtained a blue homogeneous substance which "neither under the naked eye nor under the microscope showed the slightest trace of metallic substance." They presumed it was a subchloride (Rb
2Cl); however, the product was probably a colloidal mixture of the metal and rubidium chloride. In a second attempt to produce metallic rubidium, Bunsen was able to reduce rubidium by heating charred rubidium tartrate. Although the distilled rubidium was pyrophoric, they were able to determine the density and the melting point. The quality of this research in the 1860s can be appraised by the fact that their determined density differs less than 0.1 g/cm3 and the melting point by less than 1 °C from the presently accepted values.
The slight radioactivity of rubidium was discovered in 1908, but that was before the theory of isotopes was established in 1910, and the low level of activity (half-life greater than 1010 years) made interpretation complicated. The now proven decay of 87Rb to stable 87Sr through beta decay was still under discussion in the late 1940s.
Rubidium had minimal industrial value before the 1920s. Since then, the most important use of rubidium is research and development, primarily in chemical and electronic applications. In 1995, rubidium-87 was used to produce a Bose–Einstein condensate, for which the discoverers, Eric Allin Cornell, Carl Edwin Wieman and Wolfgang Ketterle, won the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Rubidium compounds are sometimes used in fireworks to give them a purple color. Rubidium has also been considered for use in a thermoelectric generator using the magnetohydrodynamic principle, where rubidium ions are formed by heat at high temperature and passed through a magnetic field. These conduct electricity and act like an armature of a generator thereby generating an electric current. Rubidium, particularly vaporized 87Rb, is one of the most commonly used atomic species employed for laser cooling and Bose–Einstein condensation. Its desirable features for this application include the ready availability of inexpensive diode laser light at the relevant wavelength, and the moderate temperatures required to obtain substantial vapor pressures. For cold atom applications requiring tunable interactions, 85Rb is preferable due to its rich Feshbach spectrum.
Rubidium has been used for polarizing 3He, producing volumes of magnetized 3He gas, with the nuclear spins aligned rather than random. Rubidium vapor is optically pumped by a laser and the polarized Rb polarizes 3He through the hyperfine interaction. Such spin-polarized 3He cells are useful for neutron polarization measurements and for producing polarized neutron beams for other purposes.
The resonant element in atomic clocks utilizes the hyperfine structure of rubidium's energy levels, and rubidium is useful for high-precision timing. It is used as the main component of secondary frequency references (rubidium oscillators) in cell site transmitters and other electronic transmitting, networking, and test equipment. These rubidium standards are often used with GPS to produce a "primary frequency standard" that has greater accuracy and is less expensive than caesium standards. Such rubidium standards are often mass-produced for the telecommunication industry.
Other potential or current uses of rubidium include a working fluid in vapor turbines, as a getter in vacuum tubes, and as a photocell component. Rubidium is also used as an ingredient in special types of glass, in the production of superoxide by burning in oxygen, in the study of potassium ion channels in biology, and as the vapor in atomic magnetometers. In particular, 87Rb is used with other alkali metals in the development of spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometers.
Rubidium-82 is used for positron emission tomography. Rubidium is very similar to potassium and tissue with high potassium content will also accumulate the radioactive rubidium. One of the main uses is myocardial perfusion imaging. As a result of changes in the blood brain barrier in brain tumors, rubidium collects more in brain tumors than normal brain tissue, allowing the use of radioisotope rubidium-82 in nuclear medicine to locate and image brain tumors. Rubidium-82 has a very short half-life of 76 seconds, and the production from decay of strontium-82 must be done close to the patient.
Rubidium was tested for the influence on manic depression and depression. Dialysis patients suffering from depression show a depletion in rubidium and therefore a supplementation may help during depression. In some tests the rubidium was administered as rubidium chloride with up to 720 mg per day for 60 days.
Precautions and biological effectsEdit
Rubidium reacts violently with water and can cause fires. To ensure safety and purity, this metal is usually kept under a dry mineral oil or sealed in glass ampoules in an inert atmosphere. Rubidium forms peroxides on exposure even to small amount of air diffused into the oil, and storage is subject to similar precautions as the storage of metallic potassium.
Rubidium, like sodium and potassium, almost always has +1 oxidation state when dissolved in water, even in biological contexts. The human body tends to treat Rb+ ions as if they were potassium ions, and therefore concentrates rubidium in the body's intracellular fluid (i.e., inside cells). The ions are not particularly toxic; a 70 kg person contains on average 0.36 g of rubidium, and an increase in this value by 50 to 100 times did not show negative effects in test persons. The biological half-life of rubidium in humans measures 31–46 days. Although a partial substitution of potassium by rubidium is possible, when more than 50% of the potassium in the muscle tissue of rats was replaced with rubidium, the rats died.
- Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
- Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.122. ISBN 1439855110.
- Cverna, Fran (2002). "Ch. 2 Thermal Expansion". ASM Ready Reference: Thermal properties of metals (PDF). ASM International. ISBN 978-0-87170-768-0.
- Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
- Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
- Ohly, Julius (1910). "Rubidium". Analysis, detection and commercial value of the rare metals. Mining Science Pub. Co.
- Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (1985). "Vergleichende Übersicht über die Gruppe der Alkalimetalle". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German) (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 953–955. ISBN 3-11-007511-3.
- Moore, John W; Stanitski, Conrad L; Jurs, Peter C (2009). Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-495-39079-4.
- Smart, Lesley; Moore, Elaine (1995). "RbAg4I5". Solid state chemistry: an introduction. CRC Press. pp. 176–177. ISBN 978-0-7487-4068-0.
- Bradley, J. N.; Greene, P. D. (1967). "Relationship of structure and ionic mobility in solid MAg4I5". Trans. Faraday Soc. 63: 2516. doi:10.1039/TF9676302516.
- Audi, Georges; Bersillon, O.; Blachot, J.; Wapstra, A. H. (2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A. Atomic Mass Data Center. 729 (1): 3–128. Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.
- Strong, W. W. (1909). "On the Possible Radioactivity of Erbium, Potassium and Rubidium". Physical Review. Series I. 29 (2): 170–173. Bibcode:1909PhRvI..29..170S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevSeriesI.29.170.
- Lide, David R; Frederikse, H. P. R (June 1995). CRC handbook of chemistry and physics: a ready-reference book of chemical and physical data. pp. 4–25. ISBN 978-0-8493-0476-7.
- Planck Collaboration (2015). "Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters (See Table 4 on page 31 of pfd).". arXiv: . doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525830.
- Attendorn, H.-G.; Bowen, Robert (1988). "Rubidium-Strontium Dating". Isotopes in the Earth Sciences. Springer. pp. 162–165. ISBN 978-0-412-53710-3.
- Walther, John Victor (2009) . "Rubidium-Strontium Systematics". Essentials of geochemistry. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 383–385. ISBN 978-0-7637-5922-3.
- Butterman, William C.; Brooks, William E.; Reese, Jr., Robert G. (2003). "Mineral Commodity Profile: Rubidium" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
- Wise, M. A. (1995). "Trace element chemistry of lithium-rich micas from rare-element granitic pegmatites". Mineralogy and Petrology. 55 (13): 203–215. Bibcode:1995MinPe..55..203W. doi:10.1007/BF01162588.
- Norton, J. J. (1973). "Lithium, cesium, and rubidium—The rare alkali metals". In Brobst, D. A.; Pratt, W. P. United States mineral resources. Paper 820. U.S. Geological Survey Professional. pp. 365–378. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- Bolter, E.; Turekian, K.; Schutz, D. (1964). "The distribution of rubidium, cesium and barium in the oceans". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 28 (9): 1459. Bibcode:1964GeCoA..28.1459B. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(64)90161-9.
- McSween Jr., Harry Y; Huss, Gary R (2010). Cosmochemistry. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-521-87862-3.
- Teertstra, David K.; Cerny, Petr; Hawthorne, Frank C.; Pier, Julie; Wang, Lu-Min; Ewing, Rodney C. (1998). "Rubicline, a new feldspar from San Piero in Campo, Elba, Italy". American Mineralogist. 83 (11–12 Part 1): 1335–1339. Bibcode:1998AmMin..83.1335T. doi:10.2138/am-1998-11-1223.
- bulletin 585. United States. Bureau of Mines. 1995.
- "Cesium and Rubidium Hit Market". Chemical & Engineering News. 37 (22): 50. 1959. doi:10.1021/cen-v037n022.p050.
- Kirchhoff, G.; Bunsen, R. (1861). "Chemische Analyse durch Spectralbeobachtungen". Annalen der Physik und Chemie. 189 (7): 337–381. Bibcode:1861AnP...189..337K. doi:10.1002/andp.18611890702.
- Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements. XIII. Some spectroscopic discoveries". Journal of Chemical Education. 9 (8): 1413–1434. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1413W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1413.
- Ritter, Stephen K. (2003). "C&EN: It's Elemental: The Periodic Table – Cesium". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
- Zsigmondy, Richard (2007). Colloids and the Ultra Microscope. Read books. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-4067-5938-9. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- Bunsen, R. (1863). "Ueber die Darstellung und die Eigenschaften des Rubidiums". Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. 125 (3): 367. doi:10.1002/jlac.18631250314.
- Lewis, G. M. (1952). "The natural radioactivity of rubidium". Philosophical Magazine Series 7. 43 (345): 1070–1074. doi:10.1080/14786441008520248.
- Campbell, N. R.; Wood, A. (1908). "The Radioactivity of Rubidium". Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 14: 15.
- Butterman, W. C.; Reese, Jr., R. G. "Mineral Commodity Profiles Rubidium" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- "Press Release: The 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics". Retrieved 2010-02-01.
- Levi, Barbara Goss (2001). "Cornell, Ketterle, and Wieman Share Nobel Prize for Bose-Einstein Condensates". Physics Today. Physics Today online. 54 (12): 14. Bibcode:2001PhT....54l..14L. doi:10.1063/1.1445529.
