Global spread of the printing press
The global spread of the printing press began with the invention of the printing press with movable type by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany c. 1439. Western printing technology was adopted in all world regions by the end of the 19th century, displacing the manuscript and block printing.
Spread of the Gutenberg pressEdit
Gutenberg's first major print work was the 42-line Bible in Latin, printed probably between 1452 and 1454 in the German city of Mainz. After Gutenberg lost a lawsuit against his investor Johann Fust, Fust put Gutenberg's employee Peter Schöffer in charge of the print shop. Thereupon Gutenberg established a new one with the financial backing of another money lender. With Gutenberg's monopoly revoked, and the technology no longer secret, printing spread throughout Germany and beyond, diffused first by emigrating German printers, but soon also by foreign apprentices.
In rapid succession, printing presses were set up in Central and Western Europe. Major towns, in particular, functioned as centers of diffusion (Cologne 1466, Rome 1467, Venice 1469, Paris 1470, Kraków 1473, London 1477). In 1481, barely 30 years after the publication of the 42-line Bible, the small Netherlands already featured printing shops in 21 cities and towns, while Italy and Germany each had shops in about 40 towns at that time. According to one estimate, "by 1500, 1000 printing presses were in operation throughout Western Europe and had produced 8 million books" and during the 1550s there were "three hundred or more" printers and booksellers in Geneva alone. The output was in the order of twenty million volumes and rose in the sixteenth century tenfold to between 150 and 200 million copies. Germany and Italy were considered the two main centres of printing in terms of quantity and quality.
Rest of the worldEdit
The near-simultaneous discovery of sea routes to the West (Christopher Columbus, 1492) and East (Vasco da Gama, 1498) and the subsequent establishment of trade links greatly facilitated the global spread of Gutenberg-style printing. Traders, colonists, but perhaps most importantly, missionaries exported printing presses to the new European oversea domains, setting up new print shops and distributing printing material. In the Americas, the first extra-European print shop was founded in Mexico City in 1544 (1539?), and soon after Jesuits started operating the first printing press in Asia (Goa, 1556).
For a long time however, movable type printing remained mainly the business of Europeans working from within the confines of their colonies. According to Suraiya Faroqhi, lack of interest and religious reasons were among the reasons for the slow adoption of the printing press outside Europe: Thus, the printing of Arabic, after encountering strong opposition by Muslim legal scholars and the manuscript scribes, remained prohibited in the Ottoman empire between 1483 and 1729, initially even on penalty of death, while some movable Arabic type printing was done by Pope Julius II (1503−1512) for distribution among Middle Eastern Christians, and the oldest Qur’an printed with movable type was produced in Venice in 1537/1538 for the Ottoman market.
In India, reports are that Jesuits "presented a polyglot Bible to the Emperor Akbar in 1580 but did not succeed in arousing much curiosity." But also practical reasons seem to have played a role. The English East India Company, for example, brought a printer to Surat in 1675, but was not able to cast type in Indian scripts, so the venture failed.
North America saw the adoption by the Cherokee Indian Elias Boudinot who published the tribe's first newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix, from 1828, partly in the Cherokee language, using the Cherokee script recently invented by his compatriot Sequoyah.
In the 19th century, the arrival of the Gutenberg-style press to the shores of Tahiti (1818), Hawaii (1821) and other Pacific islands, marked the end of a global diffusion process which had begun almost 400 years earlier. At the same time, the "old style" press (as the Gutenberg model came to be termed in the 19th century), was already in the process of being displaced by industrial machines like the steam powered press (1812) and the rotary press (1833), which radically departed from Gutenberg's design, but were still of the same development line.
