Fernand Braudel (French: [fɛʁnɑ̃ bʁodɛl]; 24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three main projects: The Mediterranean (1923–49, then 1949–66), Civilization and Capitalism (1955–79), and the unfinished Identity of France (1970–85). He was a member of the Annales School of French historiography and social history in the 1950s and 1960s. He was a student of Henri Hauser.

Fernand Paul Achille Braudel
Born(1902-08-24)24 August 1902
Died27 November 1985(1985-11-27) (aged 83)
Cluses, France
EducationUniversity of Paris
SpousePaule Braudel (m. 1933)
Plaque Fernand Braudel, 59 rue Brillat-Savarin, Paris 13

Braudel emphasized the role of large-scale socioeconomic factors in the making and writing of history.[1] He can also be considered one of the precursors of world-systems theory.[2]

Biography edit

Braudel was born in Luméville-en-Ornois (as of 1943, it merged with and became part of Gondrecourt-le-Château), in the département of the Meuse, France.[3] At the age of seven, he moved to Paris with his family. His father, who was a natural mathematician, aided him in his studies.

Braudel also studied a good deal of Latin and a little Greek. He was educated at the Lycée Voltaire and the Sorbonne, where, at the age of 20, he was awarded an agrégé in history. While teaching at the University of Algiers between 1923 and 1932, he became fascinated by the Mediterranean Sea and wrote several papers on the Spanish presence in Algeria in the 16th century. During that time, Braudel began his doctoral thesis on the foreign policy of King Philip II of Spain. From 1932 to 1935 he taught in the Paris lycées (secondary schools) of Pasteur, Condorcet and Henri-IV.[3]

By 1900, the French had solidified their cultural influence in Brazil by the establishment of the Brazilian Academy of Fine Arts. São Paulo still lacked a university, however, and in 1934, the francophile Julio de Mesquita Filho invited both the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss and Braudel to help establish one. The result was formation of the new University of São Paulo. Braudel later said that the time in Brazil had been the "greatest period of his life".[4]

In 1937, Braudel returned to Paris from Brazil. On his way, he met Lucien Febvre, who was the co-founder of the influential Annales journal. Both had booked passage on the same ship.[3] Braudel had started archival research on his doctorate on the Mediterranean when he fell under the influence of the Annales School around 1938. Also around that time he entered the École pratique des hautes études as an instructor in history.[3] He worked with Febvre, who would later read the early versions of Braudel's magnum opus and provide him with editorial advice.

At the outbreak of war in 1939, he was called up for military service and in 1940 was taken prisoner by the Germans.[3] He was held at a prisoner-of-war camp in Mainz from 1940 to 1942 before he was transferred to another near Lübeck, where he remained for the rest of the war. Braudel drafted his great work La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II (The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II) without access to his books or notes and relied only on his prodigious memory and a local library.[3]

Braudel became the leader of the second generation of Annales historians after 1945. In 1947, with Febvre and Charles Morazé, Braudel obtained funding from the Rockefeller Foundation in New York and founded the noted Sixième Section for "Economic and social sciences" at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. He received an additional $1 million from the Ford Foundation in 1960.[5]

In 1962, he and Gaston Berger used the Ford Foundation grant and government funds to create a new independent foundation, the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l'Homme (FMSH), which Braudel directed from 1970 to his death. It was housed in the building called "Maison des Sciences de l'Homme". FMSH focused its activities on international networking in order to disseminate the Annales approach to the rest of Europe and the world. In 1972, he gave up all editorial responsibility on the journal, but his name remained on the masthead.

In 1962, he wrote A History of Civilizations as the basis for a history course, but its rejection of the traditional event-based narrative was too radical for the French ministry of education, which in turn rejected it.[6]

A feature of Braudel's work was his compassion for the suffering of marginal people.[7] He articulated that most surviving historical sources come from the literate wealthy classes. He emphasised the importance of the ephemeral lives of slaves, serfs, peasants and the urban poor and demonstrated their contributions to the wealth and power of their respective masters and societies. His work was often illustrated with contemporary depictions of daily life and rarely with pictures of noblemen or kings.

