Kladno (Czech pronunciation: [ˈkladno]; German: Kladen) is a city in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 67,000 inhabitants. It is the largest city in the region and together with its adjacent suburban areas has a population of more than 110,000.
|• Mayor||Milan Volf (Volba pro Kladno)|
|• Total||36.97 km2 (14.27 sq mi)|
|Elevation||381 m (1,250 ft)|
|• Density||1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
The city is made up of six administrative parts: Kladno, Dubí, Kročehlavy, Rozdělov, Švermov and Vrapice.
Kladno is located about 17 kilometres (11 mi) northwest of Prague and is a part of the Prague metropolitan area. It lies in a mostly flat landscape of the Prague Plateau. The highest point is at 434 metres (1,424 ft) above sea level.
The first written mention of Kladno is from 1318 as a property of noble family of Kladenský of Kladno. After 1543, when Kladenský of Kladno died out, it became a property of Žďárský of Žďár. In 1561 the town rights were secured.
In 1566, Žďárský of Žďár rebuilt the local fort to a Renaissance castle. The town walls was built in following decades. The city prospered until Battle of White Mountain in 1620, when it was looted by Polish Cossacks.
In 18th century the town began to grow behind its walls. In 19th century, the town developed into a significant agricultural and industrial centre. Around 1850, the first coal mines in the area were opened, and the coal was mined until the end of the 20th century. In 1898, Kladno became a city.
As a part of the Czech kingdom, the city was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austrian side after the compromise of 1867) for several centuries before 1918, head of the Kladno district, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. A post-office was opened in 1863.
The city's prosperity was once again interrupted by World War II, when it was ruled by the Nazis. In 1941, surrounding municipalities (Kročehlavy, Rozdělov, Dubí, Dříň and Újezd) were joined to Kladno. Vrapice was joined in 1950 and Švermov in 1980.
The post-war history of Kladno was influenced by the philosophy of the communist regime. The city's development was determined by migration of labor forces unrelated to the city, by the construction of unified large housing estates and by an effort to erase the original buildings of the city centre. On 21 August 1968, Kladno was occupied for the second time in thirty years, this time by the Soviet Army.
Kladno was the historical birthplace of heavy industry in Bohemia. For years, the city was home to the Poldi steel factory, the region's largest employer. The factory still stands but has been divided into smaller entities after privatisation and changes in ownership. The mining industry began here in 1842. The proximity to Prague helped to keep the local economy stable in spite of the heavy industrial decline after the collapse of the communist regime.
The city is mainly known for its ice hockey club Rytíři Kladno, which was successful in the past and is connected with many famous players of Czech ice hockey history, including Olympic gold medalists Jaromír Jágr, Pavel Patera, Martin Procházka, Libor Procházka and Milan Hnilička. Nowadays the club plays in the top tier again, with Jaromír Jágr as its owner and president.
- Anton Cermak (1873–1933), mayor of Chicago in 1931–1933
- Antonin Raymond (1888–1976), Czech-American architect
- Zdeněk Miler (1921–2011), animator and illustrator
- Antonín Kachlík (1923–2022), film director and screenwriter
- Petr Pithart (born 1941), politician, former Prime Minister
- Michal Pivoňka (born 1966), ice hockey player
- Jiří Dienstbier Jr. (born 1969), politician
- Jaromír Jágr (born 1972), ice hockey player
- František Kaberle (born 1973), ice hockey player
- Tomáš Plekanec (born 1982), ice hockey player
- Michael Frolík (born 1988), ice hockey player
- Jakub Voráček (born 1989), ice hockey player
- Radko Gudas (born 1990), ice hockey player
- Jiří Sekáč (born 1992), ice hockey player
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
- "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2022". Czech Statistical Office. 29 April 2022.
- "Historie města Kladno" (in Czech). Kladno Živě. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
- "Historie Kladna" (in Czech). Statutární město Kladno. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
- Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm Klein, 1967
- Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin Mueller, 1961
- "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Kladno" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 21 December 2015. pp. 3–4.
- "Population Census 2021: Population by sex". Public Database. Czech Statistical Office. 27 March 2021.
- "Partnerská města Kladna". mestokladno.cz (in Czech). Statutární město Kladno. Retrieved 11 May 2021.