Steelmaking

Steelmaking is the process of producing steel from iron ore and/or scrap. In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and excess carbon (the most important impurity) are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium, carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities (termed "inclusions") in the steel is also important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel.[1]

Steelmaking has existed for millennia, but it was not commercialized on a massive scale until the late 14th century. An ancient process of steelmaking was the crucible process. In the 1850s and 1860s, the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process turned steelmaking into a heavy industry. Today there are two major commercial processes for making steel, namely basic oxygen steelmaking, which has liquid pig-iron from the blast furnace and scrap steel as the main feed materials, and electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, which uses scrap steel or direct reduced iron (DRI) as the main feed materials. Oxygen steelmaking is fueled predominantly by the exothermic nature of the reactions inside the vessel; in contrast, in EAF steelmaking, electrical energy is used to melt the solid scrap and/or DRI materials. In recent times, EAF steelmaking technology has evolved closer to oxygen steelmaking as more chemical energy is introduced into the process.[2]

Steelmaking is one of the most carbon emission intensive industries in the world. As of 2020, steelmaking is estimated to be responsible for 7 to 9 per cent of all direct fossil fuel greenhouse gas emissions.[3] In order to mitigate global warming, the industry will need to find reductions in emissions.[4] In 2020, McKinsey identified a number of technologies for decarbonization including hydrogen usage, carbon capture and reuse, and maximizing use of electric arc furnaces powered by clean energy.[4]

HistoryEdit

 
Bethlehem Steel (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania facility pictured) was one of the world's largest manufacturers of steel before its closure in 2003.

Steelmaking has played a crucial role in the development of ancient, medieval, and modern technological societies. Early processes of steel making were made during the classical era in Ancient Iran, Ancient China, India, and Rome.

Cast iron is a hard, brittle material that is difficult to work, whereas steel is malleable, relatively easily formed and a versatile material. For much of human history, steel has only been made in small quantities. Since the invention of the Bessemer process in 19th century Britain and subsequent technological developments in injection technology and process control, mass production of steel has become an integral part of the global economy and a key indicator of modern technological development.[5] The earliest means of producing steel was in a bloomery.

Early modern methods of producing steel were often labour-intensive and highly skilled arts. See:

An important aspect of the Industrial Revolution was the development of large-scale methods of producing forgeable metal (bar iron or steel). The puddling furnace was initially a means of producing wrought iron but was later applied to steel production.

The real revolution in modern steelmaking only began at the end of the 1850s when the Bessemer process became the first successful method of steelmaking in high quantity followed by the open-hearth furnace.

Modern processesEdit

 
Distribution of world steel production by methods

Modern steelmaking processes can be divided into three steps: primary, secondary and tertiary.

Primary steelmaking involves smelting iron into steel. Secondary steelmaking involves adding or removing other elements such as alloying agents and dissolved gases. Tertiary steelmaking involves casting into sheets, rolls or other forms. Multiple techniques are available for each step.[6]

Primary steelmakingEdit

Basic oxygenEdit

Basic oxygen steelmaking is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich pig iron is melted and converted into steel. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron converts some of the carbon in the iron into CO
and CO
2
, turning it into steel. Refractoriescalcium oxide and magnesium oxide—line the smelting vessel to withstand the high temperature and corrosive nature of the molten metal and slag. The chemistry of the process is controlled to ensure that impurities such as silicon and phosphorus are removed from the metal.

The modern process was developed in 1948 by Robert Durrer, as a refinement of the Bessemer converter that replaced air with more efficient oxygen. It reduced the capital cost of the plants and smelting time, and increased labor productivity. Between 1920 and 2000, labour requirements in the industry decreased by a factor of 1000, from to just 0.003 man-hours per tonne. in 2011, 70% of global steel output was produced using the basic oxygen furnace. Furnaces can convert up to 350 tons of iron into steel in less than 40 minutes compared to 10–12 hours in an open hearth furnace.[7]

