Jirkov (Czech pronunciation: [ˈjɪrkof]; German: Görkau) is a town in Chomutov District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 19,000 inhabitants.

Jirkov
Church of Saint Giles and the Town Tower
Church of Saint Giles and the Town Tower
Flag of Jirkov
Coat of arms of Jirkov
Jirkov is located in Czech Republic
Jirkov
Jirkov
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 50°30′1″N 13°26′31″E / 50.50028°N 13.44194°E / 50.50028; 13.44194Coordinates: 50°30′1″N 13°26′31″E / 50.50028°N 13.44194°E / 50.50028; 13.44194
Country Czech Republic
RegionÚstí nad Labem
DistrictChomutov
First mentioned1321
Government
 • MayorDarina Kováčová
Area
 • Total17.01 km2 (6.57 sq mi)
Elevation
305 m (1,001 ft)
Population
 (2021-01-01)[1]
 • Total19,200
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
431 11
Websitewww.jirkov.cz

Administrative partsEdit

 
Town hall

Town parts and villages of Březenec, Červený Hrádek, Jindřišská and Vinařice are administrative parts of Jirkov.

GeographyEdit

Jirkov is situated between Most and Chomutov, on the Chomutov – Ústí nad Labem railway line. Although geographically close to the German border, the presence of hills along the border hinders land travel to Germany.

HistoryEdit

Jirkov was established as a colonization village on the Czech-Saxon border in the second half of the 13th century. The first written mention of Jirkov is from 1321 under the name Borek, the name Jirkov (that time written Jurkov) began to be used soon after.[2]

Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), in the Komotau (Chomutov) district, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia.[3] From 1938 to 1945 it was one of the municipalities in Sudetenland. After the surrender of Germany, nearly all of the town's hitherto inhabitants were expelled, and new Czech settlers found a new home in the depopulated town.

DemographyEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18694,322—    
18804,713+9.0%
18905,170+9.7%
19005,781+11.8%
19106,261+8.3%
YearPop.±%
19216,130−2.1%
19307,750+26.4%
19506,000−22.6%
19619,928+65.5%
197011,249+13.3%
YearPop.±%
198011,980+6.5%
199118,229+52.2%
200120,717+13.6%
201119,461−6.1%
202119,200−1.3%
Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic[4]

TransportEdit

Jirkov and neighbouring Chomutov together operate a transport company. In addition to buses, public transport is provided also by trolleybuses.

SightsEdit

Červený Hrádek CastleEdit

 
Červený Hrádek Castle

Červený Hrádek Castle (formerly Borek Castle) was founded by the Kraa family prior to 1415. The castle was sacked by the Hussites in 1421 and, after renovation later in the 15th century, the façade was painted red – hence the name Červený Hrádek (or Red Castle). In 1687 and 1688, the baroque sculptor Jan Brokoff carved statues, fountains and other works at the castle. His son Ferdinand Maxmilian Brokoff, also a sculptor, was born there.[5]

The last aristocratic family to own the castle were the Hohenlohe-Langenburgs. Max Egon Hohenlohe, the last owner, tried to prevent the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany through diplomatic negotiations when he allowed the meeting of the British mediator in the dispute between Germany and Czechoslovakia over the Sudetenland, Lord Runciman, with the leader of the Sudeten German Party, Konrad Henlein, at the castle in August 1938. After World War II, Prince Max Egon was expropriated by the communist government.[5][6]

Accessible areas of the castle include the castle's chapel, the hall of mirrors, the gallery and the study of Max Egon Hohenlohe.[5]

Town cellarsEdit

Long Cellar was built in year 1555. It was built for 40 years. It had 150 counters. Its second name is Sand Cellar. Long Cellar served to the brewery and to a beer storage. Thanks to this, the beer was better. Beer was brewed in Jirkov from year 1443. People brewed beer in the 16th and 17th centuries. A brewery was built near the cellar in 1841; thanks to this, Long Cellar lost importance.

Since 2006 the town cellars are accessible for visitors. Since 2011 the town cellars were declared a cultural monument.[7]

Church of Saint GilesEdit

The oldest monument in Jirkov is the Church of Saint Giles. Its existence was mentioned already in 1300. It was newly built in 1568, the original parts of the building have been preserved.[8]

SportEdit

Every year the town organizes the Jirkov Crossmarathon.

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Jirkov is twinned with:[9]

GellaryEdit

Town Jirkov, 2011

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 2021-04-30.
  2. ^ "Něco z historie" (in Czech). Statutární město Chomutov. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  3. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm Klein, 1967
  4. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Chomutov" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 5–6.
  5. ^ a b c "Zámek Červený Hrádek" (in Czech). Město Jirkov. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  6. ^ Vyšný, Paul (2003). The Runciman Mission to Czechoslovakia, 1938: Prelude to Munich. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 215–217. ISBN 0-333-73136-0.
  7. ^ "Městské sklepy" (in Czech). Město Jirkov. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  8. ^ "Děkanský kostel sv. Jiljí" (in Czech). Město Jirkov. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  9. ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Jirkov. Retrieved 2020-08-14.

External linksEdit