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The 1993 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 6 June 1993, to elect the 5th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 256 seats in the Senate.

1993 Spanish general election

← 1989 6 June 1993 1996 →

All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 256) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered31,030,511 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.8%
Turnout23,718,816 (76.4%)
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6.7 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Felipe González 1993b (cropped).jpg José María Aznar 1996 (cropped).jpg Julio Anguita 1996 (cropped).jpg
Leader Felipe González José María Aznar Julio Anguita
Party PSOE PP IU
Leader since 28 September 1979 4 September 1989 12 February 1989
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Madrid
Last election 177 seats, 40.1%[a] 107 seats, 25.8% 17 seats, 9.1%
Seats won 159 141 18
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg18 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg34 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
Popular vote 9,150,083 8,201,463 2,253,722
Percentage 38.8% 34.8% 9.6%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg1.3 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg9.0 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.5 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Miquel Roca 1987 (cropped).jpg 2007 02 Inaki Anasagasti-2.jpg Portrait placeholder.svg
Leader Miquel Roca Iñaki Anasagasti Luis Mardones
Party CiU EAJ/PNV CC
Leader since 4 July 1982 1986 18 April 1986
Leader's seat Barcelona Biscay Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Last election 18 seats, 5.0% 5 seats, 1.2% 1 seats, 0.3%
Seats won 17 5 4
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg1 Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3
Popular vote 1,165,783 291,448 207,077
Percentage 4.9% 1.2% 0.9%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg0.1 pp ±0.0 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.6 pp

1993 Spanish election - Results.svg
Constituency results map for the Congress of Deputies

Prime Minister before election

Felipe González
PSOE

Elected Prime Minister

Felipe González
PSOE

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party under Felipe González achieved the largest number of votes and seats for the fourth consecutive time, though it lost the absolute majority it had held in both chambers of the Cortes since 1982. In contrast, José María Aznar's People's Party won a large share of the vote, thus increasing their seats in both the Congress and the Senate and consolidating its position as the main opposition party. For the first time since 1979, the election brought in a hung parliament, forcing the governing PSOE to seek the support of nationalist groups in order to renew its mandate and secure a fourth term in government.

In the aftermath of the election, the PSOE saw itself under increased pressure due both to political instability as a result of its low majority (relying on increasingly unstable pacts with Convergence and Union to pass its legislation) and of the uncovering of numerous cases of corruption within the government itself. The pact with CiU would end in the fall of 1995, forcing González to call early elections 15 months before their scheduled date, which would see the opposition People's Party win for the first time.

Contents

OverviewEdit

Electoral systemEdit

The Spanish Cortes Generales were envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a Prime Minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which were not subject to the Congress' override.[1][2] Voting for the Cortes Generales was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.[3]

For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude.[4] Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain. Each constituency was entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 allocated among the constituencies in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats, which were elected using plurality voting.[1][5][6][7]

For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, IbizaFormentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.[1][5][6][7]

The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of at least 1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they sought election. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called.[5][7]

Election dateEdit

The term of each House of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expired four years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The election Decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of the Cortes in the event that the Prime Minister did not make use of his prerogative of early dissolution. The Decree was to be published on the following day in the Official State Gazette, with election day taking place between the fifty-fourth and the sixtieth day from publication. The previous election was held on 29 October 1989, which meant that the legislature's term would expire on 29 October 1993. The election Decree was required to be published no later than 5 October 1993, with the election taking place on the sixtieth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Saturday, 4 December 1993.[5][7][8]

The Prime Minister had the prerogative to dissolve both Houses at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both Houses were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a Prime Minister within a two-month period from the first ballot.[1][6] Barred this exception, there was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate, there being no precedent of separate elections and with governments having long preferred that elections for the two Houses take place simultaneously.