Dates by locationEdit
The following represents a selection:
Germany, Austria and German printers in Central EuropeEdit
|1452–53||Mainz||Johannes Gutenberg, Peter Schöffer, Johann Fust (investor)||Gutenberg Bible|
|~1457||Bamberg||Albrecht Pfister, Johann Sensenschmid (from 1480)||Pfister: first woodcut book illustration c. 1461|
|Not later than 1460||Strassburg||Johannes Mentelin||In 1605, Johann Carolus publishes the German Relation aller Fuernemmen und gedenckwuerdigen Historien (Collection of all distinguished and commemorable news), recognized by the World Association of Newspapers as the first newspaper.|
|Not later than 1469||Nuremberg||Johann Sensenschmidt, Johannes Regiomontanus (1472–75), Anton Koberger (1473–1513)|
|1473||Esslingen am Neckar|
|~1474||Lübeck||1488, Missale Aboense and other versions, first books for the Scandinavian and Finnish markets, by Bartholomeus Ghotan|
|1475||Breslau (now Wrocław)||Kasper Elyan of Glogau ||Kasper's print shop remained operational until 1483 with an overall output of 11 titles.|
|1480||Leipzig||Konrad Kachelofen, Andreas Friesner|
|1492||Marienburg||Jakob Karweyse||Only two editions printed|
Rest of EuropeEdit
|1465||Subiaco||Arnold Pannartz, Konrad Sweynheym|
|1467||Rome||Ulrich Hahn, Arnold Pannartz, Konrad Sweynheym (from 1467)|
|1469||Venice||Johann von Speyer, shortly afterwards Nikolaus Jenson from Tours, Aldus Manutius||Johann was granted a privilege for 5 years for movable type printing by the Senate, but died soon after. In 1501, Ottaviano Petrucci produced the first book of sheet music printed from movable type.|
|1470||Milan||Filippo de Lavagna, Antonio Zaroto, shortly afterwards Waldarfer von Regensburg|
|1471||Florence||Demetrius Damilas||Earliest printing in Greek|
|1471||Bologna||Probably in 1477, claimed to have the first engraved illustrations, although the 1476 Boccaccio edition by Colard Mansion in Bruges already had copper engravings|
In the 15th century, printing presses were established in 77 Italian cities and towns. At the end of the following century, 151 locations in Italy had seen at one time printing activities, of which 130 (86%) were north of Rome. During these two centuries a total of 2894 printers were active in Italy, with only 216 of them located in southern Italy. Ca. 60% of the Italian printing shops were situated in six cities (Venice, Rome, Milan, Naples, Bologna and Florence), with the concentration of printers in Venice being particularly high (ca. 30%).
|1470||Paris||Ulrich Gering, Martin Crantz, Michael Friburger|
|1473||Lyon||Guillaume Le Roy, Buyer|
Apart from the cities above, a small number of lesser towns also set up printing presses.
|~1472-1473||Barcelona||Heinrich Botel, Georgius vom Holtz, Johannes Planck|
|~1472–73||Valencia||Lambert Palmart, Jakob Vinzlant|
|1475||Zaragoza||Matthias Flander, Paul Hurus|
|1496||Granada||Meinrad Ungut, Hans Pegnitzer|
|1499||Montserrat||Oldest publishing house in the world still running|
|1473–74||Leuven||Johann von Westphalen|
|~1473–74||Bruges||Colard Mansion||Worked with, and (?) trained William Caxton, printing the first books in English (Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye) and also French, as well as the first book to use engravings for illustrations.|
|1480||Oudenaarde||Arend De Keysere|
|1481||Antwerp||Matt. Van der Goes|
|1483||Ghent||Arend De Keysere|
In 1481, printing was already being done in 21 towns and cities.
|Andreas Hess?||The first work printed on Hungarian soil was the Latin history book Chronica Hungarorum published on 5 June 1472.|
In the 16th century, a total of 20 print shops were active in 30 different places in Hungary, as some of them were moving several times due to political instability.
|1473||Cracow||Kasper Straube||The oldest printed work in Poland is the Latin Calendarium cracoviense (Cracovian Calendar), a single-sheet astronomical almanac for the year 1474. Although Straube continued to published in Cracow until 1477, printing became permanently established in Cracow, and Poland, only after 1503. In 1491, the first book in Cyrillic script was published by Schweipolt Fiol from Franconia. In 1513, Florian Ungler printed Hortulus Animae, the first book in the Polish language.|
|1499||Danzig||Franz Rhode||1538: Wisby'sches Waterrecht, 1540: Narratio Prima|
|~1475–76||Pilsen||Mikuláš Bakalář (name known since 1488)||Statuta Ernesti (1476, Latin), The New Testament (1476, two editions in Czech), Passionale, The Chronicle of Troy (c. 1476, Czech)|
|1486||Brno||Conradus Stahel, Matthias Preinlein||Agenda Olomucensis 1486 and further 20, partly small prints in Latin until 1488.|
|1487||Prague||The Chronicle of Troy 1487, Psalter 1487, The Bible 1488 (all in Czech); since 1512 printing in Hebrew, since 1517 in Cyrillic, too.|
|1489||Kutná Hora||Martin z Tišnova||The Bible (in Czech)|
