Kroměříž

Kroměříž ([ˈkromɲɛr̝iːʃ] (audio speaker iconlisten); German: Kremsier) is a town in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 28,000 inhabitants. It is known for the Kroměříž Castle with castle gardens, which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The town centre with the castle complex is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument reservation.

Kroměříž
Town square seen from the castle tower
Town square seen from the castle tower
Flag of Kroměříž
Coat of arms of Kroměříž
Kroměříž is located in Czech Republic
Kroměříž
Kroměříž
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 49°17′56″N 17°23′35″E / 49.29889°N 17.39306°E / 49.29889; 17.39306Coordinates: 49°17′56″N 17°23′35″E / 49.29889°N 17.39306°E / 49.29889; 17.39306
Country Czech Republic
RegionZlín
DistrictKroměříž
First mentioned1107
Government
 • MayorJaroslav Němec
Area
 • Total50.98 km2 (19.68 sq mi)
Elevation
201 m (659 ft)
Population
 (2021-01-01)[1]
 • Total28,360
 • Density560/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
767 01
Websitewww.mesto-kromeriz.cz
Official nameGardens and Castle at Kroměříž
Criteriaii, iv
Reference860
Inscription1998 (22nd Session)

Administrative partsEdit

Villages of Bílany, Drahlov, Hradisko, Kotojedy, Postoupky, Těšnovice, Trávník, Vážany and Zlámanka are administrative parts of Kroměříž.

GeographyEdit

Kroměříž is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northwest from Zlín. It lies on the Morava River.

Kroměříž is mostly situated in the Central Moravian Carpathians. About two thirds of the municipal territory lies in the Litenčice Hills. A small southern part is located in Chřiby. Eastern part of the territory lies in the Upper Morava Valley. The highest point of the territory is the hill Obora with an elevation of 322 metres (1,056 ft).

HistoryEdit

 
Church of Saint Maurice
 
Velké Square with the Kroměříž Castle

The first written mention of Kroměříž (under its Latin name Cromezir) is in a document written between 1107 and 1125, when the settlement was bought by Olomouc bishop Jan II.[2][3] Some sources cite a deed of another Olomouc bishop Jindřich Zdík from 1141 as the first unquestionable written mention of Kroměříž.[4] In the Middle Ages, it was a market village on the crossroads of the Amber and Salt roads. It was located at a ford across the Morava where the toll was collected.[2][4]

In the 13th century, Kroměříž became the centre of dominion owned by Olomouc bishopric. The Knights Hospitaller settled here and had built a church and a commandery in 1238. In 1241 and 1253, Kroměříž was looted by raids by the Tatars, Cumans and Hungarians.[2] The settlement depopulated and had to be colonized.[3] Kroměříž is last referred to as a market village in a document by Ottokar II of Bohemia from 1256. After 1256, the Olomouc bishop Bruno von Schauenburg came to power over Kroměříž. He took care of it and fundamentally contributed to its development. He founded the market square on the hill above the original settlement and had surrounded it with walls. He also had the Church of Saint Maurice built and had vineyards planted around the settlement. In 1266, Kroměříž was first referred to as a town.[4][2]

In 1322, the Jews were allowed to settle in the town. In the mid-16th century, the Kroměříž Jewish community was the largest serf Jewish community in Moravia. The bishops protected the community for the income flowing from it.[5]

During the rule of bishop Stanislav I Thurzo, the local bishop's residence was repaired and rebuilt into a late Gothic and Renaissance castle. His followers further refined the town and provided costly building repairs.[6]

The town and the castle were badly damaged in the Thirty Years' War. It was plundered by Swedish troops under command of Lennart Torstensson in 1643. Most of the buildings were burned down. The town was further damaged by a large fire in 1656. Kroměříž recovered during the rule of Bishop Karl II von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn, who had rebuilt the town and the castle. The castle was first repaired, and in 1686 completely rebuilt. He also has repaired town walls, and founded a mint and representative gardens in 1666–1675. Kroměříž again became an important town.[7]

The Constitutive Imperial Congress sat in Kroměříž in 1848. In August 1885 a meeting took place here between the Austrian and the Russian emperors.[8]

DemographyEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
186912,848—    
188015,038+17.0%
189015,897+5.7%
190017,509+10.1%
191020,186+15.3%
YearPop.±%
192120,767+2.9%
193022,024+6.1%
195022,782+3.4%
196123,178+1.7%
197024,478+5.6%
YearPop.±%
198027,835+13.7%
199128,636+2.9%
200129,225+2.1%
201129,154−0.2%
202128,360−2.7%
Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic[9]

EconomyEdit

On the outskirts of the town there is the Agricultural Research Institute Kroměříž (formerly the Research Institute of Grain, etc., founded in 1951), which is engaged in research and breeding of cereals.[10]

There is a hospital and a psychiatric hospital in Kroměříž. Both are among the main employers in the town.