Status at dissolutionEdit

The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 13 April 1993, after the publication of the dissolution Decree in the Official State Gazette.[9] The tables below show the status of the different parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.[10][11]

Congress of Deputies
Parliamentary group Deputies
Socialist Group 175[b]
People's Group in the Congress 106[c]
Convergence and Union Catalan Group 18[d]
United Left–Initiative for Catalonia Group 17[e]
CDS Group 12
PNV Basque Group 5
Mixed Group 17[f]
Total 350
 
Senate
Parliamentary group Senators
Socialist Group 128[g]
People's Group 91[h]
Convergence and Union Catalan Group 14[i]
Basque Nationalist Senators Group 6
Mixed Group 15[j]
Total 254

Parties and alliancesEdit

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Party or alliance Candidate Ideology Refs
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)
  Felipe González Social democracy [12]
[13]
[14]
People's Party (PP)
  José María Aznar Conservatism
Christian democracy
[15]
[16]
Convergence and Union (CiU)
  Miquel Roca Catalan nationalism
Centrism
United Left (IU)
  Julio Anguita Socialism
Communism
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS)   Rafael
Calvo Ortega
Centrism
Liberalism
[17]
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)   Iñaki Anasagasti Basque nationalism
Christian democracy
Conservative liberalism
Popular Unity (HB)   Jon Idigoras Basque independence
Left-wing nationalism
Andalusian Party (PA)   Salvador
Pérez Bueno
Andalusian nationalism
Social democracy
Valencian Union (UV)   Vicente
González Lizondo
Blaverism
Conservatism
Basque SolidarityBasque Left (EA–EuE)
  Xabier Albistur Basque nationalism
Social democracy
Aragonese Party (PAR)   José María Mur Regionalism
Centrism
  Lorenzo Olarte Regionalism
Canarian nationalism
Centrism
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC)   Pilar Rahola Catalan independence
Social democracy

Opinion pollsEdit

 
10-point average trend line of poll results from 29 October 1989 to 6 June 1993, with each line corresponding to a political party.
  PSOE
  PP
  IU
  CDS
  CiU
  PNV


Campaign periodEdit

Leaders' debatesEdit

1993 Spanish general election debates
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present  
PSOE PP Audience Refs
24 May Antena 3 Manuel Campo Vidal P
González
P
Aznar
61.8%
(9,625,000)
[18]
[19]
31 May Tele 5 Luis Mariñas P
González
P
Aznar
75.3%
(10,526,000)
[18]
[19]
Opinion polls
Candidate viewed as "performing best" or "most convincing" in each debate
Debate Polling firm/Commissioner PSOE PP Tie None  ?
24 May Demoscopia/El País[20] 21.0 50.0 29.0
Opina/La Vanguardia[21] 18.4 42.5 8.1 13.9 17.2
Sigma Dos/El Mundo[22] 28.0 49.8 22.2
31 May Demoscopia/El País[23] 48.0 18.0 34.0
Opina/La Vanguardia[24] 36.2 15.3 17.4 13.6 17.5

