2020 in science
A number of significant scientific events are scheduled to occur in 2020.
|Years in science:||2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023|
|Centuries:||20th century · 21st century · 22nd century|
|Decades:||1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s 2030s 2040s 2050s|
|Years:||2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023|
- 1 January – Researchers demonstrate an artificial intelligence (AI) system, based on a Google DeepMind algorithm, that is capable of surpassing human experts in breast cancer detection.
- 3 January
- Astronomers report evidence that suggests that the planet Venus is currently volcanically active, and the residue from such activity may be a potential source of nutrients for possible microorganisms in the Venusian atmosphere, according to researchers..
- Astrophysicist Ronald Mallet proposes a theoretical way of building a time machine, albeit with limitations, based on general relativity equations.
- 6 January
- The American College of Physicians issues clinical guidelines for testosterone treatment in adult men with age-related low levels of testosterone. The guidelines are supported by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The guidelines include patient discussions regarding testosterone treatment for sexual dysfunction; a yearly patient evaluation regarding possible notable improvement and, if none, to discontinue testosterone treatment; physicians should consider intramuscular treatments, rather than transdermal treatments, due to costs and since the effectiveness and harm of either method is similar; and, testosterone treatment for reasons other than possible improvement of sexual dysfunction may not be recommended.
- NASA reports the discovery of TOI 700 d, the first Earth-sized exoplanet in the habitable zone discovered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The exoplanet orbits the star TOI 700 101.4 light-years away in the Dorado constellation.
- Astronomers report that a repeating Fast Radio Burst (FRB) (namely, FRB 180916), the second such FRB precisely located, originated from a medium-sized spiral galaxy 500 million light-years away.
- The Chinese paddlefish is officially declared extinct.
- A rare circumbinary planet, called TOI 1338 b, is discovered by Wolf Cukier, a 17-year-old intern at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.
- 7 January
- Astronomers at Harvard describe the "Radcliffe Wave", a huge ribbon of gas extending 9,000 light years in length and flowing 500 light years above and below the galactic plane, with approximately three million solar masses.
- The National Science Foundation (NSF) renames the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) to the Vera C. Rubin Observatory (VRO) in honor of astronomer Vera Rubin who is notable for her pioneering work with galaxy rotation rates which provided evidence for the existence of dark matter.
- 8 January
- The American Cancer Society reports a 2.2% drop in the cancer death rate between 2016 and 2017, the largest single-year decline in mortality for this disease ever recorded in the United States.
- Scientists publish evidence from Siberian caves suggesting that summer sea ice in the Arctic Ocean plays an essential role in stabilising permafrost and its large store of carbon.
- 10 January – Scientists report the discovery of the oldest known occurrence of an animal digestive tract, found in fossils, unearthed near Pahrump, Nevada, of Cloudinidae, an extinct wormlike organism that lived during the late Ediacaran period about 550 million years ago.
- 13 January
- A study in the journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences finds that ocean temperatures were at a record high in 2019 and underwent the largest single-year increase of the entire decade.
- Astronomers report that the oldest material on Earth found so far are Murchison meteorite particles that have been determined to be 7 billion years old, billions of years older than the 4.54 billion years age of the Earth itself.
- 15 January
- Astronomers report, for the first time, the origin of phosphorus, an essential element of life as we know it. Phosphorus was found to be initially formed in star-forming regions, and carried by comets, in the form of phosphorus monoxide, throughout outer space, including the early Earth.
- Scientists report that Candidatus Prometheoarchaeum syntrophicum, a type of Asgard archaea microorganism, may be a possible link between simple prokaryotic and complex eukaryotic microorganisms about two billion years ago.
- Paleontologists report the discovery of Wulong bohaiensis, Chinese for "dancing dragon," a very small feathered dinosaur that lived 120 million years ago, and that may help better explain the link between dinosaurs and birds.
- 16 January
- 17 January – For the first time, scientists report a video of atoms bonding and separating.
- 20 January – Astronomers, using X-ray reverbreration echo mapping techniques, report the mass and spin, for the first time, of a supermassive black hole, particulary the black hole in the middle of the IRAS 13224-3809 galaxy located about 1 billion light-years from Earth.
- 21 January
- Scientists report the oldest recognised asteroid impact occurred in Western Australia more than 2.2 billion years ago.
- A study led by the University of Bristol finds record high emissions of the potent greenhouse gas, HFC-23.
- Researchers from the University of New South Wales present evidence that the platypus is at risk of extinction, due to a combination of water resource development, land clearing, climate change and increasingly severe periods of drought.
- Researchers at Ohio State University develop a single molecule that can absorb sunlight from the entire visible spectrum, harnessing more than 50% more solar energy than current solar cells can.
- 22 January – China releases a large amount of data and high-resolution images from the lander and rover of the Chang'e 4 mission which has been studying the far side of the Moon since 3 January 2019.
Predicted and scheduled eventsEdit
- July 25: ESA's ExoMars rover will be launched to Mars.
- July: The UAE will launch a probe, The Hope, to Mars.
