Guty (help·info) (Polish: Guty) is a village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. It was a separate municipality but it became a part of the town of Třinec in 1980. It lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. It has a population of 762 (1 January 2008). A large part of the population of Guty is Polish.
The name is of uncertain origins. It could have been derived from personal name Gut (from German gut?) as in 1307 a person named Domino Johanne dicto Guth was mentioned in one of the Silesian documents.
The settlement was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Gutha. It meant that the village was in the process of location (the size of land to pay a tithe from was not yet precised). The creation of the village was a part of a larger settlement campaign taking place in the late 13th century on the territory of what will be later known as Upper Silesia.
Politically the village belonged initially to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland and was ruled by a local branch of Piast dynasty. In 1327 the duchy became a fee of Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy.
After the 1540s Protestant Reformation prevailed in the Duchy of Teschen. In 1563 a local Lutherans built a wooden church. It was taken from them (as one from around fifty buildings) in the region by a special commission and given back to the Roman Catholic Church on 23 March 1654. The Corpus Christi Church burned down completely overnight on 2 August 2017, following an arson attack by three youths from Třinec.
After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia. The village as a municipality was subscribed to the political and legal district of Cieszyn. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality grew from 812 in 1880 to 832 in 1910 with a majority being native Polish-speakers (between 98.3% and 99.9%) accompanied occasionally by a German-speaking people (at most 14 or 1.7% in 1890) and Czech-speaking (at most 7 or 0.9% in 1910). In terms of religion in 1910 majority were Protestants (90.6%), followed by Roman Catholics (7.8%) and 13 people adhering to another faiths (but were no Jews). The village was also traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect.
After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively adjoined to Cieszyn County of Silesian Voivodeship. It was then annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia.
The first wooden school in Guty was built in 1775, it was a Protestant school. It served as a school until 1866. In that year a new school was built, with a tower and a bell. It served as a school until 1903. The last Polish school in Guty was built in 1903 and served until 1973. In 1923, the first Czech school was built, it served until 1973. There are currently no schools in the village, so the local children, both Polish and Czech, attend schools in Oldřichovice or Třinec.
- Počet obyvatel k 1.1.2008. Správní oddělení města Třince, 2008.
- Mrózek, Robert (1984). Nazwy miejscowe dawnego Śląska Cieszyńskiego [Local names of former Cieszyn Silesia] (in Polish). Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach. p. 76. ISSN 0208-6336.
- Panic, Idzi (2010). Śląsk Cieszyński w średniowieczu (do 1528) [Cieszyn Silesia in the Middle Ages (until 1528)] (in Polish). Cieszyn: Starostwo Powiatowe w Cieszynie. pp. 297–299. ISBN 978-83-926929-3-5.
- Schulte, Wilhelm (1889). Codex Diplomaticus Silesiae T.14 Liber Fundationis Episcopatus Vratislaviensis (in German). Breslau.
- "Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis" (in Latin). Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- Hosák et al. 1970, 234.
- Broda, Jan (1992). "Materiały do dziejów Kościoła ewangelickiego w Księstwie Cieszyńskim i Państwie Pszczyńskim w XVI i XVII wieku". Z historii Kościoła ewangelickiego na Śląsku Cieszyńskim (in Polish). Katowice: Dom Wydawniczy i Księgarski „Didache“. pp. 259–260. ISBN 83-85572-00-7.
- "V Třinci shořel unikátní dřevěný kostel z šestnáctého století".
- Piątkowski, Kazimierz (1918). Stosunki narodowościowe w Księstwie Cieszyńskiem (in Polish). Cieszyn: Macierz Szkolna Księstwa Cieszyńskiego. pp. 263, 281.
- "Ustawa z dnia 27 października 1938 r. o podziale administracyjnym i tymczasowej organizacji administracji na obszarze Ziem Odzyskanych Śląska Cieszyńskiego". Dziennik Ustaw Śląskich (in Polish). Katowice. nr 18/1938, poz. 35. 31 October 1938. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Kubacz 2001, 151.
- Hosák, Ladislav; Šrámek, Rudolf (1970). Místní jména na Moravě a ve Slezsku I, A-L. Praha: Academia.
- Kubacz, Adam (2001). "Wpływ reform terezjańskich i józefińskich na rozwój szkolnictwa na Śląsku Cieszyńskim". In Janusz Spyra (ed.). Książka – biblioteka – szkoła w kulturze Śląska Cieszyńskiego. Materiały z konferencji naukowej Cieszyn 4-5 listopada 1999. Cieszyn: Książnica Cieszyńska, Zarząd Główny Macierzy Ziemi Cieszyńskiej, Społeczny Komitet Budowy Pomnika Ks. Leopolda Jana Szersznika. ISBN 83-902888-8-5.
- Londzin, Józef (1932). Kościoły drewniane na Śląsku Cieszyńskim. Cieszyn: Dziedzictwo błog. Jana Sarkandra. pp. 92–97. OCLC 297540848.
- Myrdacz, Jan (January 2007). "Dzieje szkolnictwa w Gutach". Zwrot: 24.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guty.|