This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Chomutov (Czech pronunciation: [ˈxomutof]; German: Komotau) is a city in the Czech Republic, in the Ústí nad Labem Region. Chomutov has been a statutory city since 1 July 2006. It occupies an area of 29.26 km² and has almost 50,000 inhabitants. There are almost 80,000 inhabitants in the city's wider metropolitan area.
General view from the northwest
|Region||Ústí nad Labem|
|First mentioned||29 March 1252|
|• Mayor||Marek Hrabáč (ANO)|
|• Total||29.26 km2 (11.30 sq mi)|
|Elevation||340 m (1,120 ft)|
|• Density||1,700/km2 (4,300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Chomutov is a municipality with extended competence (Czech: obec s rozšířenou působností), meaning the city holds certain administrative powers delegated from the state government. Of the 24 other municipalities that make up the metropolitan area, one (Jirkov) has an authorized municipality office, meaning it is delegated some parts of the authority of a municipality with extended competence. The administrative territory of Chomutov borders with Germany in the north. Additionally, it borders with the territories of Kadaň in the west, Louny in the south, Most in the east and Litvínov in the northeast.
In 1252 Chomutov came into the possession of the Teutonic Order. The Gothic church of St. Catharine built during that era still stands to this day. In 1396 Chomutov received a town charter, and in 1416 the knights sold both the town and the lordship to Wenceslaus IV. On March 16, 1421, the town was stormed, sacked and burned by the Taborites. After several upheavals and changes of ownership, Chomutov was taken by Popel of Lobkovic in 1588, who established Jesuit rule, leading to trouble between the Protestant citizens and the town's new overlord. In 1594 the feudal lordship fell to the crown, and in 1605 the town purchased its freedom and was made a royal city. After the Thirty Years' War, Chomutov stagnated. Rapid development did not come until the second half of the 19th century, with advances in the mining and heavy industries.
By 1938 Chomutov had over 30,000 inhabitants. Part of the Sudetenland, it had a population comprising about 95% ethnic Germans. A very small Jewish population, (444 in 1930 – 1.3% of the total population), came under increasing pressure, and Chomutov was declared "Judenrein" on September 23, 1938 by the increasingly pro-Nazi administration. A week later, Chomutov and its surrounding districts were occupied by Nazi Germany as a result of the 1938 Munich Agreement. This broader, north-western border area of what is the modern-day Czech Republic was annexed by Germany and reorganized as the Reichsgau Sudetenland.
After 1945, the previous population, German by a large majority, was expelled. Industrial facilities and large high-rise housing projects were then built to redevelop the area. In the late 1970s an urban settlement was built, linking Chomutov with its neighbouring Jirkov. Following the Velvet Revolution of 1989, the heavy industry significantly decreased its activity, but the environment in and around the town has been visibly improved. The leisure facilities of the area were emphasised, notably the Alum lake, the Chomutov Zoo, and the Bezruč Valley recreational area.
Development of populationEdit
The centre of the historical city is in the shape of an oblong, and is surrounded by arcades. The Square of 1 May with its baroque Pillar of Trinity by Ambrož Laurentis from 1697 is banked by seven statues of saints built between 1725 and 1732.
The Town Hall is situated in the northwest side and it used to be a commendam until 1607. The Town Hall is situated next to the church of St. Catherine built in early Gothic style and finished in 1281.
On the opposite side there is the church of Assumption Virgin Mary, built in late Gothic style between 1518 and 1542, which is situated next to the 53 m tall City Tower which was renovated after the fire in 1525 and which is used as an observation tower.
At the end of the south side there is the Baroque church of St. Ignatz with two towers on the north frontage. The church was built for Jesuits by Carlo Lurago between 1663 and 1671. The building called Špejchar from the 17th century was used by Jesuits as earlier church and it adjoins the east side of the church of St. Ignatz. Nowadays it is used as a gallery.
There is a Jesuitical dormitory south of the church of St. Ignatz from the 16th and 17th century which is nowadays a settlement of the city museum. The most important building from the Gothic residential houses is the late Gothic house no. 9, which is at the bottom of the northeast side of the square.
Alum Lake, at an altitude of 337 m, is located on the northeast edge of Chomutov. It was caused at the end of the 18th century by flooding the mines used between the 16th and 18th centuries. It occupies an area of 16.3 ha, the maximum depth is 3.25 m and its volume is 285,000 m³. The high content (about 1%) of alum in the water from Alum Lake prevents the lake from the growth of weed and anabaena. For that reason it is very frequently visited in the summer months.
Bezruč Valley is a 13 km long and 200 m deep woody valley on the river Chomutovka in the northwestern side of the city and it is a popular place for trips.
Strážiště Hill (551 m) rises over the northern edge of Chomutov and on its peak there is a hotel with an observation tower.
Roads through Chomutov:
- no.: 7 (Prague-Slaný-Louny-Chomutov-St. Sebastian Hill)
- no.: 13 (Karlovy Vary-Ostrov-Klášterec nad Ohří-Chomutov-Most-Teplice-Děčín-Nový Bor)
Railways in Chomutov:
- no.: 120 (Prague-Kladno-Žatec-Chomutov)
- no.: 130 (Ústí nad Labem-Bílina-Most-Chomutov)
- no.: 133 (Chomutov-Jirkov)
- no.: 137 (Chomutov-Vejprty-Bärenstein)
- no.: 140 (Chomutov-Kadaň-Karlovy Vary-Sokolov-Cheb)
- Matthäus Aurogallus (1490–1543), scholar
- Franz Josef von Gerstner (1756–1832), mathematician
- Franz Höfer von Feldsturm (1861–1918), Austrian Fieldmarshal
- Max Fleischer (1880–1941), German-Jewish poet
- Ernst Fischer (1899–1972), Austrian politician, writer
- Hans Goldmann (1899–1991), Austrian-Swiss ophthalmologist and inventor, rector of the University of Bern
- Erich Heller (1911–1990), British philosopher and literary scholar
- Marian Korn (1914–1987), printmaker
- Ernst Hassler (1922–2003), German author
- Ernst Eichler (1925–2005), German ice hockey player
- Edwin Kratschmer (born 1931), German author
- Ruth Maria Kubitschek (born 1931), German actress
- Rainer Holbe (born 1940), German TV host
- Uschi Nerke (born 1944), German TV host
- Jiří Žáček (born 1945), poet, writer and translator
- Vlastimil Harapes (born 1946), dancer, director and choreographer
- Petr Klíma (born 1964), ice hockey player
- Pavla Hamáčková-Rybová (born 1978), pole vaulter
- Simona Kubová (born 1991), swimmer
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
- "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2020". Czech Statistical Office. 2020-04-30. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2016-04-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "CHOMUTOV: Bohemia - czech-republic- - International Jewish Cemetery Project". Iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- App, Dr. Austin J., PhD, The Sudeten-German Tragedy, Maryland, 1979.
- de Zayas, Alfred Maurice, A Terrible Revenge, New York, 2nd edition, 1994.
- "Zoopark Chomutov". Zoopark.cz. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Trolleybuses in Chomutov". Tram.rusign.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Úvodní stránka - Dopravní podnik měst Chomutova a Jirkova". Dpchj.cz. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Statutární město Chomutov. Retrieved 2020-06-20.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chomutov.|