|1476||Westminster||William Caxton||The first dated prints in England are an indulgence dating to 13 December 1476 (date written in by hand), and the Dicts or Sayings, completed on 18 November 1477. Between 1472 and 1476, Caxton had already published several English works on the continent (see Bruges above).|
|~1479||St Albans||'Schoolmaster'; John Haule ||The St Albans Press produced eight known prints including The Chronicles of England.|
|1480||London||John Lettou, William Machlinia, Wynkyn de Worde|
|1482||Odense||Johann Snell||Snell was the first to introduce printing both in Denmark and Sweden.|
|1493||Copenhagen||Gottfried von Ghemen||Von Ghemen published in Copenhagen from 1493 to 1495 and from 1505 to 1510. In the meantime, he was active in the Dutch town of Leiden. For 200 years, official policy confined printing in Denmark largely to Copenhagen.|
|1483||Stockholm||Johann Snell||Snell published the Dialogus creaturarum on Riddarholmen island in Stockholm on December 20, 1483.|
|1487||Faro||Samuel Gacon (also called Porteiro)||The country's first printed book was the Hebrew Pentateuch, the Faro Pentatuch published by the Jew Samuel Gacon in southern Portugal, after having fled from the Spanish Inquisition.|
|1488||Chaves ||Unknown ||According to the German scholar Horch the Sacramental is the first book printed in Portuguese, and not Ludolphus de Saxonia's Livro de Vita Christi of 1495 as previously assumed.|
|1489||Lisbon||Rabbi Zorba, Raban Eliezer||Eliezer Toledano's Hebrew press was active with his foreman Judah Gedalia from 1489 until the expulsion in 1497|
|1583||Angra do Heroísmo, Azores|
|1494||Senj||Blaž Baromić||Blaž Baromić with his co-workers established printing house in Senj based on glagolitic script. Their first work was the Breviary of Senj.|
|1530||Rijeka||Šimun Kožičić Benja|
Serbia and MontenegroEdit
|1493–94||Cetinje||Đurađ IV Crnojević, Makarije||Đurađ IV Crnojević used the printing press brought to Cetinje by his father Ivan I Crnojević to print the first books in southeastern Europe, in 1493. The Crnojević printing press operated from 1493 through 1496, turning out religious books of which five have been preserved: Oktoih prvoglasnik, Oktoih petoglasnik, Psaltir, Molitvenik and Četvorojevanđelje (the first Bible in Serbian language). Đurađ managed the printing of the books, wrote prefaces and afterwords, and developed sophisticated tables of Psalms with the lunar calendar. The books from the Crnojević press were printed in two colors, red and black, and were richly ornamented. They served as models for many of the subsequent books printed in Cyrillic.|
|1537||village Vrutci of Rujno Župa near Užice,||hieromonk Teodosije||The Rujan Four Gospels of the Rujno Monastery printing house|
|1552||Belgrade||Trojan Gundulić||Četvorojevanđelje, Serbulje|
|1507 (the earliest surviving item is dated 4 April 1508)||Edinburgh||Walter Chepman and Androw Myllar||William Elphinstone, the Bishop of Aberdeen, was anxious to get a breviary published (see Aberdeen Breviary), and petitioned King James IV to have a printing press set up. Myllar had previously been involved with printing in France, where Scots authors had traditionally had their books printed (see Auld Alliance). The earliest works were mainly small books (approximately 15 cm), but at least one book was printed in folio format, Blind Harry's The Wallace.|
|1552||St Andrews||John Scot|
|1508||Târgoviște||Hieromonk Makarije||Macarie is brought into Wallachia by the prince Radu cel Mare. The first printed book in Romania is made in 1508, Liturghierul. Octoihul is also printed in 1510, and Evangheliarul is printed in 1512|
|1534||Braşov||At the time, the city was a part of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom.|
|1545||Târgoviște||Dimitrije Ljubavić||Mostly religious books are printed, among them being Molitvenik. Books printed in Wallachia were also reprinted for use in Moldavia, which at the time did not have its own press.|
|1550||Klausenburg (Cluj-Napoca)||At the time, the city was a part of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom.|
|1561||Braşov||Coresi||Întrebare creştinească (Catehismul)|
Lithuania and BelarusEdit
|1522||Vilnius||Francysk Skaryna||The Little Travel Guide|
|ca. 1530||Holar||Jon Matthiasson (Swede)||Press imported on the initiative of Bishop Jon Arason. First known local print is the Latin songbook Breviarium Holense of 1534.|
|1551||Dublin||Humphrey Powell||The first book printed was the Book of Common Prayer.|
|1553−4||Moscow||Unknown||According to recent research, the Gospel Book and six others published then.|
|1564||Moscow||Ivan Fyodorov (printer)||Acts of the Apostles (Apostol) is the first dated book printed in Russia.|
Until the reign of Peter the Great printing in Russia remained confined to the print office established by Fedorov in Moscow. In the 18th century, annual printing output gradually rose from 147 titles in 1724 to 435 (1787), but remained constrained by state censorship and widespread illiteracy.