ResultsEdit

Congress of DeputiesEdit

Summary of the 6 June 1993 Congress of Deputies election results
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)1 9,150,083 38.78 –1.33 159 –18
People's Party (PP) 8,201,463 34.76 +8.97 141 +34
United Left (IU) 2,253,722 9.55 +0.48 18 +1
Convergence and Union (CiU) 1,165,783 4.94 –0.10 17 –1
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 414,740 1.76 –6.13 0 –14
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 291,448 1.24 ±0.00 5 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CC)2 207,077 0.88 +0.45 4 +3
Popular Unity (HB) 206,876 0.88 –0.18 2 –2
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 189,632 0.80 +0.39 1 +1
The Greens (LV) 185,940 0.79 –0.11 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 144,544 0.61 +0.26 1 ±0
Basque SolidarityBasque Left (EA–EuE) 129,293 0.55 –0.12 1 –1
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 126,965 0.54 +0.31 0 ±0
Valencian Union (UV) 112,341 0.48 –0.23 1 –1
Andalusian Party (PA) 96,513 0.41 –0.63 0 –2
The Ecologists (LE) 68,851 0.29 –0.38 0 ±0
Ruiz-Mateos GroupEuropean Democratic Alliance (ARM–ADE) 54,518 0.23 –0.84 0 ±0
Andalusian Progress Party (PAP) 43,169 0.18 New 0 ±0
Valencian People's Union (UPV) 41,052 0.17 –0.03 0 ±0
Workers' Socialist Party (PST) 30,068 0.13 –0.27 0 ±0
Union for the Progress of Cantabria (UPCA) 27,005 0.11 New 0 ±0
Nationalists of the Balearic Islands (PSM–ENE) 20,118 0.09 +0.05 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC) 18,608 0.08 New 0 ±0
Alavese Unity (UA) 16,623 0.07 New 0 ±0
Liberal Independent Group (GIL) 16,452 0.07 New 0 ±0
Party of Gran Canaria (PGC) 15,246 0.06 New 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 13,097 0.06 New 0 ±0
Natural Law Party (PLN) 11,392 0.05 New 0 ±0
Asturianist Party (PAS) 11,088 0.05 +0.02 0 ±0
United Extremadura (EU) 10,653 0.05 ±0.00 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 10,233 0.04 –0.27 0 ±0
Majorcan, Menorcan and Pityusic Union (UMMP) 10,053 0.04 New 0 ±0
Ecologist Party of Catalonia–VERDE (PEC–VERDE) 9,249 0.04 –0.06 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 8,834 0.04 –0.04 0 ±0
Revolutionary Workers' Party (POR) 8,667 0.04 ±0.00 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS) 8,000 0.03 –0.09 0 ±0
Coalition for a New Socialist Party (CNPS)3 7,991 0.03 –0.03 0 ±0
Riojan Party (PR) 7,532 0.03 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Union (CHA) 6,344 0.03 +0.01 0 ±0
Galician Nationalist Convergence (CNG) 4,663 0.02 New 0 ±0
Commoners' Land–Castilian Nationalist Party (TC–PNC) 4,647 0.02 New 0 ±0
Galician Alternative (AG) 3,286 0.01 New 0 ±0
Spanish Democratic Republican Action (ARDE) 3,063 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Regionalist Unity of Castile and León (URCL) 2,715 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party of El Bierzo (PB) 2,681 0.01 New 0 ±0
Extremaduran Regionalist Party (PREx) 2,086 0.01 New 0 ±0
Health and Ecology in Solidarity (SEES) 1,959 0.01 New 0 ±0
Madrilenian Independent Regional Party (PRIM) 1,917 0.01 –0.01 0 ±0
Gray Panthers of Spain (ACI) 1,644 0.01 New 0 ±0
Valencian Nationalist Left (ENV) 1,517 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Independent Spanish Phalanx (FEI) 1,415 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
People's Palentine Group (APP) 1,410 0.01 New 0 ±0
Rainbow (Arcoiris) 1,407 0.01 New 0 ±0
The Greens of the Alicantine Country (PVPA) 1,375 0.01 New 0 ±0
Cantonal Party (PCAN) 1,300 0.01 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL) 1,193 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Spanish Catholic Movement (MCE) 1,178 0.00 New 0 ±0
Tenerife Assembly (ATF) 1,159 0.00 New 0 ±0
Socialist Party of the People of Ceuta (PSPC) 1,155 0.00 New 0 ±0
Insular Group of Gran Canaria (AIGRANC) 1,009 0.00 New 0 ±0
Castilianist Union (UC) 949 0.00 New 0 ±0
Andecha Astur (Andecha Astur) 787 0.00 New 0 ±0
Authentic Spanish Phalanx (FEA) 747 0.00 New 0 ±0
Alicantine Democratic Union (UniDA) 715 0.00 New 0 ±0
Progressive Front of Spain (FPE) 641 0.00 New 0 ±0
Union of Autonomies (UDLA) 594 0.00 New 0 ±0
Socialist October (OS) 540 0.00 New 0 ±0
Independent Council of Asturias (Conceyu) 528 0.00 New 0 ±0
Integration Party for Almeria and its Peoples (PIAP) 466 0.00 New 0 ±0
Spanish Balearic Alternative (ABE) 416 0.00 New 0 ±0
Referendum Tolerant Independent Political Party (PITRCG) 408 0.00 New 0 ±0
Party of The People (LG) 385 0.00 New 0 ±0
Nationalist Party of Cantabria (PNC) 383 0.00 New 0 ±0
Federated Independents of Aragon (IF) 303 0.00 New 0 ±0
Radical Balearic Party (PRB) 282 0.00 New 0 ±0
Tagoror Party (Tagoror) 278 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Guadalajara (PRGU) 267 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Socialdemocrat Spanish Christian Monarchy (MCES) 244 0.00 New 0 ±0
Progressive Sorian Union (US) 98 0.00 New 0 ±0
Nationalist Party of Castile and León (PANCAL) 70 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
Initiative for Ceuta (INCE) 42 0.00 New 0 ±0
Communist Unification of Spain (UCE) 0 0.00 New 0 ±0
Coalition for Free Canaries (CCL) 0 0.00 New 0 ±0
Centrist Unity–Democratic Spanish Party (PED) 0 0.00 –0.02 0 ±0
Freixes Independent Group (Freixes) 0 0.00 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 188,679 0.80 +0.11
Total 23,591,864 350 ±0
Valid votes 23,591,864 99.46 +0.20
Invalid votes 126,952 0.54 –0.20
Votes cast / turnout 23,718,816 76.44 +6.70
Abstentions 7,311,695 23.56 –6.70
Registered voters 31,030,511
Sources[25][26]
Popular vote
PSOE
38.78%
PP
34.76%
IU
9.55%
CiU
4.94%
CDS
1.76%
EAJ/PNV
1.24%
CC
0.88%
HB
0.88%
ERC
0.80%
PAR
0.61%
EA–EUE
0.55%
UV
0.48%
Others
3.97%
Blank ballots
0.80%
Seats
PSOE
45.43%
PP
40.29%
IU
5.14%
CiU
4.86%
EAJ/PNV
1.43%
CC
1.14%
HB
0.57%
ERC
0.29%
PAR
0.29%
EA–EUE
0.29%
UV
0.29%