In 1949, Braudel was elected to the Collège de France upon Febvre's retirement. He co-founded the academic journal, Revue économique, in 1950.[8][9] He retired in 1968. In 1984, he was elected to the Académie française.

La Méditerranée edit

His first book, La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen à l'Epoque de Philippe II (1949) (The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II) was his most influential and has been described as a "watershed".[10]

For Braudel there is no single Mediterranean Sea. There are many seas, indeed a "vast, complex expanse" within which men operate. Life is conducted on the Mediterranean: people travel, fish, fight wars, and drown in its various contexts, and the sea articulates with the plains and islands. Life on the plains is diverse and complex; the poorer south is affected by religious diversity (Catholicism and Islam), as well as by intrusions, both cultural and economic, from the north. In other words, the Mediterranean cannot be understood independently from what is exterior to it. Any rigid adherence to boundaries falsifies the situation.

The first level of time, geographical time, is that of the environment, with its slow, almost imperceptible change, its repetition and cycles. Such change may be slow, but it is irresistible. The second level of time comprises long-term social, economic, and cultural history, where Braudel discusses the Mediterranean economy, social groupings, empires and civilizations. Change at that level is much more rapid than that of the environment. Braudel looks at two or three centuries to spot a particular pattern such as the rise and fall of various aristocracies. The third level of time is that of events (histoire événementielle). This is the history of individuals with names. That, for Braudel, is the time of surfaces and deceptive effects. It is the time of the courte durée proper and the focus of Part 3 of The Mediterranean, which treats of "events, politics and people."

Braudel's Mediterranean is centered on the sea, but just as importantly, it is also the desert and the mountains. The desert creates a nomadic form of social organization where the whole community moves; mountain life is sedentary. Transhumance the movement from the mountain to the plain or vice versa in a given season is also a persistent part of Mediterranean existence.

Braudel's vast panoramic view used insights from other social sciences, employed the concept of the longue durée, and downplayed the importance of specific events. It was widely admired, but most historians did not try to replicate it and instead focused on their specialized monographs. The book firmly launched the study of the Mediterranean and dramatically raised the worldwide profile of the Annales School.

Capitalism edit

After La Méditerranée, Braudel's most famous work is Civilisation Matérielle, Économie et Capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe ("Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century"). The first volume was published in 1967 and was translated to English in 1973. The last of the three-volume work appeared in 1979.[11] The work is a broad-scale history of the pre-industrial modern world focusing on how regular people made economies work. Like all of Braudel's other major works, it mixes traditional economic material with thick description of the social impact of economic events on various facets of everyday life, including food, fashion and other social customs.

The third volume, subtitled "The Perspective of the World", was strongly influenced by the work of German scholars like Werner Sombart. In it, Braudel traces the impact of the centers of Western capitalism on the rest of the world. Braudel wrote the series as a way of explanation for the modern way and partly as a refutation of the Marxist view of history.[12]

Braudel discussed the idea of long-term cycles in the capitalist economy that he saw developing in Europe in the 12th century. Particular cities and later nation-states follow each other sequentially as centres of these cycles: Venice in the 13th through the 15th centuries (1250–1510); Antwerp and Genoa in the 16th century (1500–1569 and 1557–1627, respectively), Amsterdam in the 16th through 18th centuries (1627–1733); and London (and England) in the 18th and 19th centuries (1733–1896). He used the word "structures" to denote a variety of social structures, such as organized behaviours, attitudes, and conventions, as well as physical structures and infrastructures. He argued that the structures established in Europe during the Middle Ages contributed to the successes of present-day European-based cultures. He attributed much of that to the long-standing independence of city-states, which, though later subjugated by larger geographic states, were not always completely suppressed, probably for reasons of utility.