|1574||Lviv||Ivan Fedorov||Apostol (the Acts and Epistles in Slavonic)|
|1632||Tartu||Jacobus Pistorius (Jacob Becker)||PostOrdnung (28.09.1632) was the first document printed in Tartu with date and printer's name. The printing press operated in connection with Tartu University (Academia Gustaviana) that was opened on the same year. The reverse side of the document contains a resolution of Johan Skytte about Academia Gustaviana.|
|1642||Turku||Peder Walde, Swedish||The print shop was set up at The Royal Academy of Turku which was the first university (created in 1640) in what is now Finland.|
|1709||Tbilisi||Mihail Ishtvanovitch||Established by the decree of Vakhtang VI in Abanotubani, Tbilisi|
|1771||Vagharshapat||St. Grigor Lusavorich, Simeon Yerevantsi (Catholicos of Armenia)||The first published book in Etchmiadzin was titled Սաղմոսարան (Psalms). The printing house was St. Grigor Lusavorich.|
The first book which had Armenian letters was published in Mainz (Germany) in 1486. The first Armenian book to be published by the printing press was Urbatagirq—Book of Friday prayers—which was published by Hakob Meghapart in Venice in 1512.
|1539||Mexico City||Juan Pablos of Brescia at the House of the First Print Shop in the Americas||Established by the archbishop Juan de Zumárraga, using Hans Cromberger from Seville, the first book printed was Breve y Mas Compendiosa Doctrina Christina, written in both Spanish and native Nahuatl. Between 1539 and 1600 presses produced 300 editions, and in the following century 2,007 editions were printed. In the 16th century, more than 31% of locally produced imprints were in native Indian languages, mostly religious texts and grammars or vocabularies of Amerindian languages. In the 17th century, this rate dropped to 3% of total output.|
|1581||Lima||Antonio Ricardo||Presses produced 1,106 titles between 1584 and 1699.|
|1660||Guatemala City||The first book is Tratado sobre el cultivo del añil, which, not coincidentally, was printed in blue ink.|
|1700||Jesuit mission of Paraguay||Established with local materials by local Guaraní workers who had converted to Christianity.|
|1776||Santiago de Chile||Press functioned only briefly. In 1812 permanently established.|
|1808||Rio de Janeiro|
|1494||São Tomé and Príncipe||Valentim Fernandes||Early German printers[dubious ] has made a map of Sao Tomé, but seems to have been printing in Lisbon, not in Africa. No evidence of any works printed in Africa.|
|1516||Fez||Morocco||Jewish||Refugees who had worked for the printer Rabbi Eliezer Toledano in Lisbon|
|As early as 16th century||Mozambique||Portuguese|
|1795||Cape Town||South Africa ||Johann Christian Ritter
|Almanach voor't jaar 1796. The possibility of printing may be as early as 1784 when Ritter arrived in the Cape but no earlier output has surfaced.:facing p.157 p.160 Ritter is also said to have printed Almanacs for 1795 to 1797 suggesting a start to printing of 1794.|
|1831 ||Grahamstown||South Africa||Grahamstown Journal|
|1841 ||Pietermaritzburg||South Africa||Ivangeli e li yincucli, e li baliweyo G'Umatu|
|1841 ||Umlazi||South Africa||Incuadi yokuqala yabafundayo|
|1856 ||Bloemfontein||South Africa||Orange Vrystaad A.B.C. spel en leesboek|
|Namibia||Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt||On 29 June 1855, Protestant missionary Kleinschmidt published 300 copies of Luther's catechism in the Nama language which represent the first printed works in that tongue. Political unrest seems to have prevented further printing activities. The press was reported as being functional as late as 1868, but whether printing was resumed is unknown.|
|Rhodesia Herald in print, may have started earlier :169|
|1556||Goa||Portuguese India||Jesuits||The press was attached to St Paul's college. See Printing in Goa.|
|1674-75||Bombay||British India||Bhimjee Parikh / Henry Hills||East India Company supplied press, with only a Latin typeface|
|1712||Tranquebar||Danish India||Danish-Halle/SPCK Mission|
|1736||Colombo||Ceylon, Dutch India||Dutch reform Church / Dutch East India Company||Printing in Dutch, Sinhala, and Tamil|
|1758||Pondicherry||French India||Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally||Captured by the East India Company, and moved to Madras in 1761|
|1761||Madras||British India||Johann Phillip Fabricius||Printing in Tamil, using the captured Pondicherry press|
|1772||Madras||British India||Shahamir Shahamirian, Armenian||The first book published here was Այբբենարան (Aybbenaran - Reading Primer) in Armenian.|
|1777, November||Calcutta||British India||James Augustus Hicky||Publisher of Hicky's Bengal Gazette|
|1778, January||Calcutta||British India||Robert William Kiernander and John Zachariah Kiernander||SPCK Missionaries|