SenateEdit

Summary of the 6 June 1993 Senate of Spain election results
Parties and coalitions Directly
elected
Reg.
app.
Total
Seats +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 96 –11 21 117
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 90 –11 19 109
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) 6 ±0 2 8
People's Party (PP) 93 +15 13 106
People's Party (PP)1 90 +14 13 103
Navarrese People's Union (UPN) 3 +1 0 3
Convergence and Union (CiU) 10 ±0 5 10
Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) 7 –1 4 11
Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC) 3 +1 1 4
Canarian Coalition (CC) 5 +1 1 6
Canarian Independent Groups (AIC) 2 ±0 1 3
Nationalist Canarian Initiative (ICAN) 1 +1 0 1
Majorera Assembly (AM) 1 ±0 0 1
Independent Herrenian Group (AHI) 1 ±0 0 1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 3 –1 2 5
United Left (IU) 0 –1 2 2
Popular Unity (HB) 1 –2 0 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) 0 ±0 1 1
Basque Solidarity (EA) 0 ±0 1 1
Riojan Party (PR) 0 ±0 1 1
Valencian Nationalist Left (ENV) 0 ±0 1 1
Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) 0 –1 0 0
Total 208 ±0 48 256
Sources[11][27][28][26]
Seats
PSOE
45.70%
PP
41.41%
CiU
5.86%
CC
2.34%
EAJ/PNV
1.95%
IU
0.78%
HB
0.39%
PAR
0.39%
EA
0.39%
PR
0.39%
ENV
0.39%