CultureEdit

 
Regents's house and Kroměříž Region Museum

Kroměříž lies in the ethnographic region of Haná. It has rich cultural life for which it earned a nickname "Athens of Haná".[11] The town has traditionally held an international festival of military brass music[12] and the international festival of sacred music FORFEST.[13]

The Castle Gallery has collection of about 500 paintings and is among the most significant in Europe. It includes Flaying of Marsyas, a late painting by Titian.[14]

SportEdit

The football club SK Hanácká Slavia Kroměříž plays in the Moravian-Silesian Football League, the third tier of football in the Czech Republic.

SightsEdit

 
Castle Gardens

The town is best known for the Baroque Kroměříž Castle with its valuable gardens. The polygonal tower of the castle is the main landmark as well as the oldest remnant of the old Bishop's Castle. The Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998.[15]

Despite several reconstructions after the war damage, the Church of Saint Maurice retained its early Gothic appearance. Bishop Bruno von Schauenburg is buried in the church.[16]

The Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary was the oldest church in the town. The original church from the 13th century was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War. The current structure was built in the late Baroque style the first half of the 18th century. It has preserved bell tower from the 13th century.[17]

The town's main museum is Kroměříž Region Museum. There is also Karel Kryl's exposition on life and work of one of the most famous natives.[18] In the former Bishop's Mint from 1665 is a mint exposition.[19]

In popular cultureEdit

In Kroměříž Castle were filmed some scenes from Amadeus (1984), Immortal Beloved (1994), Četnické humoresky (1997), A Royal Affair (2012), Angélique (2013), The Musketeers (2015), and Maria Theresia (2017).[20] Other films shot in the town include The Ear (1970) and Requiem pro panenku (1992).[21]

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Kroměříž is twinned with:[22]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 30 April 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d "Historie Kroměříže: 1. díl – První písemné zprávy o osadě" (in Czech). Moje Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Zpráva o činnosti a hospodaření Muzea Kroměřížska za rok 2009" (PDF) (in Czech). Kroměříž Region Museum. 15 February 2010. p. 10. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "750. výročí trvání města Kroměříže: Slavit, nebo neslavit?" (in Czech). Město Kroměříž. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  5. ^ "Historie Kroměříže: 2. díl – Ustanovení Kroměříže coby města" (in Czech). Moje Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  6. ^ "Historie Kroměříže: 3. díl – Doba Husitská i protireformní" (in Czech). Moje Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  7. ^ "Historie Kroměříže: 4. díl – Zničení Kroměříže a jeho skvělé zbudování v 17. století" (in Czech). Moje Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  8. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kremsier" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 925.
  9. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Kroměříž" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 21 December 2015. pp. 3–4.
  10. ^ "Historie společnosti" (in Czech). Zemědělský výzkumný ústav Kroměříž, s.r.o. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  11. ^ "Historie" (in Czech). Město Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  12. ^ Kuncová, Jarmila (4 September 2011). "V Kroměříži obnovili festival vojenských hudeb" (in Czech). Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  13. ^ "Festival Forfest Czech Republic". forfest.cz. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  14. ^ "Zámecká obrazárna" (in Czech). Kroměříž Castle. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  15. ^ "Památky UNESCO" (in Czech). Město Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  16. ^ "Kostel svatého Mořice" (in Czech). Město Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  17. ^ "Kostel Nanebevzetí Panny Marie" (in Czech). Město Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  18. ^ "Muzea a galerie" (in Czech). Město Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  19. ^ "Biskupská mincovna" (in Czech). Město Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  20. ^ "Zámek filmový" (in Czech). Kroměříž Castle. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  21. ^ "Kroměříží filmaři suplují Versailles i Petrohrad, Forman zde točil Amadea" (in Czech). iDnes. 22 August 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  22. ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Kroměříž. Retrieved 13 December 2021.

External linksEdit