Třinec

Třinec (Czech pronunciation: [ˈtr̝̊ɪnɛts] (About this soundlisten); Polish: About this soundTrzyniec, German: Trzynietz) is a statutory city in Frýdek-Místek District in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 35,000 inhabitants and is the least populated statutory city in the Czech Republic.

Třinec

Trzyniec
T. G. Masaryka Square
Flag of Třinec
Flag
Coat of arms of Třinec
Coat of arms
Třinec is located in Czech Republic
Třinec
Třinec
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 49°40′40″N 18°40′22″E / 49.67778°N 18.67278°E / 49.67778; 18.67278Coordinates: 49°40′40″N 18°40′22″E / 49.67778°N 18.67278°E / 49.67778; 18.67278
Country Czech Republic
RegionMoravian-Silesian
DistrictFrýdek-Místek
First mentioned1444
Town rights1931
Statutory city2018
Town parts
Government
 • MayorVěra Palkovská
Area
 • Total85.36 km2 (32.96 sq mi)
Elevation
306 m (1,004 ft)
Population
 (2020-01-01[1])
 • Total35,002
 • Density410/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
739 55, 739 61, 739 94
Websitewww.trinecko.cz

The city is an important cultural centre of the Polish minority in Zaolzie, which makes up 13.9% of the population (as of 2011).[2]

Třinec is notable for its steel plant, the Třinec Iron and Steel Works, the largest in the Czech Republic, which still has a major impact on the city, on its character, demographics, and air quality.

EtymologyEdit

The name Třinec is of topographic origin, derived from the Polish word for reed (Polish: trzcina, Czech: třtina).[3]

GeographyEdit

 
View of the city with the Beskids mountains in the background

Třinec is located in the Moravian-Silesian Region in the north-east of the Czech Republic, in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. It lies on the Polish border and also near the Slovak border. It is situated approximately 45 km (28 mi) away from the city of Ostrava and about 320 km (199 mi) from the country's capital, Prague.

Třinec lies on the Olza River. The elevation is approximately 300 m (984.25 ft) above sea level. The city is surrounded by the picturesque Beskydy mountain range, a popular place for cycling, skiing, cross-country skiing, hiking, and paragliding. The highest peak in the municipal area is Ostrý (1,044 m).

HistoryEdit

The village of Třinec was probably founded in the second half of the 14th century. The first written mention is from 1444.[4] Politically, the village then belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1770, the village had about 200 inhabitants.[4]

The majority of the population worked in agriculture. The area was, however, rich in limestone, iron ore, and clay. The region also offered a large enough workforce, so it was decided to build an iron works there. In 1836, construction of the first metallurgical furnace had begun. The iron mill began operation in 1839, becoming the largest in the entire Cieszyn Silesia. The first schools (Polish-German) in Třinec were opened by the initiative of the iron works in 1851. After the construction of the Košice-Bohumín Railway line in 1871, rapid development of the town took place.

After the revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire, a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia. The village as a municipality was added to the political and legal district of Cieszyn. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900, and 1910, the population of the municipality grew from 1,792 in 1880 to 3,849 in 1910, with a majority being native Polish-speakers (growing from 51.4% in 1880 to 96.6% in 1900 and 96% in 1910), accompanied by a German-speaking minority (at most 32.5% in 1880, then dropping to 12.2% in 1900 and up to 24.3% in 1910) and Czech-speakers (peaking in 1890 at 17.4%, then dropping to 6.7% in 1910). In terms of religion, in 1910 the majority were Roman Catholics (63.2%), followed by Protestants (34.5%), Jews (76 or 1.9%), and 13 people adhering to another faith.[5] The village was also traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking the Cieszyn Silesian dialect.

After World War I, the fall of Austria-Hungary, the Polish–Czechoslovak War, and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia. Třinec gained town rights in 1931. Following the Munich Agreement in October 1938, together with the Zaolzie region, it was annexed by Poland, administratively adjoined to Cieszyn County of the Silesian Voivodeship.[6] It was then annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war, it was restored to Czechoslovakia.

In 1946, it was merged with the village of Lyžbice, where in the 1950s the ruling Communist Party of Czechoslovakia began large-scale development in the style of socialist realism. Afterwards, Lyžbice became a new downtown, taking the place of Staré Město (lit. Old Town).

Music and cultureEdit

 
The city's Evangelical church

There are a number of musical concerts that take place in the city throughout the year. They are usually held at the local football stadium or the Třinecký Zimní Stadion sports arena, or alternatively at the Třinec-Borek football grounds. The year's biggest events are the 'Hutnický den', which takes place in May, and 'Noc Plná Hvězd' (Star-Studded Night) in the summer, both festivals which feature numerous live performances from bands and artists from all over the country and abroad. Another yearly event is the 'Zlot' concert in the nearby town of Bystřice, aimed at the local Polish population.

SportEdit

Ice hockey and football are by far the city's most popular sports. The ice hockey team, HC Oceláři Třinec, which currently plays in the Czech Extraliga, the top tier of Czech ice hockey, has a massive following and fan base in Třinec. The team holds a regional rivalry with Ostrava-based HC Vítkovice.

Oceláři (Steelers) play their home games at Werk Arena, which opened in 2014 and has a seating capacity of 5,200. The arena also hosted the Team Czech Republic at the 2016 Davis Cup World Group.

The city's football team, FK Fotbal Třinec, has seen a rise in popularity after its promotion to the Czech National Football League several years ago. Average attendance for league matches is now more than 1,000. A rivalry with neighbouring sides FC Vítkovice and MFK Karviná has also been established.

Třinec also has a popular athletics team.

Local dialectEdit

Although the majority of the city's population speak Czech, a large number speaks in a Cieszyn Silesian dialect, a mixture of Czech, Polish, and German. The dialect is very specific to the whole region of Cieszyn Silesia.

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Třinec is twinned with:[7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2020". Czech Statistical Office. 30 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Public database: Census 2011". Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  3. ^ Mrózek, Robert (1984). Nazwy miejscowe dawnego Śląska Cieszyńskiego [Local names of former Cieszyn Silesia] (in Polish). Katowice: University of Silesia in Katowice. p. 177. ISSN 0208-6336.
  4. ^ a b "Historie: Nejstarší období". trinecko.cz (in Czech). Statutární město Třinec. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  5. ^ Piątkowski, Kazimierz (1918). Stosunki narodowościowe w Księstwie Cieszyńskiem (in Polish). Cieszyn: Macierz Szkolna Księstwa Cieszyńskiego. pp. 265, 284.
  6. ^ "Ustawa z dnia 27 października 1938 r. o podziale administracyjnym i tymczasowej organizacji administracji na obszarze Ziem Odzyskanych Śląska Cieszyńskiego". Dziennik Ustaw Śląskich (in Polish). Katowice. nr 18/1938, poz. 35. 31 October 1938. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  7. ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Statutární město Třinec. Retrieved 27 June 2020.

Further readingEdit

  • Cicha, Irena; Jaworski, Kazimierz; Ondraszek, Bronisław; Stalmach, Barbara; Stalmach, Jan (2000). Olza od pramene po ujście. Český Těšín: Region Silesia. ISBN 80-238-6081-X.
  • Wawreczka, Henryk (2004). Třinec a okolí: včera a dnes. Třinec - Nebory: Wart. ISBN 80-239-3819-3.

External linksEdit