Electric arcEdit

Electric arc furnace steelmaking is the manufacture of steel from scrap or direct reduced iron melted by electric arcs. In an electric arc furnace, a batch ("heat") of iron is loaded into the furnace, sometimes with a "hot heel" (molten steel from a previous heat). Gas burners may be used to assist with the melt. As in basic oxygen steelmaking, fluxes are also added to protect the lining of the vessel and help improve the removal of impurities. Electric arc furnace steelmaking typically uses furnaces of capacity around 100 tonnes that produce steel every 40 to 50 minutes.[7]

HIsarna processEdit

In HIsarna ironmaking process, iron ore is processed almost directly into liquid iron or hot metal. The process is based around a type of blast furnace called a cyclone converter furnace, which makes it possible to skip the process of manufacturing pig iron pellets that is necessary for the basic oxygen steelmaking process. Without the necessity of this preparatory step, the HIsarna process is more energy-efficient and has a lower carbon footprint than traditional steelmaking processes.

Hydrogen reductionEdit

Steel can be produced from direct-reduced iron, which in turn can be produced from iron ore as it undergoes chemical reduction with hydrogen. Renewable hydrogen allows steelmaking without the use of fossil fuels. In 2021, a pilot plant in Sweden tested this process. Direct reduction occurs at 1,500 °F (820 °C). The iron is infused with carbon (from coal) in an electric arc furnace. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis requires approximately 2600 kWh. Costs are estimated to be 20-30% higher than conventional methods.[8][9][10]

Secondary steelmakingEdit

Secondary steelmaking is most commonly performed in ladles. Some of the operations performed in ladles include de-oxidation (or "killing"), vacuum degassing, alloy addition, inclusion removal, inclusion chemistry modification, de-sulphurisation, and homogenisation. It is now common to perform ladle metallurgical operations in gas-stirred ladles with electric arc heating in the lid of the furnace. Tight control of ladle metallurgy is associated with producing high grades of steel in which the tolerances in chemistry and consistency are narrow.[6]

Carbon dioxide emissionsEdit

Steelmaking is estimated to be responsible for 7 to 9% of the global emissions of carbon dioxide.[11] Making 1 ton of steel produces about 1.8 tons of carbon dioxide. The bulk of these emissions results from the industrial process in which coal is used as the source of carbon that removes oxygen from iron ore in the following chemical reaction, which occurs in a blast furnace:[12]

Fe2O3(s) + 3 CO(g) → 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO2(g)

Additional carbon dioxide emissions result from basic oxygen steelmaking, calcination, and the hot blast. A side product of the blast furnace is the blast furnace exhaust gas which contains large amounts of carbon monoxide which is mostly burned for electricity generation which increases the carbon dioxide emissions further. Carbon capture and utilization or carbon capture and storage are proposed techniques to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions in the steel industry next to a shift to electric arc steel production.[11]

Blast furnaceEdit

To make pure steel, iron and carbon are needed. On its own, iron is not very strong, but a low concentration of carbon - less than 1 percent, depending on the kind of steel, gives the steel its important properties. The carbon in steel is obtained from coal and the iron from iron ore. However, iron ore is a mixture of iron and oxygen, and other trace elements. To make steel, the iron needs to be separated from the oxygen and a tiny amount of carbon needs to be added. Both are accomplished by melting the iron ore at a very high temperature (1,700 degrees Celsius or over 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit) in the presence of oxygen (from the air) and a type of coal called coke. At those temperatures, the iron ore releases its oxygen, which is carried away by the carbon from the coke in the form of carbon dioxide.

Fe2O3(s) + 3 CO(g) → 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO2(g)

The reaction occurs due to the lower (favorable) energy state of carbon dioxide compared to iron oxide, and the high temperatures are needed to achieve the activation energy for this reaction. A small amount of carbon bonds with the iron, forming pig iron, which is an intermediary before steel, as it has carbon content that is too high - around 4%.[13]

DecarburizationEdit

To reduce the carbon content in pig iron and obtain the desired carbon content of steel, the pig iron is re-melted and oxygen is blown through in a process called basic oxygen steelmaking, which occurs in a ladle. In this step, the oxygen binds with the undesired carbon, carrying it away in the form of carbon dioxide gas, an additional source of emissions. After this step, the carbon content in the pig iron is lowered sufficiently and steel is obtained.