|Between 1777 and 1779||Hooghly||British India||Charles Wilkins and Nathaniel Brassey Halhed|
|1780, November||Calcutta||British India||Barnard Messink and Peter Reed||Publishers of the India Gazette|
|1800||Serampore||Danish India||Baptist Missionary Society||Printing Bibles and books in several Indian languages|
|1848||Lahore||British India||Syed Muhammad Azeem||Lahore Chronicle Press, located in the old Naulakha palace, and printing in English and Farsi (Persian)|
|Dec 13th, 1493||Istanbul||David and Samuel ibn Nahmias, Hebrew||First ever printed book in Ottoman Empire was Arba'ah Turim in Hebrew. Some argue the year and suggest 1503 or 1504.|
|1519—1523||the Church of Saint George in Sopotnica, Sanjak of Herzegovina, Ottoman Empire (today village in Novo Goražde, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina). The books were printed in Church Slavonic of the Serbian recension.||Božidar Goraždanin||hieratikon (1519), psalter (1521) and a small euchologion (1523)|
|1567||Constantinople||Apkar Tebir, Armenian||The first book printed here was Փոքր քերականութիւն (Poqr Qerakanutyun - Brief Armenian Grammar) in Armenian|
|1584||St. Antonius Monastery, Qozhaya, Lebanon||Introduced by Maronite Patriarch Sergius ar-Rezzi, psalter was printed the first time in 1585|
|1610||St. Antonius Monastery, Qozhaya, Lebanon||Second printing press set up by Christian Maronites in Lebanon|
|1734||Monastery of St. John, Khenchara, Lebanon||First printing press in Arabic|
|1729||Constantinople||Ibrahim Muteferrika||First press for printing in Arabic established in the Ottoman Empire, against opposition from the calligraphers and parts of the Ulama. It operated until 1742, producing altogether seventeen works, all of which were concerned with non-religious, utilitarian matters.|
|1759||Smyrna (Izmir)||Markos, Armenian|
|1779||Constantinople||James Mario Matra (Briton)||Abortive attempt to revive printing in the Ottoman lands|
Due to religious qualms, Sultan Bayezid II and successors prohibited printing in Arabic script in the Ottoman empire from 1483 on penalty of death, but printing in other scripts was done by Jews as well as the Greek and Armenian communities (1515 Saloniki, 1554 Bursa (Adrianople), 1552 Belgrade, 1658 Smyrna). In 1727, Sultan Achmed III gave his permission for the establishment of the first legal print house for printing secular works in Arabic script (religious publications still remained forbidden), but printing activities did not really take off until the 19th century.
|1590||Nagasaki||Japan||Alessandro Valignano||The Jesuits in Nagasaki established The Jesuit Mission Press in Japan and printed a number of books in romanised Japanese language.|
|1833||Macao||China||The first presses were imported by Western priests for their missionary work from Europe and America. The earliest known, an albion press, was set up in the Portuguese colony Macao and later moved to Canton and Ningbo.|
|1883||Seoul||Korea||Inoue Kakugoro (Japanese)||The first printing press was imported from Japan for publishing Korea's first Korean-language newspaper Hansong Sunbo. After the press was destroyed by conservatists, Inoue returned with a new one from Japan, reviving the paper as a weekly under the name Hansong Chubo. Presses were also established in Seoul in 1885, 1888 and 1891 by Western missionaries. However, the earliest printing press was apparently introduced by the Japanese in the treaty port of Pusan in 1881 to publish Korea's first newspaper, the bilingual Chosen shinpo.|
|1584||Qozhaya||Lebanon||Patriarch Sergius el Rezzi||First printing press in Middle East, introduced by Maronite Christians in St. Antonius Monastery, psalter was printed the first time in 1585|
|1610||Qozhaya||Lebanon||St. Antonius Monastery||Second printing press introduced into monastery|
|1734||Khenchara, Metn||Lebanon||Abdallah el Zakher||First Arabic printing press. Monastery of St. John of Chouweir|
|1636||New Julfa, Isfahan||Persia||Khachatur Kesaratsi, Armenian||The first book printed here was Սաղմոս ի Դավիթ (Saghmos i Davit - Psalter) in Armenian|
|1817||Tabriz||Persia||Zain al-Abidin Tabrizi (?)|
Australia & OceaniaEdit
|1821||Hawaii||Kingdom of Hawaii|
|1835||Paihia||New Zealand||William Colenso||The first book was a Maori translation of part of the Bible commissioned by the Church Missionary Society: "Ko nga Pukapuka o Paora te Apotoro ki te Hunga o Epeha o Piripai" (The Epistles of St Paul to the Philippians and the Ephesians).|
|1836||Maui||Kingdom of Hawaii|
- Weber 2006, p. 387:
At the same time, then, as the printing press in the physical, technological sense was invented, 'the press' in the extended sense of the word also entered the historical stage. The phenomenon of publishing was born.