- Koch, E.-C. (2002). "Special Materials in Pyrotechnics, Part II: Application of Caesium and Rubidium Compounds in Pyrotechnics". Journal Pyrotechnics. 15: 9–24.
- Boikess, Robert S; Edelson, Edward (1981). Chemical principles. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-06-040808-4.
- Eric Cornell; et al. (1996). Bose-Einstein condensation (all 20 articles). Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. 101. pp. 419–618. doi:10.6028/jres.101.045.
- Martin, J. L.; McKenzie, C. R.; Thomas, N. R.; Sharpe, J. C.; Warrington, D. M.; Manson, P. J.; Sandle, W. J.; Wilson, A. C. (1999). "Output coupling of a Bose-Einstein condensate formed in a TOP trap". Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. 32 (12): 3065. Bibcode:1999JPhB...32.3065M. arXiv: . doi:10.1088/0953-4075/32/12/322.
- Chin, Cheng; Grimm, Rudolf; Julienne, Paul; Tiesinga, Eite (2010-04-29). "Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases". Reviews of Modern Physics. 82 (2): 1225–1286. Bibcode:2010RvMP...82.1225C. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.82.1225.
- Gentile, T. R.; Chen, W. C.; Jones, G. L.; Babcock, E.; Walker, T. G. "Polarized 3He spin filters for slow neutron physics" (PDF). Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. 110: 299–304. doi:10.6028/jres.110.043.
- "Neutron spin filters based on polarized helium-3". NIST Center for Neutron Research 2002 Annual Report. Retrieved 2008-01-11.
- Eidson, John C (2006-04-11). "GPS". Measurement, control, and communication using IEEE 1588. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-84628-250-8.
- King, Tim; Newson, Dave (1999-07-31). "Rubidium and crystal oscillators". Data network engineering. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-7923-8594-3.
- Marton, L (1977-01-01). "Rubidium Vapor Cell". Advances in electronics and electron physics. ISBN 978-0-12-014644-4.
- Mittal (2009). Introduction To Nuclear And Particle Physics. p. 274. ISBN 978-81-203-3610-0.
- Li, Zhimin; Wakai, Ronald T.; Walker, Thad G. (2006). "Parametric modulation of an atomic magnetometer". Applied Physics Letters. 89 (13): 134105. Bibcode:2006ApPhL..89m4105L. doi:10.1063/1.2357553.
- Yen, C. K.; Yano, Y.; Budinger, T. F.; Friedland, R. P.; Derenzo, S. E.; Huesman, R. H.; O'Brien, H. A. (1982). "Brain tumor evaluation using Rb-82 and positron emission tomography". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 23 (6): 532–7. PMID 6281406.
- Jadvar, H.; Anthony Parker, J. (2005). "Rubidium-82". Clinical PET and PET/CT. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-85233-838-1.
- Paschalis, C.; Jenner, F. A.; Lee, C. R. (1978). "Effects of rubidium chloride on the course of manic-depressive illness". J R Soc Med. 71 (9): 343–352. PMC . PMID 349155.
- Malekahmadi, P.; Williams, John A. (1984). "Rubidium in psychiatry: Research implications". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 21: 49. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(84)90162-X.
- Canavese, Caterina; Decostanzi, Ester; Branciforte, Lino; Caropreso, Antonio; Nonnato, Antonello; Sabbioni, Enrico (2001). "Depression in dialysis patients: Rubidium supplementation before other drugs and encouragement?". Kidney International. 60 (3): 1201–1201. PMID 11532118. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.0600031201.x.
- Lake, James A. (2006). Textbook of Integrative Mental Health Care. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers. pp. 164–165. ISBN 1-58890-299-4.
- Torta, R.; Ala, G.; Borio, R.; Cicolin, A.; Costamagna, S.; Fiori, L.; Ravizza, L. (1993). "Rubidium chloride in the treatment of major depression". Minerva psichiatrica. 34 (2): 101–10. PMID 8412574.
- Martel, Bernard; Cassidy, Keith (2004-07-01). "Rubidium". Chemical risk analysis: a practical handbook. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-903996-65-2.
- Relman, A. S. (1956). "The Physiological Behavior of Rubidium and Cesium in Relation to That of Potassium". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 29 (3): 248–62. PMC . PMID 13409924.
- Fieve, Ronald R.; Meltzer, Herbert L.; Taylor, Reginald M. (1971). "Rubidium chloride ingestion by volunteer subjects: Initial experience". Psychopharmacologia. 20 (4): 307–14. PMID 5561654. doi:10.1007/BF00403562.
- Meltzer, H. L. (1991). "A pharmacokinetic analysis of long-term administration of rubidium chloride". Journal of clinical pharmacology. 31 (2): 179–84. PMID 2010564. doi:10.1002/j.1552-4604.1991.tb03704.x.
- Follis, Richard H., Jr. (1943). "Histological Effects in rats resulting from adding Rubidium or Cesium to a diet deficient in potassium". AJP: Legacy. 138 (2): 246.
- Meites, Louis (1963). Handbook of Analytical Chemistry (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963)
- Steck, Daniel A. "Rubidium-87 D Line Data" (PDF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (technical report LA-UR-03-8638).