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Refractory bricks in a torpedo car used for hauling molten iron

A refractory material or refractory is a heat-resistant material: that is, a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack, most commonly applied to a mineral that retains strength and form at high temperatures.[1].

ASTM C71 defines refractories as "...non-metallic materials having those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 1,000 °F (811 K; 538 °C)."[2]

Refractory materials are used in furnaces, kilns, incinerators, and reactors.

Refractories are also used to make crucibles and moulds for casting glass and metals and for surfacing flame deflector systems for rocket launch structures.[3] Today, the iron- and steel-industry and metal casting sectors use approximately 70% of all refractories produced.[4]


Refractory materialsEdit

Refractory materials must be chemically and physically stable at high temperatures. Depending on the operating environment, they must be resistant to thermal shock, be chemically inert, and/or have specific ranges of thermal conductivity and of the coefficient of thermal expansion.

The oxides of aluminium (alumina), silicon (silica) and magnesium (magnesia) are the most important materials used in the manufacturing of refractories. Another oxide usually found in refractories is the oxide of calcium (lime).[5] Fire clays are also widely used in the manufacture of refractories.

Refractories must be chosen according to the conditions they face. Some applications require special refractory materials.[6] Zirconia is used when the material must withstand extremely high temperatures.[7] Silicon carbide and carbon (graphite) are two other refractory materials used in some very severe temperature conditions, but they cannot be used in contact with oxygen, as they would oxidize and burn.

Binary compounds such as tungsten carbide or boron nitride can be very refractory. Hafnium carbide is the most refractory binary compound known, with a melting point of 3890 °C.[8][9] The ternary compound tantalum hafnium carbide has one of the highest melting points of all known compounds (4215 °C).[10][11]

Classification of refractory materialsEdit

1. Acidic refractories consist of acidic materials like alumina (Al2O3), and silica (SiO2). They are impervious to acidic materials, but easily attacked by basic materials. Important members of this group are alumina, silica, and fireclay refractories.

2. Basic refractories consist of basic materials such as CaO, MgO, etc. These are impervious to basic materials, but easily attacked by acidic materials. Important members of this group are magnesite and dolomite refractories.

3. Neutral refractories are made from weakly acid/basic materials such as carbon, silicon carbide (SiC), chromite (FeCr2O4) and zirconia (ZrO2).

Based on chemical compositionEdit

Acidic refractoriesEdit

Acidic refractories consist of mostly acidic materials like alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2). They are generally not attacked or affected by acidic materials, but easily affected by basic materials. They include substances such as silica, alumina, and fire clay brick refractories. Notable reagents that can attack both alumina and silica are hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, and fluorinated gases (e.g. HF, F2).[12] At high temperatures, acidic refractories may also react with limes and basic oxides.

Neutral refractoriesEdit

These are used in areas where slags and atmosphere are either acidic or basic and are chemically stable to both acids and bases. The main raw materials belong to, but are not confined to, the R2O3 group. Common examples of these materials are alumina (Al2O3), chromia (Cr2O3) and carbon.

Basic refractoriesEdit

These are used in areas where slags and atmosphere are basic. They are stable to alkaline materials but can react to acids. The main raw materials belong to the RO group, of which magnesia (MgO) is a common example. Other examples include dolomite and chrome-magnesia. For the first half of the twentieth century, the steel making process used artificial periclase (roasted magnesite) as a furnace lining material.

Based on method of manufactureEdit

  1. Dry press process
  2. Fused cast
  3. Hand molded
  4. Formed (normal, fired or chemically bonded)
  5. Un-formed (monolithic-plastic, ramming and gunning mass, castables, mortars, dry vibrating cements.)
  6. Un-formed dry refractories.


These have standard size and shapes. These may be further divided into standard shapes and special shapes. Standard shapes have dimension that are conformed by most refractory manufacturers and are generally applicable to kilns or furnaces of the same types. Standard shapes are usually bricks that have a standard dimension of 9 × 4 12 × 2 12 inches (230 × 114 × 64 mm) and this dimension is called a "one brick equivalent". "Brick equivalents" are used in estimating how many refractory bricks it takes to make an installation into an industrial furnace. There are ranges of standard shapes of different sizes manufactured to produce walls, roofs, arches, tubes and circular apertures etc. Special shapes are specifically made for specific locations within furnaces and for particular kilns or furnaces. Special shapes are usually less dense and therefore less hard wearing than standard shapes.

Unshaped (monolithic refractories)Edit

These are without definite form and are only given shape upon application. These types are better known as monolithic refractories. The common examples are plastic masses, Ramming masses, castables, gunning masses, fettling mix, mortars etc.

Dry vibration linings often used in Induction furnace linings are also monolithic, and sold and transported as a dry powder, usually with a magnesia/alumina composition with additions of other chemicals for altering specific properties. They are also finding more applications in blast furnace linings, although this use is still rare.

Based on fusion temperatureEdit

Based on fusion temperature, (melting point) refractory materials are classified into three types.

  • Normal refractory: fusion temperature of 1580 ~ 1780 °C (e.g. Fire clay)
  • High refractory: fusion temperature of 1780 ~ 2000 °C (e.g. Chromite)
  • Super refractory: fusion temperature of > 2000 °C (e.g. Zirconia)

Refractory anchorageEdit

All refractories require anchorage systems such as wire formed anchors, formed metal (for example, hexmetal) or ceramic tiles to support the refractory linings. The anchorage used for refractories on roofs and vertical walls are more critical as they must remain able to support the weight of refractories even at the elevated temperatures and operating conditions.

The commonly used anchorages have circular or rectangular cross-sections. Circular cross-sections are used for low thickness refractory and they support less weight per unit area; whereas the rectangular cross-section is used for high thickness refractory and can support higher weight of refractory per unit area. The number of anchors depends on operating conditions and the refractory materials. The choice of an anchor's material, shape, quantity, and size has significant impact on the useful life of the refractory.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Ailsa Allaby and Michael Allaby (1996). Concise Dictionary of Earth Sciences. Oxford Paperbacks Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ ASTM Volume 15.01 Refractories; Activated Carbon, Advanced Ceramics
  3. ^ Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Similar Industries and/or Launch Facilities Survey - January 2009 - NASA
  4. ^ "How cool are refractory materials?" (PDF). The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 106 (September): 1–16. 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  5. ^ Groover, Mikell P. (7 January 2010). Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470467008.
  6. ^ Sonntag, Kiss, Banhidi, Weber (2009). "New Kiln Furniture Solutions for Technical Ceramics". Ceramic forum international. 86 (4): 29–34.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Roza, Greg (2009). Zirconium. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 9781435850705.
  8. ^ Hugh O. Pierson (1992). Handbook of chemical vapor deposition (CVD): principles, technology, and applications. William Andrew. pp. 206–. ISBN 978-0-8155-1300-1. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  9. ^ Hafnium, Los Alamos National Laboratory
  10. ^ McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology: an international reference work in fifteen volumes including an index. McGraw-Hill. 1977. p. 360. ISBN 978-0-07-079590-7. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  11. ^ "Hafnium". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  12. ^ "Accuratus". Aluminum Oxide, Al2O3 Ceramic Properties. 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2014.

External linksEdit