- E. L. Eisenstein: "The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe", Cambridge, 1993, pp. 13–17, quoted in: Angus Maddison: "Growth and Interaction in the World Economy: The Roots of Modernity", Washington 2005, p.17f.
- Eisenstein Elizabeth L. (1979) — The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 410.
- Febvre, Lucien; Martin, Henri-Jean (1976): "The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing 1450–1800", London: New Left Books, quoted in: Anderson, Benedict: "Comunidades Imaginadas. Reflexiones sobre el origen y la difusión del nacionalismo", Fondo de cultura económica, Mexico 1993, ISBN 978-968-16-3867-2, pp. 58f.
- Suraiya Faroqhi, Subjects of the Sultan: culture and daily life in the Ottoman Empire, pp, 134-136, I.B.Tauris, 2005, ISBN 1-85043-760-2, ISBN 978-1-85043-760-4;The Encyclopaedia of Islam: Fascicules 111-112 : Masrah Mawlid, Clifford Edmund Bosworth
- Watson 1968, p. 435; Clogg 1979, p. 67
- Krek 1979, p. 203
- Angus Maddison: Growth and Interaction in the World Economy: The Roots of Modernity, Washington 2005, p.65
- Bolza 1967; Gerhardt 1971; Gerhardt 1978, p. 217
- The main source is Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4th edition, 1888–1890, entry "Buchdruckerkunst (Ausbreitung der Erfindung)"
- "(Place:DE)", Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library, retrieved 9 December 2017
- "Incunabula Short Title Catalogue". British Library. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- Fernand Braudel, "Civilization & Capitalism, 15–18th Centuries, Vol 1: The Structures of Everyday Life", William Collins & Sons, London 1981
- Rush C. Hawkins (1884). Titles of the first books from the earliest presses established in different cities, towns, and monasteries in Europe, before the end of the fifteenth century, with brief notes upon their printers. New York: J.W. Bouton – via HathiTrust.
- John Henry Hessels (1910), "Typography", Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York, pp. 509–548, OCLC 14782424 – via Internet Archive,
History of Typography: Spread of Typography
- World Association of Newspapers: "Newspapers: 400 Years Young!" Archived March 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Theodore Low De Vinne (1877). "Spread of Printing". The Invention of Printing (2nd ed.). London: Trübner & Co.
- Wydra 1987, p. 89
- Joachim Köhler (ed.): Geschichte des christlichen Lebens im schlesischen Raum, LIT Verlag Münster, 2002, ISBN 978-3-8258-5007-4, p. 404
- Allen Kent; et al., eds. (1978). "Printers and Printing, 15th Century". Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. 23. Marcel Dekker. pp. 296? - 356?. ISBN 978-0-8247-2023-0.
- Dal 1987, p. 37
- Wydra 1987, pp. 88f.
- "(Place:IT)", Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library, retrieved 9 December 2017
- Borsa 1976, p. 313
- Helmut Schippel: Die Anfänge des Erfinderschutzes in Venedig, in: Uta Lindgren (Hrsg.): Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation, 4th ed., Berlin 2001, p.540f. ISBN 3-7861-1748-9
- David Landau & Peter Parshall, The Renaissance Print, Yale, p241, 1996, ISBN 0-300-06883-2
- Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris
- Borsa 1976, p. 314
- Borsa 1977, pp. 166–169
- Henri Bouchot (1890). "Topographical index of the principal towns where early printing presses were established". In H. Grevel (ed.). The book: its printers, illustrators, and binders, from Gutenberg to the present time. London: H. Grevel & Co.
- "(Place:FR)", Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library, retrieved 9 December 2017
- Malcolm Walsby (2011). The Printed Book in Brittany, 1484-1600. Brill. ISBN 90-04-20451-2.
- "(Place:ES)", Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library, retrieved 9 December 2017
- "(Place:BE)", Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library, retrieved 9 December 2017
- "Dirk Martens Website" (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2008-01-28.
- "(Place:NL)", Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, British Library, retrieved 9 December 2017
- Unesco Bulletin for Libraries: Volume: XXVI, - PAGE: 137
- Publishers and booksellers in Hungary - PAGE: 7 (University of California)
- Borsa 1987, p. 107
- Wydra 1987, p. 88
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- Horch 1987, p. 132
- "Scottish Book Trade Index (SBTI)". National Library of Scotland. Archived from the original on April 7, 2006. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
In September 1507, with Walter Chepman, [Andrew Myllar] received letters patent from James IV of Scotland allowing them to set up the first printing-press in Scotland.