Braudel argues that capitalists have typically been monopolists and not, as is usually assumed, entrepreneurs operating in competitive markets. He argued that capitalists did not specialize and did not use free markets, and he thus diverges from both liberal (Adam Smith) and Marxian interpretations. In Braudel's view, the state in capitalist countries has served as a guarantor of monopolists rather than a protector of competition, as it is usually portrayed. He asserted that capitalists have had power and cunning on their side, as they have arrayed themselves against the majority of the population.[13]

An agrarian structure is a long-term structure in the Braudelian understanding of the concept. On a larger scale the agrarian structure is more dependent on the regional, social, cultural and historical factors than on the state's undertaken activities.[14]

L'Identité de la France edit

Braudel's last and most personal book was L'Identité de la France (The Identity of France), which was unfinished at the time of his death in 1985.[12] Unlike in many of Braudel's other books, he makes no secret of his profound love of his country in this book and remarks at the beginning that he had loved France as if she were a woman. Reflecting his interest with the longue durée, Braudel's concern in L'Identité de la France was with the centuries and millennia, instead of the years and decades. Braudel argued that France is the product not of its politics or economics but rather of its geography and culture, a thesis that Braudel had explored in a wide-ranging book that saw the bourg and the patois: historie totale integrated into a broad sweep of both the place and the time.

L'Identité de la France was much coloured by a romantic nostalgia, as Braudel argued for the existence of a France profonde, a "deep France" based upon the peasant mentalité, which despite all of the turmoil of French history and the Industrial Revolution, has survived intact right up to the present.[12]

Historiography edit

According to Braudel, before the Annales approach, the writing of history was focused on the courte durée (short span), or on histoire événementielle (a history of events).

His followers admired his use of the longue durée approach to stress the slow and often imperceptible effects of space, climate and technology on the actions of human beings in the past.[15] The Annales historians, after living through two world wars and massive political upheavals in France, were very uncomfortable with the notion that multiple ruptures and discontinuities created history. They preferred to stress inertia and the longue durée, arguing that the continuities in the deepest structures of society were central to history. Upheavals in institutions or the superstructure of social life were of little significance, for history, they argued, lies beyond the reach of conscious actors, especially the will of revolutionaries. They rejected the Marxist idea that history should be used as a tool to foment and foster revolutions.[16] A proponent of historical materialism, Braudel rejected Marxist materialism, stressing the equal importance of infrastructure and superstructure, both of which reflected enduring social, economic, and cultural realities. Braudel's structures, both mental and environmental, determine the long-term course of events by constraining actions on, and by, humans over a duration long enough that they are beyond the consciousness of the actors involved.

Awards and honors edit

Honorary degrees edit

Orders of Merit edit

Learned societies edit

Legacy edit

Binghamton University in New York had a Fernand Braudel Center until 2020,[17] and there is an Instituto Fernand Braudel de Economia Mundial in São Paulo, Brazil.

In a 2011 poll by History Today magazine, Fernand Braudel was picked as the most important historian of the previous 60 years.[18]

Main publications edit

  • La Méditerranée et le Monde méditerranéen a l'époque de Philippe II, 3 vols. (1949; revised several times)
vol. 1: La part du milieu ISBN 2-253-06168-9
vol. 2: Destins collectifs et mouvements d'ensemble ISBN 2-253-06169-7
vol. 3: Les événements, la politique et les hommes ISBN 2-253-06170-0
  • The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. 2 vols. (1972 and 1973, translated by Siân Reynolds)
  • Ecrits sur l'histoire (1969) ISBN 2-08-081023-5
  • On History (1980, translated by Sarah Matthews)
  • Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme, xve et xviiie siècles
vol. 1: Les structures du quotidien (1967) ISBN 2-253-06455-6
vol. 2: Les jeux de l'échange (1979) ISBN 2-253-06456-4
vol. 3: Le temps du monde (1979) ISBN 2-253-06457-2
  • Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, 3 vols. (1979, translated by Siân Reynolds)
vol. 1: The Structures of Everyday Life ISBN 0-06-014845-4
vol. 2: The Wheels of Commerce ISBN 0-06-015091-2
vol. 3: The Perspective of the World ISBN 0-06-015317-2
  • L'identité de la France, 3 vols. (1986)
vol. 1: Espace et histoire
vol. 2: Les hommes et les choses, première partie, le nombre et les fluctuations longues
vol. 3: Les hommes et les choses, seconde partie, une "économie paysanne" jusqu'au XXe siècle
  • The Identity of France, 2 vols. (1988–1990, translated by Siân Reynolds)
vol. 1: History and Environment ISBN 0-06-016021-7
vol. 2: People and Production ISBN 0-06-016212-0
  • Grammaire des civilisations (1987)
  • A History of Civilizations (1995, translated by Richard Mayne)
  • Le Modèle italien (1989)
  • Out of Italy, 1450–1650 (1991, translated by Siân Reynolds)
  • Les Mémoires de la Méditerranée (1998)
  • The Mediterranean in the Ancient World (UK) / Memory and the Mediterranean (US; both 2001, translated by Siân Reynolds)