- July to August: Planned launch of NASA's Mars 2020 mission to study the habitability of Mars and prepare for future human missions.
- Several new rockets have planned maiden flights in 2020 in a race to lower launch costs: Ariane 6, H3 and first orbital flights of SpaceX Starship.
- Shenzhen East Waste-to-Energy Plant is planned to become operational, the largest waste to energy (WET) power plant in the world.
- Japan will host a World Robot Summit in August and October.
- Waymo, the first self-driving cars in ride-hailing services are announced for 2020 
- The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is expected to achieve first light in 2020.
- KAGRA plans to join LIGO and Virgo in the search for more gravitational wave events.
- Qaseem, Amir; et al. (6 January 2020). "Testosterone Treatment in Adult Men With Age-Related Low Testosterone: A Clinical Guideline From the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. doi:10.7326/M19-0882. PMID 31905405. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Parry, Nicola M. (7 January 2020). "New Guideline for Testosterone Treatment in Men With 'Low T'". Medscape.com. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "DeepMind's new AI can spot breast cancer just as well as your doctor". Wired. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- "International evaluation of an AI system for breast cancer screening". Nature. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- Hall, Sannon (9 January 2020). "Volcanoes on Venus Might Still Be Smoking - Planetary science experiments on Earth suggest that the sun's second planet might have ongoing volcanic activity". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Filiberto, Justin (3 January 2020). "Present-day volcanism on Venus as evidenced from weathering rates of olivine". Science. 6 (1): eaax7445. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax7445. PMC 6941908. PMID 31922004.
- Limaye, Sanjay S. (12 September 2018). "Venus' Spectral Signatures and the Potential for Life in the Clouds". Astrobiology. 18 (9): 1181–1198. Bibcode:2018AsBio..18.1181L. doi:10.1089/ast.2017.1783. PMID 29600875.
- Houser, Kristin (3 January 2020). "Astrophysicist Says He Knows How to Build a Time Machine - But his peers are far from convinced that it'll work". Futurism.om. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- Andreolo, Claire; Cofield, Calla; Kazmierczak, Jeanette (6 January 2020). "NASA Planet Hunter Finds Earth-Size Habitable-Zone World". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
- Mann, Adam (8 January 2020). "Origin of Deep-Space Radio Flash Discovered, and It's Unlike Anything Astronomers Have Ever Seen - Things are only getting more confusing". Space.com. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- West Virginia University (6 January 2020). "In a nearby galaxy, a fast radio burst unravels more questions than answers". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
- Balles, Matthew (6 January 2020). "Not all fast radio bursts are created equal - Astronomical signals called fast radio bursts remain enigmatic, but a key discovery has now been made. A second repeating fast radio burst has been traced to its host galaxy, and its home bears little resemblance to that of the first". Nature. 577: 176–177. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03894-6. PMID 31907452.
- "Up to 23 feet long, the Chinese paddlefish was the giant of the Yangtze. And we killed it". CNN. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "The long goodbye: Study declares ancient Chinese paddlefish extinct". Mongabay. 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "New York teen discovers new planet while interning with NASA". ABC News. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "An Interstellar Ribbon of Clouds in the Sun's Backyard". Harvard. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- Overbye, Dennis (11 January 2020). "Vera Rubin Gets a Telescope of Her Own - The astronomer missed her Nobel Prize. But she now has a whole new observatory to her name". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "NSF-supported observatory renamed for astronomer Vera C. Rubin". www.nsf.gov. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "Cancer Mortality Continues Steady Decline, Driven by Progress against Lung Cancer". American Cancer Society. 8 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- Siegel, Rebecca L.; Miller, Kimberly D.; Jemal, Ahmedin (8 January 2020). "Cancer statistics, 2020". Ca: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. ACS Journals. 70: 7–30. doi:10.3322/caac.21590. PMID 31912902.
- "Sea-ice-free Arctic makes permafrost vulnerable to thawing". Science Daily. 8 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Joel, Lucas (10 January 2020). "Fossil Reveals Earth's Oldest Known Animal Guts - The find in a Nevada desert revealed an intestine inside a creature that looks like a worm made of a stack of ice cream cones". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Schiffbauer, James D.; et al. (10 January 2020). "Discovery of bilaterian-type through-guts in cloudinomorphs from the terminal Ediacaran Period". Nature Communications. 11 (205). doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13882-z. PMID 31924764.
- Joel, Lucas (16 January 2020). "Meteorite or Volcano? New Clues to the Dinosaurs' Demise - Twin calamities marked the end of the Cretaceous period, and scientists are presenting new evidence of which drove one of Earth's great extinctions". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- Hull, Picncelli M.; et al. (17 January 2020). "On impact and volcanism across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary". Science. 367 (6475): 266–272. doi:10.1126/science.aay5055. PMID 31949074.
- Cheng, Lijing; Abraham, John; Zhu, Jiang; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John; Boyer, Tim; Locarnini, Ricardo; Zhang, Bin; Yu, Fujiang; Wan, Liying; Chen, Xingrong; Song, Xiangzhou; Liu, Yulong; Mann, Michael E. (13 January 2020). "Record-Setting Ocean Warmth Continued in 2019". Advances in Atmospheric Sciences. 37 (2): 137–142. doi:10.1007/s00376-020-9283-7.