CalcinationEdit

Further carbon dioxide emissions result from the use of limestone, which is melted at high temperatures in a reaction called calcination, which has the following chemical reaction.

CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)

The carbon in the limestone is therefore released as carbon dioxide, making it an additional source of emissions. The calcium oxide acts as a chemical flux, removing impurities in the form of slag. For example, the calcium oxide can react to remove silicon oxide impurities:

SiO2 + CaO → CaSiO3

This use of limestone to provide a flux occurs both in the blast furnace (to obtain pig iron) and in the basic oxygen steel making (to obtain steel).

Hot blastEdit

Further carbon dioxide emissions result from the hot blast, which is used to increase the heat of the blast furnace. The hot blast pumps hot air into the blast furnace where the iron ore is reduced to pig iron, helping to achieve the high activation energy. The hot blast temperature can be from 900 °C to 1300 °C (1600 °F to 2300 °F) depending on the stove design and condition. Oil, tar, natural gas, powdered coal and oxygen can also be injected into the furnace to combine with the coke to release additional energy and increase the percentage of reducing gases present, increasing productivity. If the air in the hot blast is heated by burning fossil fuels, which often is the case, this is an additional source of carbon dioxide emissions.[14]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Deo, Brahma; Boom, Rob (1993). Fundamentals of Steelmaking Metallurgy. New York: Prentice Hall International. ISBN 9780133453805. LCCN 92038513. OCLC 473115765.
  2. ^ Turkdogan, E.T. (1996). Fundamentals of Steelmaking. London: Institute of Materials. ISBN 9781907625732. OCLC 701103539.
  3. ^ "Europe leads the way in the 'greening' of steel output". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-11-20.
  4. ^ a b "Decarbonization in steel | McKinsey". www.mckinsey.com. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  5. ^ Sass, Stephen L. (August 2011). The Substance of Civilization: Materials and Human History from the Stone Age to the Age of Silicon. New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN 9781611454017. OCLC 1078198918.
  6. ^ a b Ghosh, Ahindra. (December 13, 2000). Secondary Steelmaking: Principles and Applications (1st ed.). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. ISBN 9780849302640. LCCN 00060865. OCLC 664116613.
  7. ^ a b Fruehan, Richard J., ed. (1998). The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: Steelmaking and Refining Volume (11th ed.). Pittsburgh: AIST. ISBN 978-0-930767-02-0. LCCN 98073477. OCLC 906879016.
  8. ^ "HYBRIT: The world's first fossil-free steel ready for delivery". vattenfall.com. Vattenfall. 2021-08-18. Retrieved 2021-08-21.
  9. ^ Pei, Martin; Petäjäniemi, Markus (2020-07-18). "Toward a Fossil Free Future with HYBRIT: Development of Iron and Steelmaking Technology in Sweden and Finland". Metals. 10 (7): 972. doi:10.3390/met10070972. Retrieved 2021-08-21.
  10. ^ Hutson, Matthew (2021-09-18). "The Promise of Carbon-Neutral Steel". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2021-09-20.
  11. ^ a b De Ras, Kevin; Van De Vijver, Ruben; Galvita, Vladimir V.; Marin, Guy B.; Van Geem, Kevin M. (2019-12-01). "Carbon capture and utilization in the steel industry: challenges and opportunities for chemical engineering". Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering. 26: 81–87. doi:10.1016/j.coche.2019.09.001. ISSN 2211-3398.
  12. ^ "Blast Furnace". Science Aid. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-30.
  13. ^ Camp, James McIntyre; Francis, Charles Blaine (1920). The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel (2nd ed.). Pittsburgh: Carnegie Steel Co. pp. 174. OCLC 2566055.
  14. ^ American Iron and Steel Institute (2005). How a Blast Furnace Works. steel.org.

External linksEdit