- "1508 - Earliest dated Scottish book". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
- "500 Years of Scottish Printing". Scottish Printing Archival Trust. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
- "The Spread of Scottish Printing". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
- I. Bianu, Psaltirea Scheiana, Bucharest, 1889
- Istoria Romaniei, Vol II, p. 684
- Borsa 1987, p. 106
- Kvaran 1997, p. 140
- Printing of Ireland's first book, the `Book of Common Prayer', to be commemorated
- Appel 1987, p. 95
- Appel 1987, p. 97
- Appel 1987, pp. 96ff.
- Tartu Ülikooli trükikoda 1632–1710: Ajalugu ja trükiste bibliograafia = Druckerei der Universität Dorpat 1632–1710: Geschichte und Bibliographie der Druckschriften. Ene-Lille Jaanson (ed.). Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Raamatukogu. 2000. ISBN 9985-874-14-5.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Lang, David Marshall (1957). The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy, 1658-1832. Columbia University Press. p. 131.
- Armenology Research National Center
- Hensley C. Woodbridge & Lawrence S. Thompson, "Printing in Colonial Spanish America", Troy, N.Y., Whitson Publishing Company, 1976, quoted in: Hortensia Calvo, "The Politics of Print: The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America", Book History, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277–305 (278)
- "Margarete Rehm: Information und Kommunikation in Geschichte und Gegenwart" (in German).
- Murray, S.A.P. (2012). The library: An illustrated history. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, pp. 140.
- Magdalena Chocano Mena, "Colonial Printing and Metropolitan Books: Printed Texts and the Shaping of Scholarly Culture in New Spain: 1539–1700", Colonial Latin American Historical Review 6, No. 1 (1997): 71–72, quoted in: Hortensia Calvo, "The Politics of Print: The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America", Book History, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277–305 (296)
- Magdalena Chocano Mena, "Colonial Printing and Metropolitan Books: Printed Texts and the Shaping of Scholarly Culture in New Spain: 1539–1700", Colonial Latin American Historical Review 6, No. 1 (1997): 73&76, quoted in: Hortensia Calvo, "The Politics of Print: The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America", Book History, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277–305 (279)
- Pedro Guibovich, "The Printing Press in Colonial Peru: Production Process and Literary Categories in Lima, 1584–1699", Colonial Latin American Review 10, No. 2 (2001): 173, quoted in: Hortensia Calvo, "The Politics of Print: The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America", Book History, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277–305 (296)
- Darío, Rubén (1887). "La Literatura en Centro-América". Revista de artes y letras (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. XI: 591. MC0060418. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
La imprenta estaba entonces en sus principios por aquellos lugares. Desde la publicación del primer libro centro-americano,un Tratado sobre el cultivo del añil, impreso con tinta azul
- "Hispanic: Notable Acquisitions". UK: British Library. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- Brown University: Impressão Régia in Rio de Janeiro
- Ferdinand Geldner, Die Deutschen Inkunabeldrucker, Vol. 2, Stuttgart, 1970, p. 314, quoted in: Man 2002
- History of Science-Printing, accessed 2009/05/04
- Alan Charles Gore Lloyd (1914). J.Y.W. Macalister; Alfred W. Pollard (eds.). "Birth of Printing in South Africa". The Library: a Quarterly Review of Bibliography and Library Lore. London. 5: 31–43. ISSN 0024-2160 – via HathiTrust.
- , Early Cape Printing 1796–1802, South African Library Reprint Series, No. 1, South African Library, Cape Town, (1971)
- SH Steinberg, Five Hundred Years of Printing, Penguin Books, Middlesex, (1955) 2nd ed. 1961, p.214
- , "South Africa in Print", Book Exhibition Committee van Riebeeck Festival, Cape Town, (1952)
- Lewin Robinson, A. M. (1979). From Monolith to Microfilm: a story of the recorded word. Cape Town: South African Library. p. 37. ISBN 0-86968-020-X.
- Walter Moritz, "Die Anfänge des Buchdrucks in Südwestafrika/Namibia", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch, Vol. 1979 (1979), pp.269–276
- Steve S. Mwiyeriwa (1978). "Printing Presses and Publishing in Malawi". Society of Malawi Journal. 31. JSTOR 29778404.
- AK Priolkar, The Printing Press in India: Its Beginnings and Early Development, (Mumbai: Marathi Samsodhana Mandala, 1958), p. 32
- Naim A. Güleryüz, Bizans'tan 20. Yüzyıla - Türk Yahudileri, Gözlem Gazetecilik Basın ve Yayın A.Ş., İstanbul, January 2012, p.90 ISBN 978-9944-994-54-5
- Watson 1968, p. 436; Clogg 1979, p. 67
- Watson 1968, p. 436
- Clogg 1979, p. 67
- Reed, Christopher A.: Gutenberg in Shanghai: Chinese Print Capitalism, 1876–1937, University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver 2005, ISBN 0-7748-1041-6, pp. 25–87 (69)
- McGovern 1967, pp. 21–23
- Altman 1984, pp. 685–696
- Christoph Werner (2000). An Iranian Town in Transition: A Social and Economic History of the Elites of Tabriz, 1747–1848. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.