- "Ocean temperatures hit record high as rate of heating accelerates". The Guardian. 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
- "Record-setting ocean warmth continued in 2019". EurekAlert!. 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
- Weisberger, Mindy (13 January 2020). "7 Billion-Year-Old Stardust Is Oldest Material Found on Earth - Some of these ancient grains are billions of years older than our sun". Live Science. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
- Heck, Philipp R.; et al. (13 January 2020). "Lifetimes of interstellar dust from cosmic ray exposure ages of presolar silicon carbide". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America: 201904573. doi:10.1073/pnas.1904573117. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
- ESO (15 January 2020). "Astronomers reveal interstellar thread of one of life's building blocks". Phys.org. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- Rivilla, V. M.; et al. (2019). "ALMA and ROSINA detections of phosphorus-bearing molecules: the interstellar thread between star-forming regions and comets - [to be published in; "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society"]". arXiv. arXiv:1911.11647v1.
- Zimmer, Carl (15 January 2020). "This Strange Microbe May Mark One of Life's Great Leaps - A organism living in ocean muck offers clues to the origins of the complex cells of all animals and plants". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- Imachi, Hiroyuki; et al. (15 January 2020). "Isolation of an archaeon at the prokaryote–eukaryote interface". Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1916-6. PMID 31942073. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- Poust, AW; Gao, C; Varricchio, DJ; Wu, J; Zhang, F (15 January 2020). "A new microraptorine theropod from the Jehol Biota and growth in early dromaeosaurids". The Anatomical Record. American Association for Anatomy. doi:10.1002/ar.24343. PMID 31943887.
- Hodge, Rae (17 January 2020). "Pocket-size raptor sheds new light on the links between dino and bird life - This "dancing dragon," a new species of feathered dinosaur, was discovered in one of the richest fossil deposits in the world". CNET. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- Rayne, Elizabeth (18 January 2020). "This New Dinosaur Just Called It: Even Featured Birds Were Nothing Like Birds". SyfyWire. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- "The mysterious, legendary giant squid's genome is revealed". EurekAlert!. 16 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- "Platypus on brink of extinction". EurekAlert!. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- Cao, Kecheng; et al. (17 January 2020). "Imaging an unsupported metal–metal bond in dirhenium molecules at the atomic scale". Science Advances. 6 (3). doi:10.1126/sciadv.aay5849. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- Staff (22 January 2020). "Scientists Capture First-Ever Video of Atoms Bonding and Separating". Yahoo News. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- Drake, Nadia (20 January 2020). "Astronomers just got a deep peek at a black hole - Using a technique akin to echolocation, scientists were able to map the region around a distant black hole's event horizon in unprecedented detail". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- Alston, William N.; et al. (20 January 2020). "A dynamic black hole corona in an active galaxy through X-ray reverberation mapping". Nature Astronomy. arXiv:2001.06454. Bibcode:2020arXiv200106454A. doi:10.1038/s41550-019-1002-x. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- Kornel, Katherine (21 January 2020). "Earth's Oldest Asteroid Impact Found in Australia - The cataclysm, which occurred roughly 2.2 billion years ago, might have catapulted the planet out of an ice age". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- Erikson, Timmons M.; et al. (21 January 2020). "Precise radiometric age establishes Yarrabubba, Western Australia, as Earth's oldest recognised meteorite impact structure". Nature Communications. 11 (300). doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13985-7. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- "Emissions of potent greenhouse gas have grown, contradicting reports of huge reductions". University of Bristol. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "Study finds shock rise in levels of potent greenhouse gas". The Guardian. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "Researchers find a way to harness the entire spectrum of sunlight". Phys.org. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- Jones, Andrew (22 January 2020). "China releases huge batch of amazing Chang'e-4 images from moon's far side". Space.com. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- "Yorkshire salt mine could help shed light on Martian life". phys.org.
- "Overview - 2020 Mission Plans". Mars.nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Clark, Stephen (13 August 2016). "Ariane 6 rocket holding to schedule for 2020 maiden flight". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- Tomii, Tetsuo (28 June 2016). "ＪＡＸＡ、新型ロケット「Ｈ３」の基本設計−打ち上げコスト半減の５０億円". Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (in Japanese). Retrieved 18 March 2018.
- Henry, Caleb (12 March 2018). "SpaceX's Shotwell: BFR will probably be orbital in 2020, but you should start seeing hops in 2019. (Grasshopper reference?)". Retrieved 18 March 2018.
- "New plant will see that Shenzhen's refuse doesn't go to waste". newatlas.com.
- "Japan announces 'Robot Olympics' to coincide with 2020 Tokyo summer games". inews.co.uk.
- "World Robot Summit". Retrieved 2 January 2020.
- Gannes, Liz (13 May 2014). "Here's What It's Like to Go for a Ride in Google's Robot Car". Vox.
- "LSST Project Schedule". Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Our Sister Facilities". LIGO Caltech. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
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