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ i.e. Fernand Braudel, "The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II" (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996)
  2. ^ Caves, R. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City. Routledge. p. 54.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Marnie Hughes-Warrington, Fifty Key Thinkers on History (London: Routledge, 2000), 17.
  4. ^ Thomas E. Skidmore, "Lévi-Strauss, Braudel and Brazil: a Case of Mutual Influence." Bulletin of Latin American Research 2003 22(3): 340–349. ISSN 0261-3050 Full text: Ebsco
  5. ^ Francis X. Sutton, "The Ford Foundation's Transatlantic Role and Purposes, 1951–81." Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 2001 24(1): 77–104. ISSN 0147-9032
  6. ^ Richard Mayne, "Translator's Introduction" in Fernand Braudel, A History of Civilization, (New York: Penguin Books, 1993), pp. xxvi–xxvii.
  7. ^ Fernand Braudel, A History of Civilizations, translated by Richard Mayne (New York: Penguin Books, 1993).
  8. ^ Revue économique official web site
  9. ^ Braudel, Fernand. "Pour une économie historique." Revue économique, Vol. 1, No. 1 (May, 1950), pp. 37-44.
  10. ^ Lee, Alexander. "Twilight of the History Gods: Jacques Le Goff, 1924-2014 | History Today". History Today. Retrieved 2020-11-04. "The appearance of Ferdinand Braudel’s magisterial La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen à l’Epoque de Philippe II (1949) marked a watershed and it is a rare historian today who has not glanced through its pages to find himself feeling a little like Keats on first looking into Chapman’s Homer."
  11. ^ Alan Heston, "Review Essay on Fernand Braudel's Civilization and Capitalism", EH.net, "Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century | Book Reviews | EH.Net". Archived from the original on 2009-10-02. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
  12. ^ a b c Gwynne Lewis, "Braudel, Fernand," in The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, edited by Kelly Boyd (Chicago: FitzRoy Dearborn, 1999) 114.
  13. ^ Wallerstein, Immanuel (1991), "Braudel on Capitalism, or Everything Upside Down", Journal of Modern History, 63 (2): 354–361, doi:10.1086/244319, ISSN 0022-2801, JSTOR 2938489, S2CID 144420894.
  14. ^ M. Pietrzak, D. Walczak, The Analysis of the Agrarian Structure in Poland with the Special Consideration of the Years 1921 and 2002, Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol 20, No 5, pp. 1025, 1038.
  15. ^ See Wallerstein, "Time and Duration" (1997)
  16. ^ Harris, Olivia (1 March 2004). "Historical Time and the Horror of Discontinuity". History Workshop Journal. OUP. 57 (1): 161–174. doi:10.1093/hwj/57.1.161. ISSN 1363-3554.
  17. ^ "FERNAND BRAUDEL CENTER". Binghamton University - State University of New York. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  18. ^ "Top Historians: The Results | History Today". History Today. 2011-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-06.

Further reading edit

External links edit