- Lawrence C. Wroth (1938), "Diffusion of Printing", The Colonial Printer, Portland, Maine: Southworth-Anthoensen Press, OL 6370726M
- Wroth, Lawrence Counselman (1922). "Dinah Nuthead and the First Annapolis Press". A History of Printing in Colonial Maryland, 1686-1776. Typothetae of Baltimore. pp. 12–15.
- Altman, Albert A. (1984), "Korea's First Newspaper: The Japanese Chosen shinpo", The Journal of Asian Studies, 43 (4): 685–696, doi:10.2307/2057150
- Appel, Klaus (1987), "Die Anfänge des Buchdrucks in Russland in der literaturfähigen Nationalsprache" [Beginnings of printing in Russia], Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German), 62: 95–103
- Blake, Normann F. (1978), "Dating the First Books Printed in English", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch: 43–50
- Bolza, Hans (1967), "Friedrich Koenig und die Erfindung der Druckmaschine" [Friedrich Koenig and the invention of the printing press], Technikgeschichte (in German), 34 (1): 79–89
- Borsa, Gedeon (1976), "Druckorte in Italien vor 1601" [Printing locations in Italy before 1601], Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German): 311–314
- Borsa, Gedeon (1977), "Drucker in Italien vor 1601" [Printers in Italy before 1601], Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German): 166–169
- Borsa, Gedeon (1987), "Die volkssprachigen Drucke im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert in Ungarn" [Vernacular printing in the 15th and 16th centuries in Hungary], Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German), 62: 10903–108
- Clogg, Richard (1979), "An Attempt to Revive Turkish Printing in Istanbul in 1779", International Journal of Middle East Studies, 10 (1): 67–70, doi:10.1017/s0020743800053320
- Dal, Erik (1987), "Bücher in dänischer Sprache vor 1600" [Books in Danish before 1600], Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German), 62: 37–46
- Gerhardt, Claus W. (1971), "Warum wurde die Gutenberg-Presse erst nach über 350 Jahren durch ein besseres System abgelöst?" [Why was the Gutenberg press replaced by a better system after more than 350 years?], Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German): 43–57
- Gerhardt, Claus W. (1978), "Besitzt Gutenbergs Erfindung heute noch einen Wert?" [Does Gutenberg's invention still have value today?], Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German): 212–217
- Horch, Rosemarie Erika (1987), "Zur Frage des ersten in portugiesischer Sprache gedruckten Buches" [On the question of the first book printed in Portuguese], Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German), 62: 125–134
- Krek, Miroslav (1979), "The Enigma of the First Arabic Book Printed from Movable Type", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 38 (3): 203–212, doi:10.1086/372742
- Kvaran, Gudrun (1997), "Die Anfänge der Buchdruckerkunst in Island und die isländische Bibel von 1584", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German), 72: 140–147
- Man, John (2002), The Gutenberg Revolution: The Story of a Genius and an Invention that Changed the World, London: Review, ISBN 978-0-7472-4504-9
- McGovern, Melvin (1967), "Early Western Presses in Korea", Korea Journal: 21–23
- Moritz, Walter (1979), "Die Anfänge des Buchdrucks in Südwestafrika/Namibia", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German): 269–276
- Watson, William J. (1968), "İbrāhīm Müteferriḳa and Turkish Incunabula", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 88 (3): 435–441, doi:10.2307/596868
- Wydra, Wieslaw (1987), "Die ersten in polnischer Sprache gedruckten Texte, 1475–1520" [First texts printed in Polish, 1475-1520], Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (in German), 62: 88–94
- Charles Henry Timperley (1839). "Chronological index of the towns and countries in which the art of printing is known to have been exercised". Dictionary of Printer and Printing. London: H. Johnson.
- Henry Cotton (1866). A Typographical Gazetteer (2nd ed.). Clarendon Press – via HathiTrust.
On the effects of Gutenberg's printing
- Eisenstein, Elizabeth L., The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Cambridge University Press, September 1980, Paperback, 832 pages, ISBN 0-521-29955-1
- McLuhan, Marshall, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962) Univ. of Toronto Press (1st ed.); reissued by Routledge & Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7100-1818-5
- Febvre, Lucien & Martin, Henri-Jean, The Coming of the Book: the impact of printing 1450–1800, Verso, London & New York, 1990, ISBN 0-86091-797-5