Statutory city (Czech Republic)

In the Czech Republic, a statutory city (Czech: statutární město) is a municipal corporation that has been granted city status by Act of Parliament. It is more prestigious than the simple title město ("town"), which can be awarded by the cabinet and chair of the Chamber of Deputies to a municipality which applies for it.

Prague, capital of the Czech Republic
Brno
Ostrava
Plzeň

Differences of statutory cityEdit

Statutory city status is partially ceremonial; the mayor is called primátor, rather than the starosta of other municipalities. Statutory cities are allowed to subdivide into self-governing city boroughs (sg. městský obvod or city parts městská část) with their own elected councils; such a statutory city has to issue a statute (statut) that delimits power to boroughs. As of 2022 only seven statutory cities have done so. Cities Brno, Plzeň, Ústí nad Labem and Pardubice are divided into city boroughs, and Liberec has only one city borough with rest of the city being administered directly. Brno is divided into city parts, and Opava has eight city parts with rest of the city being administered directly. Also the capital of Prague, while not being de iure statutory city, is subdivided into similar self-governing boroughs.

HistoryEdit

The model is derived from its common origin in Austria-Hungary. Until 1928, 11 cities in the Czech lands received the statutory city title: Prague, Liberec, Brno, Jihlava, Kroměříž, Olomouc, Uherské Hradiště, Znojmo, Opava, Frýdek, and Bielsko (which became a part of Poland in 1920). On 1 December 1928 their count was reduced to five (Prague, Liberec, Brno, Olomouc and Opava). In 1942 Plzeň became a statutory city.[1]

Between 1949 and 1967, the institute of statutory cities was canceled by reform in self-government and the establishment of regions. Only Prague remained a de facto statutory city. After 1967, several cities received similar position as Prague (Brno, Plzeň, Ostrava and Ústí nad Labem), but the statutory city title wasn't used.[1]

The concept was renewed after the fall of communism by the Act on Municipalities in 1990, which established 13 statutory cities in addition to Prague, the capital city which is still a de facto statutory city.[1]

Unlike Austria, before districts of the Czech Republic were abolished only the three largest cities (Brno, Ostrava and Plzeň) constituted a district (okres) on their own; the others were a part (though always a capital, except Havířov) of a district with smaller municipalities. As the prestige associated with statutory city status grew, 12 additional statutory cities were created by the Act on Municipalities in 2000[2] and its four later amendments.

There are only two statutory cities, Havířov and Třinec, that are not seats of their eponymous districts.

ListEdit

Since August 2018, there are 26 statutory cities (plus Prague), comprising all the Czech cities over 40 thousand inhabitants (and Třinec):

Name Population[3] Area (km²) Region Statutory city since[1]
  Prague 1,275,406 496 Prague
  Brno 379,466 230 South Moravian 1990
  Ostrava 279,791 214 Moravian-Silesian 1990
  Plzeň 168,733 138 Plzeň 1990
  Liberec 102,951 106 Liberec 1990
  Olomouc 99,496 103 Olomouc 1990
  České Budějovice 93,426 56 South Bohemian 1990
  Hradec Králové 90,596 106 Hradec Králové 1990
  Ústí nad Labem 90,378 94 Ústí nad Labem 1990
  Pardubice 88,520 78 Pardubice 1990
  Zlín 72,973 119 Zlín 1990
  Havířov 69,084 32 Moravian-Silesian 1990
  Kladno 66,903 37 Central Bohemian 2000
  Most 62,866 87 Ústí nad Labem 2000
  Opava 54,840 91 Moravian-Silesian 1990
  Frýdek-Místek 53,899 52 Moravian-Silesian 2006
  Jihlava 50,108 88 Vysočina 2000
  Karviná 49,881 57 Moravian-Silesian 2003
  Teplice 48,766 24 Ústí nad Labem 2003
  Děčín 47,029 118 Ústí nad Labem 2006
  Chomutov 46,263 29 Ústí nad Labem 2006
  Karlovy Vary 45,500 59 Karlovy Vary 1990
  Jablonec nad Nisou 44,588 31 Liberec 2012
  Prostějov 43,055 39 Olomouc 2012
  Mladá Boleslav 41,868 29 Central Bohemian 2003
  Přerov 41,404 58 Olomouc 2006
  Třinec 34,222 85 Moravian-Silesian 2018

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Analýzy: Analýza rozsahu výkonu veřejné správy v jednotlivých statutárních městech, městských částech a městských obvodech". mvcr.cz (in Czech). Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic. 2018. pp. 16–18.
  2. ^ Act on Municipalities (2000); Předpis č. 128/2000 Sb. Zákon o obcích (obecní zřízení) (in Czech)
  3. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2022". Czech Statistical Office. 2022-04-29.