AftermathEdit

Investiture
Felipe González (PSOE)
Ballot → 9 July 1993
Required majority → 176 out of 350  Y
181 / 350
165 / 350
1 / 350
3 / 350
Sources[29]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Aggregated data for PSOE and EE in the 1989 election.
  2. ^ 155 PSOE, 20 PSC.
  3. ^ 104 PP, 2 UPN.
  4. ^ 13 CDC, 5 UDC.
  5. ^ 14 IU, 3 IC.
  6. ^ 4 HB, 2 PA, 2 UV, 2 EA, 2 EE, 1 PAR, 1 AIC, 3 independents (2 ex-CDS, 1 ex-PP).
  7. ^ 103 PSOE, 8 PSC.
  8. ^ 88 PP, 2 UPN, 1 UM.
  9. ^ 11 CDC, 3 UDC.
  10. ^ 5 CC–AHI, 3 IU, 3 HB, 1 CDS, 1 EA, 1 PAR, 1 ENV.
  11. ^ Includes the newly-formed Socialist Party of the Basque Country–Basque Country Left (PSE–EE (PSOE)) from the fusion of the Socialist Party of the Basque Country (PSE–PSOE) and Basque Country Left (EE).

BibliographyEdit

  • Carreras de Odriozola, Albert; Tafunell Sambola, Xavier (2005) [1989]. Estadísticas históricas de España, siglos XIX-XX (PDF) (in Spanish). Volume 1 (II ed.). Bilbao: Fundación BBVA. pp. 1072–1097. ISBN 84-96515-00-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Spanish Constitution of 1978". Act of 29 December 1978. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  2. ^ "Constitución española, Sinopsis artículo 66". congreso.es (in Spanish). Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  3. ^ Carreras et al. 1989, pp. 1077.
  4. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  5. ^ a b c d "General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  6. ^ a b c "Constitution" (PDF). congreso.es. Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  8. ^ "El 3 de diciembre de 1993, última fecha posible para las elecciones generales". El País (in Spanish). 18 November 1992. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  9. ^ "Real Decreto 534/1993, de 12 de abril, de disolución del Congreso de los Diputados y del Senado y de convocatoria de elecciones" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (88): 10581–10582. 13 April 1993. ISSN 0212-033X.
  10. ^ "Parliamentary Groups in the Congress of Deputies and Senate". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Senate Composition 1977-2019". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  12. ^ "El PSOE proclama candidato a la presidencia a González pese a que este mantiene la incógnita". El País (in Spanish). 12 September 1992. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  13. ^ "Socialistas y Euskadiko Ezkerra ponen en marcha su proyecto de fusión". El País (in Spanish). 1 January 1993. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  14. ^ "318 afiliados de Euskadiko Ezkerra aprueban la fusión con el PSE-PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 22 February 1993. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  15. ^ "El PP desaparece en Navarra al fusionarse con Unión del Pueblo Navarro". El País (in Spanish). 18 March 1991. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  16. ^ "Aznar será proclamado candidato del PP a La Moncloa el 16 de enero". El País (in Spanish). 30 November 1992. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  17. ^ "Calvo Ortega, candidato". El País (in Spanish). 20 September 1992. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  18. ^ a b "Cinco debates en 11 elecciones: del 'desastre' de Felipe a la 'niña' de Rajoy". El Mundo (in Spanish). 13 October 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  19. ^ a b "Los debates González - Aznar, entre las emisiones más vistas de la historia de Antena 3 y Telecinco". FormulaTV (in Spanish). 21 February 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  20. ^ "Triunfo claro de Aznar en el primer debate". El País (in Spanish). 26 May 1993.
  21. ^ "Aznar superó a González en el debate". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 26 May 1993.
  22. ^ "Las encuestas de "El Mundo", "La Vanguardia" y "El País" dan el triunfo a Aznar". ABC (in Spanish). 26 May 1993.
  23. ^ "Victoria neta de González sobre Aznar en el segundo cara a cara televisivo". El País (in Spanish). 2 June 1993.
  24. ^ "González ganó por 20,9 puntos a Aznar". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2 June 1993.
  25. ^ "Electoral Results Consultation. Congress. June 1993. National totals". infoelectoral.mir.es (in Spanish). Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  26. ^ a b "General election 6 June 1993". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  27. ^ "Electoral Results Consultation. Senate. June 1993. National totals". infoelectoral.mir.es (in Spanish). Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Senate Election 1993". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  29. ^ "Congress of Deputies: Most important votes". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 28 September 2017.